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‣ Workplace drug testing, different matrices different objectives

Tsanaclis, Lolita M.; Wicks, John F. C.; Chasin, Alice A. M.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.297397%
Drug testing is used by employers to detect drug use by employees or job candidates. It can identify recent use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs as a screening tool for potential health and safety and performance issues. Urine is the most commonly used sample for illicit drugs. It detects the use of a drug within the last few days and as such is evidence of recent use; but a positive test does not necessarily mean that the individual was impaired at the time of the test. Abstention from use for three days will often produce a negative test result. Analysis of hair provides a much longer window of detection, typically 1 to 3 months. Hence the likelihood of a falsely negative test using hair is very much less than with a urine test. Conversely, a negative hair test is a substantially stronger indicator of a non-drug user than a negative urine test. Oral fluid (saliva) is also easy to collect. Drugs remain in oral fluid for a similar time as in blood. The method is a good way of detecting current use and is more likely to reflect current impairment. It offers promise as a test in post-accident, for cause, and on-duty situations. Studies have shown that within the same industrial settings, hair testing can detect twice as many drug users as urine testing. Copyright (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons...

‣ A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

Wen,Z.; Liao,Q.; Hu,Y.; You,L.; Zhou,L.; Zhao,Y.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.33674%
Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

‣ Chemical dependency and drug testing in the workplace.

Osterloh, J D; Becker, C E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests in the work force being 0% to 15%. The prevalence of marijuana use is highest, and this can be reliably tested. Though it is prudent to rid the workplace of drug use, there is little scientific study on the relationship of drug use and workplace outcomes, such as productivity and safety. Probable-cause testing and preemployment testing are the most common applications. Random testing has been less accepted owing to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right to policy, discrimination, and the lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good program is a policy that is planned and agreed on by both labor and management, which serves both as a contract and as a procedure in which expectations and consequences are known. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories doing employee drug testing. Testing methods when done correctly are less prone to error than in the past, but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive results is low, such tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low.

‣ The role of physicians as medical review officers in workplace drug testing programs. In pursuit of the last nanogram.

Clark, H W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In discussing the role of physicians in workplace drug testing programs, I focus on the recent Department of Transportation regulations that require drug testing in such regulated industries as interstate trucking, air transportation, mass transit, and the railroads. These regulations require that applicable drug testing programs employ physicians as medical review officers to evaluate positive tests that have been screened and confirmed by different techniques to determine if there is a legal medical explanation for the result. The drug testing program tests for the presence of amphetamine, cocaine, tetrahydrocannabinol, opiates, and phencyclidine. If an employee testing positive has an acceptable medical explanation, the result is to be reported as negative. Little practical advice exists for medical review officers, and they must be aware of key elements of the regulations and potential trouble spots.

‣ College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport

Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.28047%
We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis players were most likely to agree that drug use by college athletes is socially acceptable. Lacrosse players were most likely to know of atleast one teammate using drugs. Overall, attitudes towards the mandatory drug education and testing program were ambivalent. About half of our responding athletes believed drug testing was necessary and discouraged drug use. Only 17% believed that the program was an invasion of privacy.

‣ Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

Drummer, Olaf H
Fonte: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists Publicador: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.47515%
Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However...

‣ A spheroid-based 3-D culture model for pancreatic cancer drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay

Wen, Z.; Liao, Q.; Hu, Y.; You, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhao, Y.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.2708%
Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.

‣ A DOSE OF YOUR OWN MEDICINE? DRUG TESTING ON CHILDREN AND LABELING DRUGS FOR PEDIATRIC USE--ESSENTIAL NEEDS

Gendell, Stephanie J.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.2708%
Children are not just miniature adults; a child metabolizes and absorbs drugs differently than adults, making drug testing and labeling regarding pediatric use essential. This paper first addresses these needs in more detail. The histories of drug testing on children and labeling drugs for pediatric use are next addressed. Then this paper considers the current conditions of, and regulations on, drug testing and pediatric labeling. Finally, an analysis of what needs to be done to make drugs more safe and effective for use in children is given.

