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‣ Câncer de mama e exposição ocupacional e ambiental a solventes; Breast cancer and occupational and environmental exposure to solvents

Matsmoto, Renata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.1801%
Introdução: O câncer de mama é o segundo câncer mais incidente no mundo e o mais freqüente entre as mulheres, entretanto, sua etiologia continua desconhecida. O câncer de mama está associado a múltiplos fatores de risco, dentre eles, os fatores ocupacionais e ambientais. Objetivo: Fazer revisão bibliográfica sobre câncer de mama e exposição ocupacional e ambiental a solventes. Método: Artigos em inglês, português e espanhol foram selecionados no Pubmed e no Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information LILACS entre dezembro de 1981 a março de 2011. Os termos utilizados foram: breast cancer, breast neoplasm, solvent, occupational exposure and environment exposure. Foram excluídos os artigos sobre fatores genéticos, marcadores biológicos, polimorfismos, campos eletromagnéticos e nutrição. Baseado na revisão bibliográfica foi construído questionário sobre o tema e realizado teste com 29 casos e 29 controles, em um hospital da cidade de Santo André SP. Resultados: Não foram identificados artigos no Lilacs. No Pubmed foram encontrados 39 artigos. Após as exclusões 33 estudos foram selecionados: 11 casos-controle, 12 revisões, 09 coorte e 01 transversal. Em 21 artigos os autores identificaram alguma evidência de associação para os compostos alquilfenólicos...

‣ Métodos de avaliação da exposição ambiental aos poluentes atmosféricos gerados por tráfego veicular; Methods of environmental exposure assessment to air pollutants generated by vehicular traffic

Habermann, Mateus
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.992305%
A poluição atmosférica é uma das maiores preocupações para a saúde pública, pois tem sido associada ao aumento nas taxas de morbimortalidade. Entretanto, para muitos desfechos, o conhecimento científico acerca do tema ainda é limitado para se inferir uma associação robusta com a exposição a essa poluição. A avaliação da exposição por meio de métodos individuais possui um custo elevado e de difícil execução; por isso, diversos estudos de epidemiologia ambiental têm sido conduzidos utilizando medidas indiretas, que se baseiam em dados viários e de tráfego veicular como avaliação da exposição. Diante da importância do tema, este trabalho pretendeu levantar as várias abordagens relatadas na literatura e desenvolvê-las no município de São Paulo, em desfechos como doenças do aparelho circulatório e baixo peso ao nascer. Foram elaborados quatro artigos científicos: 1) revisão de literatura sobre as diversas abordagens que se basearam em informações de tráfego para avaliar exposição à poluição atmosférica; 2) análise da densidade de vias e volume de tráfego, para avaliar sua relação com a mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório, nos distritos administrativos; 3) desenvolvimento de um modelo de regressão do uso do solo...

‣ Exposição ambiental ao monóxido de carbono e acidentes de trabalho entre mototaxistas: uma contribuição da enfermagem do trabalho; Environmental exposure to carbon monoxide and occupational accidents among motorcycle taxi riders: a contribution of the occupational health nursing

Silva, Luiz Almeida da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.9895%
Verificar a associação entre acidentes de trabalho com os níveis de carboxihemoglobina apresentados por trabalhadores mototaxistas expostos ao Monóxido de Carbono ambiental na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Métodos: estudo descritivo, correlacional, de abordagem quantitativa com coleta de dados realizada em duas etapas, em janeiro e julho de 2012 por intermédio de instrumentos aplicados aos trabalhadores selecionados aleatoriamente e que consentiram em participar da pesquisa. Os mototaxistas responderam a este questionário e autorizaram a coleta sanguinea para dosagem dos níveis de carboxihemoglobina nas duas etapas. O projeto foi submetido e aprovado por um Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Após os critérios de seleção, compuseram a amostra 111 mototaxistas. Resultados: os trabalhadores são, em sua maioria, do sexo masculino, com média de 36 anos de idade; renda familiar de três salários mínimos e três dependentes por renda; baixa escolaridade, fumantes, média de trabalho de até cinco anos e carga horária laboral média de 12 horas. No período de seis meses, 28,8% acidentaram-se, com predominância no mês de fevereiro...

