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‣ Mapeamento de dados genômicos usando escalonamento multidimensional; Representation of genomics data with multidimensional scaling

Espezúa Llerena, Soledad
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/06/2008 Português
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Neste trabalho são exploradas diversas técnicas de escalonamento multidimensional (MDS), com o objetivo de estudar sua aplicabilidade no mapeamento de dados genômicos resultantes da técnica RFLP-PCR, sendo esse mapeamento realizado em espaços de baixa dimensionalidade (2D ou 3D) com o fim de aproveitar a habilidade de análise e interpretação visual que possuem os seres humanos. Foi realizada uma análise comparativa de diversos algoritmos MDS, visando sua aptidão para mapear dados genômicos. Esta análise compreendeu o estudo de alguns índices de desempenho como a precisão no mapeamento, o custo computacional e a capacidade de induzir bons agrupamentos. Para a realização dessa análise foi desenvolvida a ferramenta "MDSExplorer", a qual integra os algoritmos estudados e várias opções que permitem comparar os algoritmos e visualizar os mapeamentos. Á análise realizada sobre diversos bancos de dados citados na literatura, sugerem que o algoritmo LANDMARK possui o menor tempo computacional, uma precisão de mapeamento similar aos demais algoritmos, e uma boa capacidade de manter as estruturas existentes nos dados. Finalmente, o MDSExplorer foi usado para mapear um banco de dados genômicos: o banco de estirpes de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio...

‣ Análise do ensino de genética e genômica em cursos de graduação em enfermagem no Brasil; Analysis of genetics and genomics teaching in undergraduate nursing programs in Brazil

Lopes Junior, Luis Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 Português
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Após a conclusão do Projeto Genoma Humano, uma quantidade imensurável de conhecimentos genômicos surgiu e, atualmente, se torna essencial sua integração à prática profissional de enfermeiros. Esses conhecimentos vêm transformando o modelo de atenção à saúde, com implicações para a enfermagem e repercussões no ensino, na assistência e na pesquisa. Embora já seja reconhecida a importância da genética e da genômica na educação de enfermeiros, levantamentos realizados em diversos países mostram que esses conteúdos ainda são limitados nos cursos de graduação desses profissionais, sendo desconhecida a situação nas escolas de enfermagem do Brasil. O principal objetivo desse estudo foi identificar as oportunidades existentes de educação em genética e genômica, oferecidas por cursos brasileiros que graduam enfermeiros. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, tipo survey, com delineamento transversal e abordagem quantitativa, realizada no período de fevereiro de 2011 a novembro de 2012. A amostra de conveniência compreendeu 311 Instituições de Ensino Superior cadastradas junto ao Ministério da Educação. Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário eletrônico...

‣ Integration of Genomics in Cancer Care

Santos, Erika Maria Monteiro; Edwards, Quannetta T.; Floria-Santos, Milena; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Achatz, Maria Isabel Waddington; MacDonald, Deborah J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 43-51
Português
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Purpose: The article aims to introduce nurses to how genetics-genomics is currently integrated into cancer care from prevention to treatment and influencing oncology nursing practice. Organizing Construct: An overview of genetics-genomics is described as it relates to cancer etiology, hereditary cancer syndromes, epigenetics factors, and management of care considerations. Methods: Peer-reviewed literature and expert professional guidelines were reviewed to address concepts of genetics-genomics in cancer care. Findings: Cancer is now known to be heterogeneous at the molecular level, with genetic and genomic factors underlying the etiology of all cancers. Understanding how these factors contribute to the development and treatment of both sporadic and hereditary cancers is important in cancer risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management and surveillance. Conclusions: Rapidly developing advances in genetics-genomics are changing all aspects of cancer care, with implications for nursing practice. Clinical Relevance: Nurses can educate cancer patients and their families about genetic-genomic advances and advocate for use of evidence-based genetic-genomic practice guidelines to reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes in cancer management. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

‣ Rose Scent: Genomics Approach to Discovering Novel Floral Fragrance–Related GenesW⃞

