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‣ Direct effect of Plasmodium vivax recombinant vaccine candidates AMA-1 and MSP-1(19) on the innate immune response

BUENO, Lilian Lacerda; FUJIWARA, Ricardo Toshio; SOARES, Irene Silva; BRAGA, Erika Martins
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The recombinant apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) and 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein (MSP-1(19)) are the lead candidates for inclusion in a vaccine against blood stages of malaria due to encouraging protective studies in humans and animals. Despite the importance of an efficacious malaria vaccine, vaccine-related research has focused on identifying antigens that result in protective immunity rather than determining the nature of anti-malarial immune effector mechanisms. Moreover, emphasis has been placed on adaptive rather than innate immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effect of Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidates Pv-AMA-1 and Pv-MSP-1(19) on the immune response of malaria-naive donors. Maturation of dendritic cells is altered by Pv-AMA-1 but not Pv-MSP-1(19), as observed by differential expression of cell surface markers. In addition, Pv-AMA-1 induced an increased production of MIP-1 alpha/CCL3 and decreased production of TARC/CCL17 levels in both dendritic cells (DCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Finally, a significant pro-inflammatory response was elicited by Pv-AMA-1-stimulated PBMCs. These results suggest that the recombinant vaccine candidate Pv-AMA-1 may play a direct role on innate immune response and might be involved in parasite destruction. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

‣ Regulação do desenvolvimento e resposta imune de lagartas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) por Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval development and immune response regulation by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Lopes, Carolina Schultz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2008 Português
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Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hym.: Braconidae), como outros cenobiontes, é capaz de regular seu hospedeiro, criando um ambiente que sustenta e promove o desenvolvimento de suas larvas, comumente em detrimento do hospedeiro. Substâncias derivadas do trato reprodutivo das fêmeas (proteínas ovarianas, veneno e polidnavírus) são injetadas no hospedeiro, afetando a resposta imune e outros processos fisiológicos com o propósito de regular os níveis hormonais, nutrição e comportamento. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o papel dessas substâncias no crescimento e desenvolvimento de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), e avaliar como o parasitismo afeta a resposta imune do hospedeiro. Todas as substâncias derivadas da fêmea foram obtidas após a dissecação do parasitóide, através da coleta do reservatório de veneno ou dos ovários (proteínas ovarianas e polidnavírus) em tampão resfriado. As secreções foram processadas adequadamente e injetadas logo após a coleta. O veneno e as proteínas ovarianas + polidnavírus (PDV) foram injetados juntos ou separadamente em lagartas entre 0-12h do 6º instar. O efeito de cada um dos componentes isolados do parasitóide no desenvolvimento e crescimento do hospedeiro foi avaliado através de observações no ganho de peso...

‣ Modulação da resposta imune em aves imunizadas com vacinas aviárias associadas ao b-glucano.; Immune response modulation in chicken immunized with vaccines associated to b-Glucan.

Pedroso, Antonio Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/08/2009 Português
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Os b-glucanos são formados por polissacarídeos estruturais da parede celular de leveduras (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), alguns cereais em grãos e fungos. Os b-glucanos apresentam a molécula de glicose ligada ao carbono nas posições b-1,3 e pode apresentar cadeias laterais com o resíduo de glicose ligado nas posições b-1,6. O b-glucano tem sua ação benéfica como antiinflamatório, antitumoral, hipocolesterolêmico e hipoglicêmico. A inocuidade do b-glucano solubilizado nesse trabalho foi demonstrada in vitro, em cultivo celular de fibroblastos de embriões de galinhas SPF, e confirmado in vivo após a injeção no músculo peitoral de frangos. O b-glucano é um modulador biológico devido sua capacidade de em aumentar a resposta imune inata, aumentando os mecanismos inespecíficos de defesa dos animais. O b-glucano solúvel na dose de 240 mg/ave, associado ao diluente da vacina de Marek, apresentou efeito imunomodulador na resposta imune humoral. Os níveis de IgG no plasma foram detectados pela técnica de ELISA, e a resposta imune celular foi avaliada pela detecção de IFNg-, IL-2 e IL-6 em frangos vacinados com vacina recombinante e viva contra doença de Gumboro. O b-glucano solúvel nesse experimento demonstrou ser um potente imunoadjuvante após aumentar a resposta imune humoral e celular para os antígenos da doença infecciosa da Bursa...