‣ Post-Approval Testing By Pharmaceutical Manufacturers

Cave, Neil G.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
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A pharmaceutical manufacturer currently has an incentive to remain ignorant about a drug’s side effects after the Food and Drug Administration (“FDAâ€) approves the drug for marketing. Any new information the manufacturer produces by post-approval testing can lead to tort liability or withdrawal of FDA approval. Furthermore, ignorance can be a defense to liability because a patient injured by a drug will be unable to recover damages unless testing data is available to prove that the drug caused their particular injury. In theory, this ignorance incentive can be eliminated by imposing liability for failure to test a drug. Punitive damages would be essential to counterbalance lack of enforcement, because the lack of testing will prevent some patients from successfully bringing suit for failure to test. However in practice, few courts uphold punitive damages for a failure to test. The need for punitive damages can be reduced by implementing specific immunity to liability. Following completion of a conclusive test, a pharmaceutical manufacturer should be immune to liability for injuries that are the subject of that test. This specific immunity will broaden the incentive for post-approval drug testing...

‣ Adopting the Therapeutic Orphan: An Examination of FDA and Congress: Efforts to Promote the Inclusion of Children in Clinical Drug Studies

Patterson, Staci E.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.213804%
This paper examines both the Food and Drug Administration’s Final Rule, which mandates drug sponsors to conduct pediatric research on their products prior to FDA approval and Section 111 of the Food and Drug Modernization Act, which provides economic incentives for drug sponsors to include children in research studies on their products. This paper concludes that Congress should renew the pediatric exclusivity provision of the Food and Drug Modernization Act, but with modifications as to provide incentives to drug sponsors for testing products on children that are not as burdensome to the elderly and the poor. After a historical review of the ills of pediatric testing, the paper discusses the need for more studies to be conducted regarding the effects of drugs commonly prescribed in children. The paper then discusses the need for regulation in clinical trials involving children. Next, the paper discusses past efforts of Congress and the FDA to encourage drug sponsors to include the pediatric population in research trials before marketing their products and then examines the latest efforts of both to encourage such studies. In the final section, the paper proposes modifications to FDAMA Section 111 to ensure that the legislation is meeting its goal of including children in more clinical trials in efforts to provide more labeling information in therapies used on children.

‣ Explaining legal norm transmission using an epidemiological model : the case of employment drug testing

Makela, Finn
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Dans cette thèse, nous construisons un modèle épidémiologique de la dissémina- tion de normes juridiques. L’objectif est d’expliquer la transmission de normes juridiques américaines régissant les tests de dépistages pour drogues au travail vers le Canada ainsi que la propagation subséquente de ces normes à travers la jurisprudence canadienne. La propagation des normes régissant les tests de dépistages pour drogues au travail sert donc à la fois de point de départ pour une réflexion théorique sur la transmission de normes juridiques et pour une étude de cas empirique. Nous partons de la prémisse que les explications du changement juridique, telles celle de la transplantation et celle de l’harmonisation, sont essentiellement métaphoriques. Ces métaphores explicatives fonctionnent en invitant des comparaisons entre les domaines connus et inconnus. Quand ce processus de comparaison est systématisé, la métaphore devient un modèle. Dans la thèse, nous appliquons cette procédure de systématisation afin de transformer la métaphore de la propagation virale en modèle épidémiologique. Après une revue de la littérature sur les épidémies sociales, nous décrivons les éléments pertinents de la théorie épidémiologique pour...

‣ Qualitative Responses to Pre-employment Drug Testing in the Foodservice Industry

Kitterlin, Miranda; Moll, Lisa
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Employee substance abuse has long time been a topic of concern for the hospitality industry. Operating under the assumption that drug-users, and associated undesirable behavior, can be eliminated from the hiring process, many operations have adopted pre-employment drug-testing policies. Despite being represented across the industry as a major target of effort and resources, it is suggested that the perceived sensitive-nature of the subject has somewhat hindered access to qualitative information. The purpose of this research was to assess and explore the attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of both management and employees in the foodservice industry regarding pre-employment drug-testing and its impact on work performance. Through the use of a phenomenological survey, qualitative data was collected then used to identify themes in participants’ perceptions of such screening policies and their effects. Results and implications of these findings are discussed.