Guterman, Inna; Shalit, Moshe; Menda, Naama; Piestun, Dan; Dafny-Yelin, Mery; Shalev, Gil; Bar, Einat; Davydov, Olga; Ovadis, Mariana; Emanuel, Michal; Wang, Jihong; Adam, Zach; Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Zamir, Dani; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss,
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 Português
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For centuries, rose has been the most important crop in the floriculture industry; its economic importance also lies in the use of its petals as a source of natural fragrances. Here, we used genomics approaches to identify novel scent-related genes, using rose flowers from tetraploid scented and nonscented cultivars. An annotated petal EST database of ∼2100 unique genes from both cultivars was created, and DNA chips were prepared and used for expression analyses of selected clones. Detailed chemical analysis of volatile composition in the two cultivars, together with the identification of secondary metabolism–related genes whose expression coincides with scent production, led to the discovery of several novel flower scent–related candidate genes. The function of some of these genes, including a germacrene D synthase, was biochemically determined using an Escherichia coli expression system. This work demonstrates the advantages of using the high-throughput approaches of genomics to detail traits of interest expressed in a cultivar-specific manner in nonmodel plants.

‣ Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Lineage-Specific Gene Loss and Rapid Evolution of a Sperm-Specific Ion Channel Complex: CatSpers and CatSperβ

Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David Eldon; Schwartz, Arnold
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperβ. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperβ, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperβ originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperβ through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution.; Molecular and Cellular Biology

‣ Integrative functional genomics identifies RINT1 as a novel GBM oncogene

Quayle, Steven N.; Chheda, Milan G.; Shukla, Sachet A.; Wiedemeyer, Ruprecht; Tamayo, Pablo; Dewan, Robert W.; Zhuang, Li; Huang-Hobbs, Emmet; Haidar, Sam; Xiao, Yonghong; Ligon, Keith L.; Hahn, William C.; Chin, Lynda
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Large-scale cancer genomics efforts are identifying hundreds of somatic genomic alterations in glioblastoma (GBM). Distinguishing between active driver and neutral passenger alterations requires functional assessment of each gene; therefore, integrating biological weight of evidence with statistical significance for each genomic alteration will enable better prioritization for downstream studies. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and potential of in vitro functional genomic screens to rapidly and systematically prioritize high-probability candidate genes for in vivo validation. Integration of low-complexity gain- and loss-of-function screens designed on the basis of genomic data identified 6 candidate GBM oncogenes, and RINT1 was validated as a novel GBM oncogene based on its ability to confer tumorigenicity to primary nontransformed murine astrocytes in vivo. Cancer genomics-guided low-complexity genomic screens can quickly provide a functional filter to prioritize high-value targets for further downstream mechanistic and translational studies.

‣ Public Health Genomics : une forme de rhétorique ?

Baret, Laurence
Fonte: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM) Publicador: Programmes de bioéthique et l’Association des étudiants de bioéthique de l’Université de Montréal (AÉBiUM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cet article a pour objectif d’analyser dans quelle mesure le nouveau champ multidisciplinaire récemment créé, Public Health Genomics (PHG), fait preuve de rhétorique. La rhétorique sera examinée, au sens propre, comme art de bien parler, mais aussi, au sens actuel quelque peu péjoratif du terme, comme l’opposition entre paroles et actions, l’information et la désinformation et les propos tendancieux. Le but principal de la Public Health Genomics est la « traduction efficace et responsable des savoirs génomiques à des fins de santé publique ». La PHG ambitionne de relier deux champs qui semblent irréconciliables : la biomédecine d’une part et la santé publique de l’autre. Mais est-ce vraiment le cas ? Que se cache-t-il derrière ce discours ?; The aim of this article is to analyze to what extent the new multi-disciplinary field recently created, public health genomics, displays rhetoric. The rhetoric will be examined through its proper meaning as the art of speech, but also through its actual pejorative meaning as the opposition between words and actions, information and misinformation. The main goal of public health genomics (PHG) is the effective and responsible translation of genomic knowledge for public health ends. The PHG wants to bridge over two presumably opposed fields: the biomedical domain on one side and public health on the other. But is it really the case? What is hidden behind this discourse; Article