‣ Terapia fotodinâmica no tratamento do tumor de Ehrlich inoculado em camundongos: avaliação da eficácia e da resposta imunológica sistêmica; Photodynamic Therapy in the treatment of Ehrlich solid tumor in mice: efficacy evaluation and the systemic immune response

Grande, Murilo Penteado Del
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2013 Português
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A terapia fotodinâmica (Photodynamic Therapy - PDT) é um método de tratar neoplasias baseado na interação entre luz, oxigênio molecular e um agente fotossensibilizador. Após a administração do agente, o tumor é iluminado com luz visível, ativando-o e produzindo espécies reativas de oxigênio, altamente citotóxicas, que provocam morte celular e destruição tecidual. Com a destruição do tumor há ativação do sistema imune inato e o subsequente processo inflamatório determina a apresentação de antígenos tumorais aos linfócitos, promovendo uma resposta imunológica adaptativa contra o tecido tumoral. O presente trabalho visou estudar a PDT associando um laser de diodo como fonte de luz e o fotossensibilizante Azul de Metileno (AM) a 1%, avaliando a sua efetividade no tratamento do Tumor de Ehrlich (TE) em sua forma sólida e a resposta imunológica nos animais tratados. Em um primeiro estudo, avaliou-se macro e microscopicamente tumores tratados, determinando a capacidade do protocolo em induzir inflamação e destruição do tecido tumoral. No segundo estudo, a resposta imune foi estudada em camundongos desafiados com um segundo implante de células do tumor de Ehrlich. O primeiro implante tumoral foi tratado com a PDT ou a excisão cirúrgica...

‣ Estudo da resposta imune sistêmica em camundongos após inoculação por diferentes vias de imunização com Escherichia coli O86:H34 vivas ou mortas por formalina; Study of the systemic immune response in mice after inoculation by different routes of immunization with Escherichia coli O86:H34 alive or killed by formalin

Oliveira, Ana Patricia da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2001 Português
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A Escherichia coli enteropatogênica (EPEC) é um dos principais agentes etiológicos da diarréia infecciosa tanto em crianças no primeiro ano de vida, como em adultos. As infecções por EPEC são prevalentes nos países em desenvolvimento, principalmente nas populações de baixo nível sócio-econômico, como as encontradas no Brasil. A resposta imune na infecção por EPEC permanece pobremente caracterizada. O uso das novas tecnologias no desenvolvimento de vacinas vem reforçar à importância de se levar em consideração a via natural de infecção do patógeno e utilizá-la como tema de estudo, quando se pretende estudar a resposta imune a um determinado agente infeccioso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi efetuar o estudo da resposta imune em animais inoculados com bactérias vivas ou mortas, por meio de diferentes vias de imunização. As bactérias em estudo foram: a cepa de E. coli O86:H34 e a cepa protótipo de E. coli O127:H6. A cepa de E. coli pertencente ao sorotipo O86:H34 foi isolada de fezes de crianças com diarréia. Foram empregadas as cepas : E2348/69, DH5α e as mutantes E2348/69 flic-, E2348/69 Δtir, E2348/69 EscN-, CVD 206 ΔeaeA, UMD 872 ΔEspA, UMD 864 ΔEspB, UMD 870 ΔEspD. No presente estudo os camundongos BALB/c foram inoculados pela via intragástrica com a cepa de E. coli O86:H34 viva ou cepas O86:H34 e O127:H6 mortas por formol...