‣ Review of Western Australian drug driving laws

Woolley, J.; Baldock, M.
Fonte: Centre for Automotive Safety Research Publicador: Centre for Automotive Safety Research
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.29422%
In 2007, the Western Australian Road Traffic Act 1974 was amended to allow for new police enforcement practices designed to reduce the incidence of drug driving. The Road Traffic Amendment (Drugs) Act 2007 made provision for two new offences: driving with the presence of a prescribed illicit drug in oral fluid or blood, and driving while impaired by a drug. The prescribed drugs were methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the psychoactive compound in cannabis). As part of the new laws, statute 72A was inserted into the Act requiring that the Western Australian State Government undertake a review of the amended legislation after 12 months of operation. This report provides a review of the amended legislation and the associated drug driving law enforcement. It includes a process review of the roadside oral fluid testing and drug impaired driving enforcement programs; an analysis of testing, offence detection and legal penalty data pertaining to the first year of operation of the new drug enforcement measures; and a report on consultations with various stakeholders. These form the basis for recommendations on possible improvements to the processes and legislation related to the deterrence of driving after drug use among Western Australian drivers.; J.E. Woolley and M.R.J. Baldock

‣ Examination of the role of the combination of alcohol and cannabis in South Australian road crashes

Baldock, M.R.J.; Lindsay, V.L.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.216323%
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the role of cannabis in road crashes in South Australia, with a particular focus on the extent to which crashes involving cannabis also involve alcohol. Methods: Hospital data, police-reported crash data, and the results of forensic tests of blood samples for drugs and alcohol were collected for 1,074 crash participants (drivers or motorcyclists) admitted to hospital. A sample of 135 coroners’ reports was also examined to determine the role of alcohol and cannabis in fatal crashes. Results: The 3 years of linked data for hospital admission cases revealed that alcohol played a greater role in road crashes than other drugs. Approximately 1 in 5 drivers or motorcyclists had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) above the legal limit of 0.05. Routine testing for cannabis, methamphetamine, and MDMA revealed a drug-positive rate of approximately 1 in 10 of those tested, with over half of these positive to cannabis. More than a third of cannabis cases also involved alcohol. The majority of those who were positive for alcohol had a BAC above 0.15 g/100 mL. BACs were similarly high among drivers positive for both alcohol and cannabis. Conclusions: The findings of the hospital data and the coroners’ reports were consistent with each other in terms of providing confirmation that alcohol is still the drug associated with the greatest level of road trauma on South Australian roads. Furthermore...

‣ Development of an in vitro 3D microfluidic system for maintaining PHH over long time and its possible use for drug testing

Martínez Sánchez, Juan José
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
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47.23562%
Traditional toxicity tests are characterized by the use of in vitro and in vivo laboratory animals with the purpose of avoiding potential damage to humans. The use of animals for drug testing raises ethical questions, and involves high costs as well as a lack of reliability. However, the use of PHH as an alternative to animal testing involves two main problems: the limited access to liver tissue and the short life span of these cells. Therefore, hepatoma cell lines and hepatocyte-like cells from extra hepatic cell sources have been investigated as an alternative in toxicity assays, but their low expression of hepatocytic markers and their low metabolization capacity limit their use in drug testing. Polarization plays a key role in drug metabolism. Therefore, the hepatotoxicity in 2D and 3D (sandwich) cultures has been investigated here by using acetaminophen as a model drug. Our data have demonstrated that cell death is higher in 3D cultures than in 2D cultures as there is a higher metabolism of acetaminophen and therefore higher concentration of toxic metabolites (NAPQI) formed after treatment with acetaminophen. During these experiments, it has been observed that the protein expression of CYP2E1 and SOD1 depends on the concentration of acetaminophen. Therefore...

‣ A change in the Navy's drug testing policy: how will it affect costs and the probability of detecting drug users?