‣ Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, interaction with environmental exposure and risk of chronic gastritis and grastic cancer

Duarte, Márcia Cristina; Colombo, Jucimara; Rossit, Andrea Regina Baptista; Caetano, Alaor; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Wornrath, Durval; Silva, Ana Elizabete
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 6593-6600
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.14903%
Aim: To evaluate the association between polymorphisms XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met and the risk for chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, in a Southeastern Brazilian population. Methods: Genotyping by PCR-RFLP was carried out on 202 patients with chronic gastritis (CG) and 160 patients with gastric cancer (GC), matched to 202 (C1) and 150 (C2) controls, respectively. Results: No differences were observed among the studied groups with regard to the genotype distribution of XRCC1 codons 194 and 399 and of XRCC3 codon 241. However, the combined analyses of the three variant alleles (194Trp, 399Gln and 241Met) showed an increased risk for chronic gastritis when compared to the GC group. Moreover, an interaction between the polymorphic alleles and demographic and environmental factors was observed in the CG and GC groups. XRCC1 194Trp was associated with smoking in the CG group, while the variant alleles XRCC1 399Gln and XRCC3 241Met were related with gender, smoking, drinking and H pylori infection in the CG and GC groups. Conclusion: Our results showed no evidence of a rela-tionship between the polymorphisms XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met and the risk of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in the Brazilian population...

‣ Mercury intracellular partitioning and chelation in a salt marsh plant, Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen: strategies underlying tolerance in environmental exposure

Válega, M; Lima, A I G; Figueira, E M A P; Pereira, E; Pardal, M A; Duarte, A C
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.917163%
In the presence of metal stress, plants can resort to a series of tolerance mechanisms. Therefore field studies should be undertaken in order to evaluate the real role of these mechanisms in stress coping. The aim of this paper was to clarify the biochemical processes behind mercury tolerance in Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae) collected in a mercury contaminated salt marsh. Different fractions of mercury were separated: buffer-soluble (mainly cytosolic) and insoluble mercury (mainly associated with membranes and cell walls). The amounts in each fraction of metal were compared and related to metal distribution within plant organs. Protein-mercury complexes were isolated and analysed for their thiol content in order to assess wether the tolerance of this salt marsh plant was associated with the induction of metal chelation by phytochelatins. Overall, the mercury tolerance strategies of the plant are likely to involve root cell wall immobilization as a major mechanism of metal resistance, rather than metal chelation in the cytosolic fraction. Nevertheless, phytochelatins were demonstrated to chelate mercury under environmental exposure.

‣ Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

Silva Mendonça,Gulnar Azevedo e
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.11554%
Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

‣ Acute Infections and Environmental Exposure to Organochlorines in Inuit Infants from Nunavik

Dallaire, Frédéric; Dewailly, Éric; Muckle, Gina; Vézina, Carole; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Ayotte, Pierre
Fonte: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institue of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.079966%
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p < 0.05). No association was found when postnatal exposure was considered. These results show a possible association between prenatal exposure to OCs and acute infections early in life in this Inuit population.

‣ Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.043203%
Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families.

‣ Lessons Learned From the Children’s Environmental Exposure Research Study

Resnik, David B.; Wing, Steven
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2007 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2007
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.9895%
We examined 5 different ethical concerns about the Children’s Environmental Exposure Research Study and make some recommendations for future studies of exposure to hazardous environmental agents in the home.