‣ Immune Response to the Rhodococcus equi infection in high and low antibody-producing mice (selection IV-A)

Pedrini, Sílvia C.B.; Acorci, Michele J.; Pinto, João G.G.; Silveira, Liciana V.A.; Oliveira, Silvio L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 915-923
Português
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Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterium which infects macrophages and causes rhodococcal pneumonia and enteritis in foals. Recently, this agent has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised humans. Several murine experimental models have been used to study R. equi infection. High (H IV-A) and Low (L IV-A) antibody (Ab)-producers mice were obtained by bi-directional genetic selections for their ability to produce antibodies against sheep and human erythrocytes (Selection IV-A). These lines maintain their phenotypes of high and low responders also for other antigens than those of selection (multispeciflc effect). A higher macrophage activity in L IV-A mice has been described for several intracellular infectious agents, which could be responsible for their intense macrophage antigens (Ag)-handling and low Ab production. Due to these differences, L IV-A mice were found to exhibit a better performance to trigger an effective immune response towards intracellular pathogens. The objective of this work was to characterize the immune response of Selection IV-A against R. equi. H IV-A and L IV-A mice were infected with 2.0 × 10 6 CFU of ATCC 33701 +R. equi by intravenous route. With regards to bacterial clearance and survival assays...

‣ Induction of immune response in broiler chickens immunized with recombinant FliC and challenged by Salmonella Typhimurium

Baptista, Ana Angelita S.; Donato, Tais C.; Souza, Edmárcia E.; Gonçalves, Guilherme A.m.; Garcia, Keila C.o.d.; Rodrigues, João C.z.; Sequeira, Júlio L.; Andreatti Filho, Raphael L.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1215-1221
Português
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 09/52980-3; Processo FAPESP: 09/53570-3; Este estudo investigou a resposta imunitária de frangos de corte após a imunização oral com flagelina recombinante (rFliC) de Salmonella Typhimurium conjugada com micropartículas de alginato de sódio, e como intensificador de resposta imune foi associada a proteína subunidade B da toxina colérica (rCTB) e pool de Lactobacillus spp. (PL). As respostas imunes foram avaliadas por dosagem de IgY sérica e IgA do fluído intestinal e imunomarcação de linfócitos T CD8+ presentes no ceco. Os animais imunizados foram desafiados aos 21 dias após tratamento com Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). Foi observado em todos os grupos imunizados um aumento significativo (p<0,05) nos níveis de IgA (μg/mL) principalmente três semanas após as imunizações. Os níveis de IgY sérica (μg/mL) foram pouco influenciados pelos tratamentos, apenas na segunda semana após imunização observou-se diferenças significativas (p<0,05) entre os grupos. Observou-se que o número de linfócitos T CD8+ apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos e o controle negativo após o desafio. Quanto a recuperação de Salmonella Typhimurium...

‣ Pathogen Strategies to Evade Innate Immune Response: A Signaling Point of View

Neves, Bruno Miguel; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa
Fonte: InTech Publicador: InTech
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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An effective host defense against pathogens requires appropriate recognition of the invading microorganism by immune cells, conducing to an inflammatory process that involves recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection, activation of antimicrobial effector mechanisms and induction of an adaptive immune response that ultimately will promote the clearance of infection. All these events require the coordination of multiple signaling pathways, initially triggered by the contact of the pathogen with innate immune cells. The “signal alarm” is normally triggered by ligation of microorganism, or microorganism’s components, to pattern-recognition receptors, causing their phosphorylation and recruitment of adapter molecules, which in turn will activate second messengers within the cytosol of the cells, allowing the transduction of the signal. The second messengers are often protein kinases that in a cascade process ultimately activate the transcription factors responsible for the expression of effector molecules like, cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species, crucial elements to mount an adequate immune response. The activity of such critical intracellular signaling pathways is a process extremely well controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulation...

‣ Induction of immune response in broiler chickens immunized with recombinant FliC and challenged by Salmonella Typhimurium