Jones, John R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 p.
Português
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This thesis analyzes changes in the Navy's drug testing policy as they relate to costs and the probability of detecting a gaming or non-gaming drug user. Additionally, this thesis considers actual command level testing policies; showing how a policy change would affect the commands' probability of detecting a drug user. The Navy's zero tolerance policy for drug use has significantly reduced drug use within the Navy. This zero tolerance policy is primarily enforced with the drug testing program. Great leeway is given to commanding officers in their enforcement of this policy. Results from the Worldwide Survey have shown that drug abuse remains a problem for junior enlisted. Self reported drug use in the past year for junior enlisted is 17 percent. But, urinalysis results do not reflect this nigh value. Probability models, developed by NPRDC and a total costs model described in this thesis, show that a simple change in the manner in which drug testing is conducted will reduce drug use, minimize the costs of drug use to the Navy and decrease the amount of time till a drug abuser is detected.; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

‣ The feasibility of testing hair for illicit drug use in the United States Marine Corps

Hatala, John W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 77 p. : ill.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis was to examine the feasibility of testing hair for illicit drug use in the United States Marines Corps. Specifically, the study determined the hair test's potential for detecting and deterring illicit drug use and abuse among Marines. In addition, the study estimated the potential costs of implementing hair tests and examined fairness concerns with regard to testing hair among ethnically diverse populations. The results indicate that the hair test would be more effective than the urinalysis at detecting a wide variety of illicit drugs, with the exception of marijuana. The increased effectiveness of the hair test is likely to enhance the level of deterrence currently sustained by the Marine Corps' urinalysis program. Costs associated with the implementation of hair test would be offset by the increase in detection of illicit drug use and drug dependence among enlisted recruits and officer candidates pursuing active duty military service. Enhanced deterrence levels among active duty personnel that are a consequence of implementing the hair test would result in additional cost savings. Finally, implementation of the hair test would not result in racial bias...

‣ The role of selection bias in estimates of the deterrence effect of drug testing : evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth

Ward, Robert Dean.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 83 p.;28 cm.
Português
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47.216323%
Substance abuse in the military has serious and costly consequences. The aim of this research is to measure quantitatively the deterrence effect of the military's drug testing and "zero tolerance" policies. A second purpose is to statistically measure the degree to which selection bias may explain the deterrence effect associated with the military services' drug testing policy. Additionally, this thesis investigates the propensity of service members to substitute legal drugs or alcohol for illicit drugs as a result of drug testing. The results indicate the military's drug prevention policies do have a substantial effect on service members' drug use behavior. The evidence also suggests that self-selection of applicants to the military does not significantly reduce the magnitude of the estimated deterrence effect. However, the results also suggest that there may be an unintended consequence of these policies in the form of military members substituting legal drugs such as alcohol for illegal drugs.; U.S. Naval Reserve (U.S.N.R.) author.

‣ A statistical analysis of the deterrence effects of the Military Services' Drug testing policies; NA

Martinez, Antonio.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 91 p.;28 cm.
Português
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This thesis examines themagnitude of the deterrence effect associated with the militaryservices' drug testing policies. Using data from the 1995Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel and the 1995 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, illicit drug use rates are modeled as a function of pertinent demographic characteristics. The naturalvariation in drug testing policies is exploited to estimate the deterrence effects of suchprograms. The first analysis relies on the variation in drug testing policies among the military services. The second analysis relies on the difference in the extent of drug testing between the military and civilian sectors. Non-linear maximum likelihood (logit) techniques are used to estimate the deterrence effects. The results indicate a significant deterrence effect associated with the frequency and intensity of the services' drug testing program both in comparison to each other and in comparison to the civilian sector. However, omission of price and income controls may have caused overestimation of the true deterrence value. Further study using more sophisticated techniques is recommended toclarify this potential bias.; NA; U.S. Marine Corps (U.S.M.C.) author.

‣ What About the Children? - FDA's Response to Pediatric Drug Testing

Doerner, Kristina M.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
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The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has played a critical role in the protection of human subjects in research. Most recently, FDA enacted an interim final rule regarding protection of children in clinical investigations. FDA’s interim rule represents its most current policy on human subject protection. Current events illuminate FDA’s policies and how FDA has chosen to respond to debates over pediatric drug testing. This paper will provide a brief history of FDA’s participation in human subject protection. This paper will then focus on FDA’s policies for pediatric research, its interim rule, and how the interim rule relates to current events. Finally, this paper will make a comment about how FDA balances its competing duties of protecting the public but also of promoting research.