‣ Adverse Effects of Methylmercury: Environmental Health Research Implications

Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Eto, Komyo; Grandjean, Philippe
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.073887%
Background: The scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure began in 1865 describing ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of visual fields, impaired hearing, and sensory disturbance as symptoms of fatal methylmercury poisoning. Objective: Our aim was to examine how knowledge and consensus on methylmercury toxicity have developed in order to identify problems of wider concern in research. Data sources and extraction: We tracked key publications that reflected new insights into human methylmercury toxicity. From this evidence, we identified possible caveats of potential significance for environmental health research in general. Synthesis: At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected the recognition of methylmercury as a cause of serious human poisonings in Minamata, Japan. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in 1952, but despite accumulating evidence, the vulnerability of the developing nervous system was not taken into account in risk assessment internationally until approximately 50 years later. Imprecision in exposure assessment and other forms of uncertainty tended to cause an underestimation of methylmercury toxicity and repeatedly led to calls for more research rather than prevention. Conclusions: Coupled with legal and political rigidity that demanded convincing documentation before considering prevention and compensation...

‣ Allergy and Sensitization during Childhood Associated with Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Marine Pollutants

Poulsen, Lars K.; Heilmann, Carsten; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.96242%
Background: Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region. Objectives: The objective was to assess whether sensitization and development of allergic disease is associated with duration of breast-feeding and prenatal or postnatal exposures to PCBs and methylmercury. Methods: A cohort of 656 singleton births was formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999–2001. Duration of breast-feeding and history of asthma and atopic dermatitis were recorded at clinical examinations at 5 and 7 years of age. PCB and mercury concentrations were determined in blood samples obtained at parturition and at follow-up. Serum from 464 children (71%) at 7 years of age was analyzed for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and grass-specific IgE. Results: The total IgE concentration in serum at 7 years of age was positively associated both with the concomitant serum PCB concentration and with the duration of breast-feeding. However, the effect only of the latter was substantially attenuated in a multivariate analysis. A raised grass-specific IgE concentration compatible with sensitization was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding and inversely associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure. However...

‣ A Brief Targeted Review of Susceptibility Factors, Environmental Exposures, Asthma Incidence, and Recommendations for Future Asthma Incidence Research

Yeatts, Karin; Sly, Peter; Martinez, Fernando; Geller, Andrew; Bromberg, Philip; Enright, Paul; Koren, Hillel; Weissman, David; Selgrade, MaryJane; Shore, Stephanie; Weiss, Scott Tillman
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.04171%
Relative to research on effects of environmental exposures on exacerbation of existing asthma, little research on incident asthma and environmental exposures has been conducted. However, this research is needed to better devise strategies for the prevention of asthma. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences held a conference in October 2004 to collaboratively discuss a future research agenda in this area. The first three articles in this mini-monograph summarize the discussion on potential putative environmental exposure; they include an overview of asthma and conclusions of the workshop participants with respect to public health actions that could currently be applied to the problem and research needs to better understand and control the induction and incidence of asthma, the potential role of indoor/outdoor air pollutants in the induction of asthma), and biologics in the induction of asthma. Susceptibility is a key concept in the U.S. EPA “Asthma Research Strategy” document and is associated with the U.S. EPA framework of protecting vulnerable populations from potentially harmful environmental exposures. Genetics, age, and lifestyle (obesity, diet) are major susceptibility factors in the induction of asthma and can interact with environmental exposures either synergistically or antagonistically. Therefore...

‣ Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure; Associação de níveis de chumbo no esmalte dentário com fatores de risco para exposição ambiental; Asociación de niveles de plomo en el esmalte dental con factores de riesgo a la exposición ambiental

OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; NAOZUKA, Juliana; OLIVEIRA, Pedro Vitoriano; CARDOSO, Maria Regina Alves; BECHARA, Etelvino José Henriques; GÜNTHER, Wanda Maria Risso
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06464%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics...

‣ Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

Olympio,Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka,Juliana; Oliveira,Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso,Maria Regina Alves; Bechara,Etelvino José Henriques; Günther,Wanda Maria Risso
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06464%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics...