Baptista,Ana Angelita S.; Donato,Tais C.; Souza,Edmárcia E.; Gonçalves,Guilherme A.M.; Garcia,Keila C.O.D.; Rodrigues,João C.Z.; Sequeira,Júlio L.; Andreatti Filho,Raphael L.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
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The study examined (1) the immune response in broiler chickens after oral immunization with recombinant flagellin (rFliC) from Salmonella Typhimurium conjugated with sodium alginate microparticles, and the immune response enhancement in association with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit protein (rCTB) and pool of Lactobacillus spp. (PL). The immune responses were evaluated by dosage of IgY serum and IgA from intestinal fluid and immunostaining of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecum. The immunized animals were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) 21 days after treatment. In all immunized groups, a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in IgA levels (μg/mL), especially three weeks after immunization. The serum IgY levels (μg/mL) were little affected by the treatments and differed significantly among groups only in the second post-immunization week (p<0.05). After the challenge, the number of CD8+ T cells differed significantly between the treatments and negative control. Retrieval of Salmonella Typhimurium was not detected at 48 hours after the challenge in T2 (rFliC+rCTb), T3 (rFliC+PL) and T4 (rFliC+rCTB PL). The rFliC administered orally with or without rCTB and Lactobacillus spp. produces significant induction of humoral immune response...

‣ Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

Longhi,Renata Maronna Praça; Zembrzuski,Verônica Marques; Basta,Paulo Cesar; Croda,Julio
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

‣ The expression of an intraspecific aggressive reaction in the face of a stressor agent alters the immune response in rats

Barreto-Medeiros,J. M.; Feitoza,E. G.; Magalhães,K.; da Silva,R. R.; Manhães-de-Castro,F. M.; Manhães-de-Castro,R.; De-Castro,C. M. M. B.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2005 Português
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The repercussion on the immune response of the expression of intraspecific aggressiveness in the face of a stressor agent was investigated in rats. Ninety-day-old animals were divided into three groups: the control group (only immunological measurements were performed), the foot-shock (FS) (animals individually receiving FS), and the intraspecific aggressive response (IAR) group (animals receiving FS and presenting IAR). For immunological measurements, blood samples were collected promptly at 7 and 15 days after FS or IAR. The FS reduced the total leukocyte amount presented. However, aggressiveness triggered not only reduction of the leukocytes, but also lymphocyte decrease and neutrophil increase. Moreover, an elevation in total leukocytes associated with an increase in the humoral immune response was also observed one week after IAR. In this study, the expression of intraspecific aggressiveness in the face of a stressor seemed to activate the immune system and to potentiate the antigen specific humoral response.

‣ The immune response after hypoxia-ischemia in a mouse model of preterm brain injury

Albertsson, Anna-Maj; Bi, Dan; Duan, Luqi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Leavenworth, Jianmei W; Qiao, Lili; Zhu, Changlian; Cardell, Susanna; Cantor, Harvey; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina; Wang, Xiaoyang
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Preterm brain injury consists primarily of periventricular leukomalacia accompanied by elements of gray-matter injury, and these injuries are associated with cerebral palsy and cognitive impairments. Inflammation is believed to be an important contributing factor to these injuries. The aim of this study was to examine the immune response in a postnatal day (PND) 5 mouse model of preterm brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) that is characterized by focal white and gray-matter injury. Methods: C57Bl/6 mice at PND 5 were subjected to unilateral HI induced by left carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 10% O2 for 50 minutes, 70 minutes, or 80 minutes. At seven days post-HI, the white/gray-matter injury was examined. The immune responses in the brain after HI were examined at different time points after HI using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Results: HI for 70 minutes in PND 5 mice induced local white-matter injury with focal cortical injury and hippocampal atrophy, features that are similar to those seen in preterm brain injury in human infants. HI for 50 minutes resulted in a small percentage of animals being injured, and HI for 80 minutes produced extensive infarction in multiple brain areas. Various immune responses...

‣ Comparação da resposta imune induzida pela vacinação de bezerros Curraleiros e Nelores com Mycobacterium bovis-BCG.; Comparison of immune response induced by vaccination of calves Curraleiro and Nellore with Mycobacterium bovis-BCG.