‣ Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage : predictions and validations

de Crécy-Lagard,Valérie; El Yacoubi, Basma; de la Garza, Rocìo Dìaz; Noiriel, Alexandre; Hanson, Andrew
Fonte: BMC Genomics; BMC Genomics Publicador: BMC Genomics; BMC Genomics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Periodical Abbreviation:BMC Genomics; Start page 245; M3: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-245

‣ Plant cell wall biosynthesis: genetic, biochemical and functional genomics approaches to the identification of key genes

Farrokhi, N.; Burton, R.; Brownfield, L.; Hrmova, M.; Wilson, S.; Bacic, A.; Fincher, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Cell walls are dynamic structures that represent key determinants of overall plant form, plant growth and development, and the responses of plants to environmental and pathogen-induced stresses. Walls play centrally important roles in the quality and processing of plant-based foods for both human and animal consumption, and in the production of fibres during pulp and paper manufacture. In the future, wall material that constitutes the major proportion of cereal straws and other crop residues will find increasing application as a source of renewable fuel and composite manufacture. Although the chemical structures of most wall constituents have been defined in detail, the enzymes involved in their synthesis and remodelling remain largely undefined, particularly those involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. There have been real recent advances in our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in plants, but, with few exceptions, the identities and modes of action of polysaccharide synthases and other glycosyltransferases that mediate the biosynthesis of the major non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides are not known. Nevertheless, emerging functional genomics and molecular genetics technologies are now allowing us to re-examine the central questions related to wall biosynthesis. The availability of the rice...

‣ Functional genomics: tools for improving farm animal health and welfare

Hiendleder, S.; Bauersachs, S.; Boulesteix, A.; Blum, H.; Arnold, G.; Frohlich, T.; Wolf, E.
Fonte: Office Int Epizooties Publicador: Office Int Epizooties
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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The first genome sequence assemblies of farm animal species are now accessible through public domain databases, and further sequencing projects are in rapid progress. In addition, large collections of expressed sequences have been obtained, which will aid in constructing annotated transcript maps for many economically important species. Thus, the breeding of farm animals is entering the post-genome era. Functional genomics, defined as applying global experimental approaches to assess gene function, by using the information and reagents provided by structural genomics (i.e. mapping and sequencing), has become the focus of interest. Combining a holistic view of phenotypes at the molecular level with genetic marker data seems a particularly promising approach for improving health and welfare traits in farm animals. These traits are often difficult to define. They suffer from low heritabilities and a corresponding lack of genetic gain in conventional selection and breeding programmes. At the same time, genomic information from micro-organisms and parasites offers the potential for new vaccines and therapeutics. This review describes major functional genomics tools, lists genomic resources available for farm animals and discusses the prospects and challenges of functional genomics in improving the health and welfare of farm animals.

‣ Application of genomics to molecular breeding of wheat and barley

Varshney, R.; Langridge, P.; Graner, A.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc Publicador: Academic Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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In wheat and barley, several generations of selectable molecular markers have been included in the genetic maps; and a large number of qualitative and quantitative traits were located in the genomes, some of which are being routinely selected in marker-assisted breeding programs. In recent years, a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been generated for wheat and barley that have been used for development of functional molecular markers, preparation of transcript maps, and construction of cDNA arrays. These functional genomic resources combined together with new approaches such as expression genetics, association mapping, allele mining, and informatics (bioinformatic tools) possess potential to identify genes responsible for a trait and their deployment in practical plant breeding. High costs currently limit the implementation of functional genomics in breeding programs. The potential applications together with some examples as well as challenges for applying genomics research in breeding activities are discussed. Genomics research will continue to enhance the efficiency and precision for crop improvement but will not replace conventional breeding and evaluation methods.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/00652660; Rajeev K. Varshney...

‣ Exploring the evolution of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans in plant cell walls: comparative genomics can help!; Exploring the evolution of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans in plant cell walls: comparative genomics can help!