‣ Environmental durability of FRP bond to concrete subjected to freeze-thaw action; Environmental durability of fiber-reinforced plastic bond to concrete subjected to freeze-thaw action

Dohnálek, Pavel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 leaves; 9914296 bytes; 9914067 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.978545%
An experimental study was performed to determine the environmental durability of the adhesive bond between fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) and concrete. The study specifically focused on freeze-thaw cycling exposure of such bonds and their ultimate strength prior and after the environmental exposure. To investigate the bond strength 84 single lap shear specimens were manufactured utilizing two different types of carbon FRP pultrued strips and three different structural adhesives for total of three FRP/adhesive combinations. Two types of concrete substrate were used: regular high strength and air-entrained concrete. The specimens were freeze-thaw cycled for three different numbers of cycles using two different freeze-thaw procedures. First freeze-thaw procedure used chloride solution (3% NaCI) as its medium; the second procedure utilized tap water. This main program was complemented by the same freeze-thaw cycling of pull-off specimens of the adhesively bonded system and dumbbell tension specimens of the three adhesives. Coefficients of thermal expansion of the three structural adhesives were also experimentally measured. Results show that the ultimate strength of the adhesive bond between FRP and concrete deteriorates measurably during freeze-thaw cycling in chloride solution. This must be put into perspective as the concrete itself severely deteriorates during this type of freeze-thaw cycling. Therefore...

‣ Associação de níveis de chumbo no esmalte dentário com fatores de risco para exposição ambiental; Asociación de niveles de plomo en el esmalte dental con factores de riesgo a la exposición ambiental; Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06464%
OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores de risco no ambiente domiciliar associados com altos níveis de chumbo no esmalte dentário superficial. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal conduzido com 160 adolescentes brasileiros (14 a 18 anos), residentes em bairros pobres do município de Bauru, SP, de agosto a dezembro de 2008. A concentração de chumbo no esmalte dentário foi avaliada por microbiópsias ácidas do esmalte dentário superficial, quantificada por espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite e a concentração de fósforo foi medida por espectrometria de absorção óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado. Os pais dos adolescentes responderam a questionário sobre possível exposição prévia (cinco primeiros anos de vida do adolescente) a chumbo decorrente de fontes de contaminação bem conhecidas. Usou-se regressão logística para identificar associações entre concentração de chumbo no esmalte e fatores de risco ambientais. Covariáveis familiares e sociais foram incluídas nos modelos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados sugerem que os jovens avaliados foram expostos a fontes de chumbo durante seus primeiros anos de vida. Os fatores de risco associados com o desfecho foram residir em área contaminada por chumbo ou nas suas proximidades (OR = 4...

‣ Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions

Tong,Shilu; Schirnding,Yasmin E. von; Prapamontol,Tippawan
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.152305%
Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth’s crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions.

‣ Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

Olympio,Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka,Juliana; Oliveira,Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso,Maria Regina Alves; Bechara,Etelvino José Henriques; Günther,Wanda Maria Risso
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06464%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics...

‣ Sources of exposure to and public health implications of organophosphate pesticides

Jaga,Kushik; Dharmani,Chandrabhan
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.330103%
OBJECTIVE: To review the public health significance of organophosphate pesticide exposure in the United States of America. Since the situation of high organophosphate pesticide exposure and the concomitant health risks in the developing countries of the world is well known, this article seeks to highlight the public health significance of organophosphate exposure in the United States, where it is less common than in many other nations. Looking at the situation in the United States would serve to further emphasize the seriousness of organophosphate pesticide-related health issues in developing countries. METHODS: A search for journal articles on organophosphate pesticides and organophosphate exposure was done on the PubMed electronic bibliographic database system of the National Library of Medicine of the United States. To supplement that search, information on organophosphate toxicity, biological monitoring, and regulation of pesticides was obtained from other published articles, textbooks, and relevant Internet sites. RESULTS: Organophosphate pesticides are a group of chemicals that are mainly used in agriculture. Organophosphates inhibit the activity of both the cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes-red blood cell (RBC) ChE and serum ChE-resulting in the cholinergic features of organophosphate toxicity. A 50% reduction in serum ChE activity from the baseline is an indication of acute organophosphate toxicity. The RBC ChE activity...

‣ Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

Silva Mendonça,Gulnar Azevedo e
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.11554%
Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.