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‣ Imunonutrição em Doentes com Cancro Gastrointestinal

Moreira, Ricardo Filipe Silva
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Trabalho Complementar apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de licenciado em Ciências da Nutrição; Relatório de Estágio apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de licenciado em Ciências da Nutrição; Objetivo: Fazer uma breve revisão da literatura sobre a importância da nutrição artificial, nomeadamente a imunonutrição, por via entérica, em doentes com cancro gastrointestinal, sujeitos ou não a cirurgia. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados da National Library of Medicine PUBMed-Medline e B-on, entre Abril e Outubro de 2013, utilizando-se os termos de pesquisa: “immunonutrition in gastrointestinal cancer surgery”, “enteral immunonutrition gastrointestinal cancer surgery operative”, “enteral immunonutrition gastrointestinal cancer preoperative”, “enteral immunonutrition gastrointestinal cancer perioperative” e “enteral immunonutrition gastrointestinal cancer postoperative”. Ao resultado da pesquisa foram aplicados os seguintes critérios de exclusão: - artigos que não estivessem escritos em inglês ou em português - artigos que não iam de encontro ao assunto em questão Além dos artigos...

‣ Resistance of Santa Inês and Ile de France suckling lambs to gastrointestinal nematode infections.

Rocha, Raquel A; Amarante, Alessandro F T; Bricarello, Patrizia A
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 17-20
Português
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A trial was carried out to determine the resistance to natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes in 12 Santa Inês and nine Ile de France lambs before weaning. Faecal samples were obtained for faecal nematode egg counts (FEC). Blood samples were collected to determine packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein levels and peripheral eosinophil counts. Most Ile de France lambs (77.8%) were treated with an anthelmintic at 43 days of age, while 50% off Santa Inês lambs were treated at weaning, 57 days of age. The mean PCV values were normal in Santa Inês lambs, while in Ile de France lambs showed lower values reaching 22.3% at 43 days of age. The lowest mean plasma protein values were observed in Ile de France lambs (4.13 g/dl) at 43 days of age and in Santa Inês lambs (5.0 g/dl) at 57 days of age. Before weaning, Santa Inês lambs were susceptible to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes but with a greater capacity to stand the adverse effects of parasitism compared to Ile de France lambs.

‣ Importance of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the protective mechanism against gastrointestinal nematode infection: looking at the intestinal mucosae

NEGRÃO-CORRÊA,Deborah
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2001 Português
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This review discusses experimental evidences that indicate the IgE participation on the effector mechanisms that leads to gastrointestinal nematode elimination. Data discussed here showed that, for most experimental models, the immune response involved in nematode elimination is regulated by Th-2 type cytokines (especially IL-4). However, the mechanism(s) that result in worm elimination is not clear and might be distinct in different nematode species. Parasite specific IgE production, especially the IgE produced by the intestinal mucosae or associated lymphoid organs could participate in the intestinal elimination of Trichinella spiralis from infected rats. Intestinal IgE may also be important to the protective mechanism developed against other gastrointestinal nematodes that penetrate the murine duodenum mucosa tissue, such as Strongyloides venezuelensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus. At least in Trichinella spiralis infected rats, the results indicated that intestinal IgE might work independently from mast cell degranulation for worm elimination.

‣ Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

Castello-Branco,LRR; Lewis,DJM; Ortigão-de-Sampaio,MB; Griffin,GE
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1996 Português
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The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

‣ Gastrointestinal Epithelium Is an Early Extrathymic Site for Increased Prevalence of CD34+ Progenitor Cells in Contrast to the Thymus during Primary Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Mattapallil, Joseph J.; Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Dandekar, Satya
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on the prevalence and phenotype of progenitor cells present in the gastrointestinal epithelia of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, a primate model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. The gastrointestinal epithelium was residence to progenitor cells expressing CD34 antigen, a subset of which also coexpressed Thy-1 and c-kit receptors, suggesting that the CD34+ population in the intestine comprised a subpopulation of primitive precursors. Following experimental SIVmac251 infection, an early increase in the proportions of CD34+ Thy-1+ and CD34+ c-kit+ progenitor cells was observed in the gastrointestinal epithelium. In contrast, the proportion of CD34+ cells in the thymus declined during primary SIV infection, which was characterized by a decrease in the frequency of CD34+ Thy-1+ progenitor cells. A severe depletion in the frequency of CD4-committed CD34+ progenitors was observed in the gastrointestinal epithelium 2 weeks after SIV infection which persisted even 4 weeks after infection. A coincident increase in the frequency of CD8- committed CD34+ progenitor cells was observed during primary SIV infection. These results indicate that in contrast to the primary lymphoid organs such as the thymus...