Fincher, G.
Fonte: Current Biology Ltd Publicador: Current Biology Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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A key distinguishing feature of the grasses is that their cell walls contain (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans, which are distributed almost exclusively within the Poaceae. The identification of genes that mediate in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis has been possible through relatively recent genome sequencing programmes and comparative genomics techniques. The evolution of a single new gene appears to have been sufficient for the first synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans and there is compelling evidence that existing hydrolytic enzymes were adapted for the specific hydrolysis of the polysaccharide during wall turnover or degradation. Manipulation of the expression levels of genes involved in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis is likely to provide opportunities to enhance the value of grasses and cereals in commercial applications such as human nutrition and biofuel production.; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Crown Copyright © 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

‣ Faba bean genomics: current status and future prospects

Alghamdi, S.; Migdadi, H.; Ammar, M.; Paull, J.; Siddique, K.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Faba bean represents a crucial source of protein for food, especially for Mediterranean countries, and local demand for faba bean grains is increasing. The crop is also gaining increased attention as an elite candidate for conservation agriculture. However, the complexity of the faba genome has made progress in breeding programs and molecular studies relatively slow compared with other legume crops. Recent advances in plant genomics have made it feasible to understand complex genomes such as faba bean. With the increase of faba bean consumption in the Middle East region, there is an urgent need to develop elite faba genotypes suitable for arid and semi arid environments, with high yield potential and acceptable nutritional quality. This article highlights the recent advances in legume and faba genomics and its potential to contribute to the above mentioned goal. Emphasis is given on prospects on faba improvements strategies from the Middle East point of view.; Salem S. Alghamdi, Hussein M. Migdadi, Megahed H. Ammar, Jeffrey G. Paull and K.H.M. Siddique

‣ High Performance Data Management and Computational Architectures for Genomics Research at National and International Scales

Barnett, William K.; LeDuc, Richard
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Presented at Bio-IT World Asia.; Summary: Changing genomics analytical needs; NCGAS and its mission; NCGAS cyberinfrastructure; the 100 Gigabit demonstration; scaling genomics analysis; the NCGAS research model; and outcomes for life sciences research; This document was developed with support from National Science Foundation (NSF) grant OCI-1053575. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

‣ Diversidade genética, genômica e filogeografia de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz): implicações para a dispersão do cultivo ao longo dos principais eixos fluviais da bacia amazônica brasileira; Genetic diversity, genomics and phylogeography of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Implications for the dispersal of the crop along the main fluvial axes in Brazilian Amazonia

Pereira, Alessandro Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2015 Português
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A mandioca foi domesticada no sudoeste da bacia amazônica, e presentemente é o cultivo alimentício amazônico mais importante no mundo. Após a domesticação inicial pressões seletivas divergentes deram origem aos grupos de variedades de mandiocas mansas e bravas. A distribuição atual destes grupos é um tanto diferente ao longo da Amazônia, o que pode ser reflexo de padrões de dispersão distintos de variedades mansas e bravas ao longo da história da domesticação do cultivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a diversidade e estrutura genética, genômica e a filogeografia de mandiocas cultivadas por agricultores tradicionais ao longo dos principais rios da bacia amazônica brasileira. Análises filogenéticas de linhagens matrilineares foi realizada com base no polimorfismo de quatro marcadores microssatélites cloroplastidiais (cpSSR). A diversidade e estrutura genética foram avaliadas com 14 marcadores microssatélites nucleares (ncSSR), enquanto que a abordagem genômica foi realizada com base em 5.871 polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos (SNPs). Foi observada considerável diferenciação [FST = 0,78 (cpSSR), 0,28 (ncSSR), e 0,37 (SNPs)] entre as variedades cultivadas e Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia, o parente silvestre da mandioca. Não foram detectadas associações de haplótipos cpSSR com os grupos de variedades mansas e bravas ou com os rios. Apesar da ausência de padrões filogeográficos...

‣ GenomeFingerprinter and universal genome fingerprint analysis for systematic comparative genomics

Ai, Yuncan; Ai, Hannan; Meng, Fanmei; Zhao, Lei
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2013 Português
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How to compare whole genome sequences at large scale has not been achieved via conventional methods based on pair-wisely base-to-base comparison; nevertheless, no attention was paid to handle in-one-sitting a number of genomes crossing genetic category (chromosome, plasmid, and phage) with farther divergences (much less or no homologous) over large size ranges (from Kbp to Mbp). We created a new method, GenomeFingerprinter, to unambiguously produce three-dimensional coordinates from a sequence, followed by one three-dimensional plot and six two-dimensional trajectory projections to illustrate whole genome fingerprints. We further developed a set of concepts and tools and thereby established a new method, universal genome fingerprint analysis. We demonstrated their applications through case studies on over a hundred of genome sequences. Particularly, we defined the total genetic component configuration (TGCC) (i.e., chromosome, plasmid, and phage) for describing a strain as a system, and the universal genome fingerprint map (UGFM) of TGCC for differentiating a strain as a universal system, as well as the systematic comparative genomics (SCG) for comparing in-one-sitting a number of genomes crossing genetic category in diverse strains. By using UGFM...