MAGGIOLI, Mayara Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência Animal; Ciências Agrárias - Veterinaria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência Animal; Ciências Agrárias - Veterinaria
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Curraleiro breed has adapted to the extensive breeding in the Brazilian savanna. These rustic animals seem to be more resistant to regional endemic diseases. Resistance to infection is directly correlated to the host immune response. In order to check if differences might exist among Curraleiro s immune response and the response of other exotic cattle breeds in the savannah region, Curraleiro and Nellore calves were assessed before and after immunization with BCG vaccine. Twelve young calves (around six months of age) were used. After quarantine, the animals were divided into four groups: Control (three calves from each breed) and Vaccinated (three calves from each breed). The mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood at time zero (before vaccination), one, seven and, thirty days after the vaccination. The cells were submitted to phagocytosis test, NO production and analysis by flow cytometry of the following populations: NK, T, CD4 e CD8 as well as for their IFN-production. The intradermic test was realized in all calves forty-five days after vaccination. Macrophages from Curraleiro breed showed superior phagocytosis rates (7.650±3.661) than Nellore macrophages (2.970±1.282). Before BCG vaccination...

‣ Análise da resposta imune celular de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa contra os antígenos recombinantes MPT-51, GLcB, ESAT-6, Ag 85A e a proteína do filtrado de cultura (CFP) de mycobacterium tuberculosis; Análise da resposta imune celular de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa contra os antígenos recombinantes MPT-51, GLcB, ESAT-6, Ag 85A e a proteína do filtrado de cultura (CFP) de mycobacterium tuberculosis; Analysis of Cellular Immune Response Against MPT-51, GLcB, ESAT-6, Ag 85A Recombinant Antigens and the Culture Filtered Protein (CFP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis; Analysis of Cellular Immune Response Against MPT-51, GLcB, ESAT-6, Ag 85A Recombinant Antigens and the Culture Filtered Protein (CFP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

VASCONCELOS JUNIOR, Arioldo Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This work characterized the specific cellular immune response of TCD4 and TCD8 lymphocytes against recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the Hospital Anuar Auad, Goiania Brazil, and constituted of two experimental groups: 1) 22 active TB patients with positive acid fast aputum, X-ray indicative of tuberculosis, smear culture positive for M. tuberculosis and HIV negative. 2) 15 sex and age matched healthy controls, tuberculin skin test and HIV negative. Venous blood was drawn and processed to obtain PBMC that were cultivated for 96 hours with the specific antigens (1mg/106 cells). TCD8 and TCD4 cells were analyzed by flow citometry for IL-10 and IFN-g production. In general, the percentage of positive TCD4 and TCD8 cells for IFN-g and IL-10 were superior among the TB patients. Additionally, TCD4+IFNg+ (5,63±2,43) and IL-10+ (5,83± 2,19) cells were significantly higher in TB patients than in healthy controls (TCD4+IFNg+ =1,75±0,71 and IL-10+ =1,47±0,90), (p<0,01). Regarding the percentage of TCD8 cells, a higher percentage of IFNg+ (4,33±1,45) and IL-10+ (4,01±1,14) among TB patients than controls (TCD8+IFNg+ = 1,49±0,42 and IL- 10+ 1,62±0,59) was observed (p<0,01). TB treatment did not alter the response to the tested antigens immediately after the treatment initiation. In conclusion...

‣ Untersuchungen zur Rolle molekularer Chaperone und Hitzeschockprotein-assoziierter Peptide in der T-Zell-vermittelten Immunantwort - Peptidmotiv und Liganden des Miniaturschwein-MHC I Moleküls PD1; Studies investigating the role of molecular chaperones and heat-shock protein-associated peptides in the T-cell mediated immune response - Peptide motif and ligands of the miniature swine MHC-class I molecule PD1