‣ Mucosal Vaccination Increases Endothelial Expression of Mucosal Addressin Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

Lindholm, Catharina; Naylor, Andrew; Johansson, Eva-Liz; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
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Homing of leukocytes to various tissues is dependent on the interaction between homing receptors on leukocytes and their ligands, addressins, on endothelial cells. Mucosal immunization results in homing of antigen-specific lymphocytes back to the mucosa where they first encountered the antigen. However, it is unknown whether this homing of antigen-specific cells is mediated by an altered endothelial addressin expression after vaccination. Using different immunization routes with an oral cholera vaccine, we show that the endothelial expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) is increased in the gastric and upper small intestinal mucosae after immunization through various local routes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In contrast, rectal immunization did not influence the levels of MAdCAM-1 in the gastric or duodenal mucosa. Furthermore, we show that MAdCAM-1 can be induced on human endothelial cells by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon. The vaccine component cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) increased MAdCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in cultured human gastric explants, an effect that seemed to be mediated by TNF-α. In conclusion, MAdCAM-1 expression is increased in the upper gastrointestinal tract after local immunizations with a vaccine containing CTB. This strongly suggests the involvement of MAdCAM-1 in the preferential homing of mucosal lymphocytes to their original site of activation.

‣ Cytokine and Chemokine Responses Associated with Clearance of a Primary Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in the Chicken and in Protective Immunity to Rechallenge

Withanage, G. S. K.; Wigley, Paul; Kaiser, Pete; Mastroeni, Pietro; Brooks, Heather; Powers, Claire; Beal, Richard; Barrow, Paul; Maskell, Duncan; McConnell, Ian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
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Infection of poultry with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poses a significant risk to public health through contamination of meat from infected animals. Vaccination has been proposed to control infections in chickens. However, the vaccines are currently largely empirical, and our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin immune clearance and protection in avian salmonellosis is not complete. In this study we describe the cytokine, chemokine, and antibody responses and cellular changes in primary and secondary infections of chickens with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. Infection of 1-week-old chickens induced early expression of a macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) family chemokine in the spleen and liver, followed by increased expression of gamma interferon accompanied by increased numbers of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the formation of granuloma-like follicular lesions. This response correlated with a Th1-mediated clearance of the systemic infection. Primary infection also induced specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA antibody responses. In contrast to previously published studies performed with newly hatched chicks, the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the gastrointestinal tract were not greatly increased following infection. However...

‣ Vitamin D receptor is required to control gastrointestinal immunity in IL-10 knockout mice

Froicu, Monica; Zhu, Yan; Cantorna, Margherita T
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 Português
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The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor expressed in a number of different cells of the immune system. This study was performed to determine the effect of VDR deficiency on immune function and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in a model of inflammatory bowel disease, namely interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice. IL-10 knockout mice were generated which either could or could not respond to vitamin D (double IL-10/VDR knockout; DKO). The distribution and function of lymphocytes in both the primary and secondary lymphoid organs were compared and determined as a function of the severity of intestinal inflammation. DKO mice had normal thymic development and peripheral T-cell numbers at 3 weeks of age, but a week after intestinal disease was detected the thymus was dysplastic with a reduction in cellularity. The atrophy was coupled with increased apoptosis. The spleen weight of DKO mice increased as a result of the accumulation of red blood cells; however, there was a 50% reduction in the numbers of T and B cells. Conversely, the mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and contained increased numbers of lymphocytes. The T cells from DKO mice were of a memory phenotype and were hyporesponsive to T-cell receptor stimulation. Colitis in the DKO mice was associated with local and high expression of IL-2...

‣ M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover...