‣ Data Management for High-Throughput Genomics

Roehm, Uwe; Blakeley, Jose
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2009 Português
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Today's sequencing technology allows sequencing an individual genome within a few weeks for a fraction of the costs of the original Human Genome project. Genomics labs are faced with dozens of TB of data per week that have to be automatically processed and made available to scientists for further analysis. This paper explores the potential and the limitations of using relational database systems as the data processing platform for high-throughput genomics. In particular, we are interested in the storage management for high-throughput sequence data and in leveraging SQL and user-defined functions for data analysis inside a database system. We give an overview of a database design for high-throughput genomics, how we used a SQL Server database in some unconventional ways to prototype this scenario, and we will discuss some initial findings about the scalability and performance of such a more database-centric approach.; Comment: CIDR 2009

‣ Use of Comparative Genomics for Non-coding Rna Prediction and Investigation of Dna Introgression in Yeast

Kavanaugh, Laura Anne
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 5182874 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2008 Português
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The rapid development of large-scale genomic sequencing has dramatically changed the field of genetics, in part through the development of comparative genomics. Fungal comparative genomics is particularly powerful given the large number of genomes currently available, their compact architecture, and their relative ease of genetic manipulation. Fungal comparative genomics was employed in this work to address two related questions. First, it was used along with computational thermodynamic methods to predict non-coding RNA (ncRNA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification. The approach was then applied to predict ncRNA genes on chromosome 6 of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and publicly available cDNA library data were used to test the predictions. Strong experimental evidence was accumulated for four new ncRNA genes. Potential structural elements in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of six annotated protein-coding genes were also identified. This work shows that thermodynamic approaches, coupled with comparative genomics...

‣ Community Outreach through Genomics Education Partnership

Ramana Madupu; Anne G. Rosenwald; A. Malcolm Campbell; Satish C. Bhalla; Granger Sutton
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
Português
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The J Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) has recently partnered with undergraduate university faculty to expand the scope of education and outreach program as part of the NIAID’s BRC initiative, by joining forces with faculty members participating in the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP). The goal of the GEP is to provide opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in genomics research and gain hands on experience. Faculty members trained on annotation methodologies and tools during the Prokaryotic Annotation Workshop conducted at JCVI, impart their knowledge in the classroom as part of the semester course. As a pilot project, we are currently collaborating with 3 groups lead by a faculty member, spread across 3 universities in the community curation of bacterial genomes. Each participating undergraduate group collectively annotates a specific bacterial genome that was sequenced at JCVI and run through the automatic annotation pipeline. Remote access to genome sequence data, pre-computed gene predictions, search results, automatic annotation and bioinformatics analysis is provided through our web-based manual annotation tool, MANATEE. The students log into JCVI genome databases with user specific ids and password and learn to annotate single genes...

‣ Genomics knowledge and equity: a global public goods perspective of the patent system

Smith,Richard D.; Thorsteinsdóttir,Halla; Daar,Abdallah S.; Gold,E. Richard; Singer,Peter A.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2004 Português
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Genomics, the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions, will have a major impact on the way disease is diagnosed, prevented and treated in the new millennium. Despite the tremendous potential it holds for improving global health, genomics challenges policy-makers to ensure that its benefits are harnessed equitably across populations and nations. The classification of genomics as a global public good and the inequity encountered in the development and application of genomics knowledge are outlined in this paper. We examine the effect of the current patent system on the distribution of costs and benefits relating to genomics knowledge between countries of different economic strength. The global public goods concept provides a normative economic rationale for the modification of certain aspects of the current patent system and for the creation of complementary mechanisms to respond to the health needs of low-income and middle-income countries.