Scherer, Hans Ulrich
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Hitzeschockproteine (HSP wie Gp96, Hsp70 u.a.) sind potente Stimulatoren des Immunsystems. Aufgrund phylogenetisch alter, hochkonservierter Strukturen ihres molekularen Aufbaus geht ihre Fähigkeit zur Immunstimulation über Speziesgrenzen hinaus, so daß für das menschliche Immunsystem sowohl mikrobielle als auch humane Hitzeschockproteine eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Neben einer unspezifischen, antigen-unabhängigen Aktivierung antigenpräsentierender Zellen über Rezeptoren der Toll-Familie (im wesentlichen TLR2 und TLR4) besitzen einige von ihnen die Fähigkeit, antigenspezifische Immunreaktionen auszulösen. Aus Tumorzellen isoliertes Gp96 z.B. löst, in Mäuse injiziert, die den gleichen spezifischen Tumortyp tragen, aus dem Gp96 zunächst isoliert wurde, eine für diesen Tumor spezifische Immunantwort aus. Durch zytotoxische T-Lymphozyten (CTLs) vermittelt und für zahlreiche Tumorarten nachgewiesen bildet diese Erkenntnis die Grundlage für neue therapeutische Strategien gegen menschliche Tumoren mit HSPs als Vakzine. Für die spezifische immunogene Wirkung der ansonsten zellunspezifischen HSPs werden endogene, nicht-kovalent an die HSPs gebundene Peptide verantwortlich gemacht, die über eine rezeptorvermittelte Endozytose des HSPs in den MHC I - Antigenprozessierungsweg antigenpräsentierender Zellen gelangen (sog. cross-presentation). Sie stellen ein Abbild des Peptidrepertoires der Tumorzelle dar...

‣ Auswirkungen plazentarer Plasmodium falciparum-Infektionen primigravider Mütter auf die Ausbildungeiner Immunantwort bei Neugeborenen; Effects of Plasmodium falciparum infections of the placenta of primigravid mothers on the development of an immune response in newborns

Brenner, Stephan
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Hintergrund: Plasmodium falciparum Malaria stellt eines der größten Gesundheitsprobleme der tropischen Breiten dar. Gegenwärtige präventive und therapeutische Maßnahmen sind nach wie vor nur bedingt effektiv, was auf den komplizierten Entwicklungszyklus des Malariaerregers, sowie dessen rasche Resistenzbildung gegenüber Therapeutika zurückzuführen ist. Die Suche nach potenten Impfstoffen und resistenzsicheren Medikamenten ist deshalb von höchster Priorität. Immunologische Datenerhebung trägt dabei eine hervorgehobene Rolle innerhalb der Malariaforschung und liefert wichtige Beiträge zum Verständnis pathologischer Vorgänge einer Plasmodieninfektion. Ziel: Die Krankheitsschwere während einer Malariainfektion ist in starkem Maße vom Immunstatus des Patienten abhängig. Selbst unter Patienten in Malariaendemiegebieten treten Schwankungen in der Immunabwehr gegenüber P. falciparum auf. Es ist bekannt, dass Malariaerkrankungen in der Schwangerschaft, sowie die Anzahl von Schwangerschaften, Auswirkungen auf den Immunstatus innerhalb der Plazenta und damit des Ungeborenen, sowie später auf das Infektionsrisiko während der Neugeborenen- und Kleinkindphase haben. Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit den Veränderungen der zellulären (T-Helferzellen) und humoralen (Zytokine IL-10...

‣ Aktivierung der angeborenen und adaptiven Immunantwort und deren Bedeutung bei der Immunantwort gegenüber malignen Gliomen; Activation of the innate and adaptive immune response and its role in the immune surveillance of malignant glioma; Aktivierung der angeborenen und adaptiven Immunantwort und deren Bedeutung bei der Immunantwort gegenüber malignen Gliomen

Aulwurm, Steffen Alexander
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
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The immune system is essential in guarding the body against pathogens and tumor cells. Immunity has many facets, the dichotomy separating innate and adaptive immunity in the last decades, nowadays emerges as evolutionary consecutive with interdepending pathways and continuative receptor evolution. The complexicity of the somatic rearrangement of TCR genes guarantees virtually infinite variability in the specificity of TCRs expressed on naïve T cells, i.e. costimulated via CD27/CD70 interaction, but relies on the body's rapid innate defense mechanisms where receptors with consistent PRR recognise PAMP transmitting valuable signals to the adaptive immune system, i.e. via TLR, activated by ssRNA. Thus it is not astonishing that TLR are accounted as the interface between innate and adaptive immunity (242). It actually becomes clear that the innate arm of immunity links with its adaptive counterpart in tumor immune surveillance also via NK cells, i.e. with NKG2D as a receptor of an activatory pathway. Proteomic analysis of unactivated and activated human NK cell membrane-enriched fractions demonstrated that activated NK cells can efficiently stimulate T cells, since NK cells upregulate MHC class II molecules and multiple ligands for TCR costimulatory molecules (243). Combining these findings with our improved understanding of cancer biology has helped to understand how to configure immunological strategies against the "hallmarks of cancer" (244). Encounter the escape of immune surveillance and the immunosuppressive properties of glioma cells (chapter 1)...