‣ Lambda Interferon Renders Epithelial Cells of the Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tracts Resistant to Viral Infections▿ †

Mordstein, Markus; Neugebauer, Eva; Ditt, Vanessa; Jessen, Birthe; Rieger, Toni; Falcone, Valeria; Sorgeloos, Frederic; Ehl, Stephan; Mayer, Daniel; Kochs, Georg; Schwemmle, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Drosten, Christian; Michiels, Thomas; Staeheli, Peter
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Virus-infected cells secrete a broad range of interferons (IFN) which confer resistance to yet uninfected cells by triggering the synthesis of antiviral factors. The relative contributions of the various IFN subtypes to innate immunity against virus infections remain elusive. IFN-α, IFN-β, and other type I IFN molecules signal through a common, universally expressed cell surface receptor, whereas type III IFN (IFN-λ) uses a distinct cell-type-specific receptor complex for signaling. Using mice lacking functional receptors for type I IFN, type III IFN, or both, we found that IFN-λ plays an important role in the defense against several human pathogens that infect the respiratory tract, such as influenza A virus, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. These viruses were more pathogenic and replicated to higher titers in the lungs of mice lacking both IFN receptors than in mice with single IFN receptor defects. In contrast, Lassa fever virus, which infects via the respiratory tract but primarily replicates in the liver, was not influenced by the IFN-λ receptor defect. Careful analysis revealed that expression of functional IFN-λ receptor complexes in the lung and intestinal tract is restricted to epithelial cells and a few other...

‣ Yersinia enterocolitica Promotes Robust Mucosal Inflammatory T-Cell Immunity in Murine Neonates▿

Echeverry, Andrea; Saijo, Shinobu; Schesser, Kurt; Adkins, Becky
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mucosal immunity to gastrointestinal pathogens in early life has been studied only slightly. Recently, we developed an infection model in murine neonates using the gastroenteric pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we report that oral infection of neonatal mice with low doses of virulent Y. enterocolitica leads to vigorous intestinal and systemic adaptive immunity. Y. enterocolitica infection promoted the development of anti-LcrV memory serum IgG1 and IgG2a responses of comparable affinity and magnitude to adult responses. Strikingly, neonatal mesenteric lymph node CD4+ T cells produced Yersinia-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A), exceeding adult levels. The robust T- and B-cell responses elicited in neonates exposed to Y. enterocolitica were associated with long-term protection against mucosal challenge with this pathogen. Using genetically deficient mice, we found that IFN-γ and CD4+ cells, but not B cells, are critical for protection of neonates during primary Y. enterocolitica infection. In contrast, adults infected with low bacterial doses did not require either cell population for protection. CD4-deficient neonatal mice adoptively transferred with CD4+ cells from wild-type, IFN-γ-deficient, or IL-17AF-deficient mice were equally protected from infection. These data demonstrate that inflammatory CD4+ T cells are required for protection of neonatal mice and that this protection may not require CD4-derived IFN-γ...

‣ Blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 by ipilimumab results in dysregulation of gastrointestinal immunity in patients with advanced melanoma

Berman, David; Parker, Susan M.; Siegel, Jonathan; Chasalow, Scott D.; Weber, Jeffrey; Galbraith, Susan; Targan, Stephan R.; Wang, Hanlin L.
Fonte: Academy of Cancer Immunology Publicador: Academy of Cancer Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/11/2010 Português
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Blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) by ipilimumab leads to immune-mediated tumor regression and immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including diarrhea and colitis. The current analyses were undertaken to promote an understanding of the underlying mechanism of action and to identify potential biomarkers that could help in the prediction and management of ipilimumab-induced gastrointestinal irAEs. Treatment-naïve or previously treated patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma (n = 115) received open-label ipilimumab (10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses) and were randomized to receive concomitant blinded prophylactic oral budesonide (9 mg/d with gradual taper through week 16) or placebo. Outcome measures included histologic assessment of bowel biopsies and assessment of serologic markers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), fecal calprotectin levels, and polymorphisms in immune-related genes. Ipilimumab resulted in dysregulation of gastrointestinal mucosal immunity as evidenced by altered antibody levels to enteric flora, inflammatory cell infiltration into gastrointestinal mucosa, and increased fecal calprotectin associated with diarrhea and clinical evidence of colitis. The pattern of ipilimumab-induced antibody titers to microbial flora and the histologic features and location of the inflammation were distinct from classic IBD. Prophylactic budesonide did not prevent ipilimumab-induced bowel inflammation. Despite an observed association between colonic inflammation and grade 2 or higher diarrhea...

‣ Memory CD4+ T Lymphocytes in the Gastrointestinal Tract Are a Major Source of Cell-Associated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Chronic Nonpathogenic Infection of African Green Monkeys

Schmitz, Joern E.; Ma, Zhong-Min; Hagan, Emily A.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Furr, Kathryn L.; Linde, Caitlyn H.; Zahn, Roland C.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Miller, Christopher J.; Permar, Sallie R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of natural hosts is characterized by nonpathogenic chronic viremia, maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier integrity, and low numbers of target cells. Assessment of cell-associated virus load in T cell subsets in multiple anatomic compartments of chronically SIV-infected sabeus African green monkeys (AGMs) revealed that gastrointestinal memory CD4+ T lymphocytes are a major source of cell-associated virus and a significant contributor to SIV viremia in AGMs.

‣ Probiotic/prebiotic supplementation of antiretrovirals improves gastrointestinal immunity in SIV-infected macaques

Klatt, Nichole R.; Canary, Lauren A.; Sun, Xiaoyong; Vinton, Carol L.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Morcock, David R.; Quiñones, Mariam; Deming, Clayton B.; Perkins, Molly; Hazuda, Daria J.; Miller, Michael D.; Lederman, Michael M.; Segre, Julie A.; Lifson,
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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HIV infection results in gastrointestinal (GI) tract damage, microbial translocation, and immune activation, which are not completely ameliorated with suppression of viremia by antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality of ARV-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with these dysfunctions. Thus, to enhance GI tract physiology, we treated SIV-infected pigtail macaques with ARVs, probiotics, and prebiotics or with ARVs alone. This synbiotic treatment resulted in increased frequency and functionality of GI tract APCs, enhanced reconstitution and functionality of CD4+ T cells, and reduced fibrosis of lymphoid follicles in the colon. Thus, ARV synbiotic supplementation in HIV-infected individuals may improve GI tract immunity and thereby mitigate inflammatory sequelae, ultimately improving prognosis.

‣ The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity

McDermott, Andrew J; Huffnagle, Gary B
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The gastrointestinal tract is a mucosal surface constantly exposed to foreign antigens and microbes, and is protected by a vast array of immunologically active structures and cells. Epithelial cells directly participate in immunological surveillance and direction of host responses in the gut and can express numerous pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR9, and nucleotide oligomerization domain 2, as well as produce chemotactic factors for both myeloid and lymphoid cells following inflammatory stimulation. Within the epithelium and in the underlying lamina propria resides a population of innate lymphoid cells that, following stimulation, can become activated and produce effector cytokines and exert both protective and pathogenic roles during inflammation. Lamina propria dendritic cells play a large role in determining whether the response to a particular antigen will be inflammatory or anti-inflammatory. It is becoming clear that the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome, as a whole community, exerts a profound influence on mucosal immune regulation. The microbiome produces short-chain fatty acids, polysaccharide A, α-galactosylceramide and tryptophan metabolites...

‣ Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Influenza Vaccination, and Antecedent Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections: A Case-Centered Analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2009–2011

Greene, Sharon K.; Rett, Melisa D.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Li, Lingling; Kulldorff, Martin; Marcy, S. Michael; Daley, Matthew F.; Belongia, Edward A.; Baxter, Roger; Fireman, Bruce H.; Jackson, Michael L.; Omer, Saad B.; Nordin, James D.; Jin, Robert; Weintra
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) can be triggered by gastrointestinal or respiratory infections, including influenza. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in the United States, monovalent inactivated influenza vaccine (MIV) availability coincided with high rates of wildtype influenza infections. Several prior studies suggested an elevated GBS risk following MIV, but adjustment for antecedent infection was limited. Methods: We identified patients enrolled in health plans participating in the Vaccine Safety Datalink and diagnosed with GBS from July 2009 through June 2011. Medical records of GBS cases with 2009–10 MIV, 2010–11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), and/or a medically-attended respiratory or gastrointestinal infection in the 1 through 141 days prior to GBS diagnosis were reviewed and classified according to Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. Using a case-centered design, logistic regression models adjusted for patient-level time-varying sources of confounding, including seasonal vaccinations and infections in GBS cases and population-level controls. Results: Eighteen confirmed GBS cases received vaccination in the 6 weeks preceding onset, among 1.27 million 2009–10 MIV recipients and 2.80 million 2010–11 TIV recipients. Forty-four confirmed GBS cases had infection in the 6 weeks preceding onset...