‣ Differential effect of hyperglycaemia on the immune response in an experimental model of diabetes in BALB/cByJ and C57Bl/6J mice: participation of oxidative stress

Rubinstein, M. R.; Genaro, Ana Maria; Wald, Miriam Ruth
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of death from infectious disease. Hyperglycaemia has been identified as the main factor contributing to the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, experimental evidence indicates individual susceptibility to develop complications of diabetes. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the immune response in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in two mouse strains: BALB/cByJ and C57Bl/6J. The participation of hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress was also analysed. Diabetic BALB/cByJ mice showed a decrease in both the in-vivo and in-vitro immune responses, whereas diabetic C57Bl/6J mice had higher blood glucose but exhibited no impairment of the immune response. The influence of hyperglycaemia over the immune response was evaluated by preincubation of lymphocytes from normal mice in a high glucose-containing medium. T and B cells from BALB/cByJ mice showed a decrease in cell viability and mitogen-stimulated proliferation and an increase in apoptosis induction. An increase in oxidative stress was implicated in this deleterious effect. These parameters were not affected in the T and B lymphocytes from C57Bl/6J mice. In conclusion, BALB/cByJ mice were sensitive to the deleterious effect of hyperglycaemia...

‣ Influencia del condicionamiento genético y del estrés en la desregulación de la respuesta inmune en el estado diabético. Participación del estrés oxidativo; Genetic background and stress influence in the diabetic dysregulation of the immune response. Involvement of oxidative stress

Rubinstein Guichon, Mara Roxana
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Aunque está clínicamente aceptado que la diabetes predispone a sufrir infecciones severas y los estudios sugieren una asociación entre esta patología y las infecciones, no se conocen los mecanismos que median entre la diabetes y la inmunosupresión. A su vez, el estrés tiene un significativo reconocimiento en el desarrollo y la evolución de la diabetes. Es así que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la respuesta inmune en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1, ampliando el conocimiento acerca de los factores genéticos y no genéticos que participan en la evolución del estado diabético y en la alteración de la respuesta inmune. Para esto, se utilizó un modelo experimental murino de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 en dos cepas de ratones: BALB/cByJ y C57Bl/6J y se analizó la respuesta inmune encontrándose que, en los ratones diabéticos de la cepa BALB/cByJ, la repuesta inmune determinada in vivo e in vitro se encontraba afectada, mientras que en los ratones de la cepa C57Bl/6J no lo estaba. A continuación se investigó el efecto del estrés sobre la respuesta inmune en la diabetes. Para esto se utilizó el modelo de estrés crónico moderado (CMS) aplicado luego de la instauración de la diabetes. Los resultados mostraron que en los ratones diabéticos de la cepa BALB/cByJ el CMS provocó alteraciones más tempranas sobre la proliferación linfocitaria probablemente mediadas por el aumento en la glucemia. En estos ratones se observó una correlación positiva entre la glucemia y catecolaminas. En cuanto al efecto sobre la cepa C57Bl/6J...

‣ High levels of variability in immune response using antigens from two reproductive proteins in brushtail possums

Deakin, Janine; Belov, Katherine; Curach, Natalie C; Green, Peter; Cooper, Desmond W
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Immune-based fertility control is being considered as an effective long-term approach for controlling the pest brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) population in New Zealand. This relies heavily on the immune response of each immunised possum. A strong and lasting immune response in the majority of individuals in a population is essential. In this study, possums and the model macropod species, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) were immunised with either a luteinising hormone or androgen receptor synthetic peptide coupled to the carrier molecule KLH (keyhole limpet haemocyanin). The antibody response of wallabies to the antigens was relatively uniform. In contrast, the possum immunoglobulin response to both synthetic peptides and KLH was variable. The apparent high level of variation in the immune response of possums raises questions about the feasibility of using these two antigens to control possum numbers in New Zealand.