‣ Mucosal immunology down under: Special interest group in mucosal immunology workshop, Australasian Society for Immunology, Sydney, Australia, 2 December 2007

Cripps, A.; Sutton, P.; Beagley, K.; Robertson, S.; Dunkely, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group (SIG-MI) of the Australasian Society of Immunology was formed 14 years ago and has run regular symposia and workshops in conjunction with the Australasian Society of Immunology since that time. In December 2007 the Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group held a 1-day satellite workshop in conjunction with the annual Australasian Society of Immunology scientific meeting in Sydney to celebrate the decade since hosting the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology (9-ICMI) in 1997, which was also held in Sydney. The meeting that was attended by 65 delegates focussed on 4 session themes: reproductive immunology, respiratory immunology, mucosal immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal vaccines.; Allan W Cripps, Philip Sutton, Ken Beagley, Sarah Robertson and Margaret Dunkley

‣ T Helper-2 Immunity Regulates Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Eosinophil-Associated Gastrointestinal Disease in Mice

Forbes, Elizabeth; Prescott, Vanessa; D'Aprile, Angela; Henry, Peter J.; Yang, Ming; Matthaei, Klaus; Rothenberg, Marc E; Foster, Paul S; Hogan, Simon
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Publicador: W B Saunders Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background & Aims: Eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases are frequently associated with extraintestinal features, including bronchopulmonary manifestations. The factors predisposing to bronchial hyperresponsiveness in eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases are unknown. To elucidate the mechanistic link between eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, we used murine models of eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases and eotaxin-1/transgene-induced eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases. Methods: Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with ovalbumin-coated encapsulated particles to induce eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease, and bronchial responsiveness was examined. Furthermore, transgenic mice expressing eotaxin in the intestine (with the rat fatty acid-binding promoter) were used to specifically elucidate the contribution of this chemokine in eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease-associated bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Results: The induction of allergen-induced eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease was directly correlated with the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice with allergen-induced eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease was dependent on eotaxin expression in the gastrointestinal tract. Expression of eotaxin in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic mice was sufficient to promote bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was shown to be directly linked to the aberrant CD4+ T helper 2 lymphocyte production of interleukin-13. It is interesting to note that transgenic expression of eotaxin was linked with enhanced T helper 2 lymphocyte/cytokine synthesis (interleukin-4...

‣ A importância de imunoglobulina E (IgE) na mucosa intestinal para a eliminação de nematódeos parasitos gastrointestinais; Importance of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the protective mechanism against gastrointestinal nematode infection: looking at the intestinal mucosae

NEGRÃO-CORRÊA, Deborah
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2001 Português
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Esta revisão pretende discutir as evidências experimentais indicando que IgE tem participação no processo que resulta na eliminação de nematódeos parasitos gastrointestinais. Os dados da literatura revelam que, na maioria dos modelos experimentais de infecção em murinos, a resposta imune que induz a eliminação de nematódeos é controlada por citocinas Th-2 (especialmente IL-4). Entretanto, o exato mecanismo(s) responsável pelo fenômeno ainda não foi completamente esclarecido e, provavelmente, varia em diferentes espécies de nematódeos. A produção de IgE específica contra antígenos do parasito, especialmente a IgE produzida localmente (mucosa intestinal ou órgãos linfáticos associados), tem grande importância para eliminação de T. spiralis do intestino de ratos infectados. IgE intestinal pode também estar envolvida na eliminação de vermes adultos de outros nematódeos que penetram na mucosa intestinal da região duodenal, como S. venezuelensis e H. polygyrus. No caso da infecção de T. spiralis em ratos, os resultados obtidos sugerem ainda que IgE intestinal pode participar da eliminação dos vermes intestinais através de mecanismos que independem de mastócitos.; This review discusses experimental evidences that indicate the IgE participation on the effector mechanisms that leads to gastrointestinal nematode elimination. Data discussed here showed that...

‣ Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

Montalvillo,Enrique; Garrote,José Antonio; Bernardo,David; Arranz,Eduardo
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2014 Português
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The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule...