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‣ Trajetórias intelectuais: professoras do Curso de Ciências Sociais da FFCL-USP (1934-1969); Trajectories intellectuals: teachers of the Course of Social Sciences FFCL-USP (1934-1969)

Spirandelli, Claudinei Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2009 Português
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O presente trabalho, cujo objetivo principal é interpretar sociologicamente a atuação de produtores da chamada ciência social uspiana, investiga aspectos da trajetória intelectual de algumas professoras do Curso de Ciências Sociais da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, da Universidade de São Paulo, examinando disputas simbólicas típicas de grupos intelectuais e voltadas para a conquista da afirmação acadêmica nas Cátedras do Curso. Tais disputas seriam inerentes à busca de afirmação, poder e legitimação, por parte dos cientistas sociais em geral, e corresponderiam a clivagens que são analisadas a partir das origens sociais dessas professoras e das relações de sociabilidade em que elas se enredavam. O autor mostra que tais origens e relações teriam interferido na carreira delas (posições, cargos, títulos conquistados e obras produzidas). Ele usa como referenciais teóricos, principalmente, obras de Pierre Bourdieu e de Norbert Elias, e se vale de textos biográficos, autobiográficos, depoimentos, entrevistas, memoriais e cartas. O trabalho se insere no âmbito dos estudos da sociologia da cultura, mais especificamente na chamada história intelectual ou sociologia da vida intelectual.; This paper...

‣ A História em migalhas e a História do estruturalismo: uma análise comparada dos elementos epistemológicos e historiográficos na história intelectual de François Dosse; A História em migalhas and História do Estruturalismo: a comparative analysis of the historiographical and epistemological elements in the intellectual history of François Dosse

Zappia, Rafael Balan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2010 Português
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A dissertação tem como proposta analisar as obras A História em Migalhas e A História do Estruturalismo de François Dosse, identificando as suas principais diferenças como resultado de duas acepções epistemológicas e historiográficas. No entendimento destas obras, são levantadas questões relativas à comensurabilidade, considerada aqui como o elemento responsável por grande parte das elaborações teóricas, descritivas e conclusivas de Dosse, e ao ritmo da análise empregado pelo autor. Associadas a essas categorias, colocam-se também em evidência a variação entre as perspectivas de análise sincrônica e diacrônica. O objetivo final desse trabalho é mostrar que a principal diferença capaz de revelar o amadurecimento intelectual de Dosse durante o período que separa a escrita de ambas é a habilidade particular em lidar com a complexidade das diferentes variáveis que compõem os contextos intelectuais trabalhados pelo autor.; The aim of this study is to analyze the works A História em Migalhas and A História do Estruturalismo of Francois Dosse, identifying their main differences as a result of two epistemologic and historiographical asseptions. In their understanding, questions are raised concerning the commensurability...

‣ A astronomia das constelações humanas. Reflexões sobre o pensamento de Claude Lévi-Strauss e a História; The astronomy of human constellations. Reflections on Claude Lévi-Strauss thought and History

Iegelski, Francine
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2012 Português
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A importância da obra de Claude Lévi-Strauss renasce nas ciências humanas meio século após seu apogeu inicial, a época de ouro do estruturalismo dos anos 1960. O estruturalismo foi um capítulo importante da história intelectual francesa do século XX, com grandes repercussões na Europa e nos Estados Unidos, mas também no Brasil. Na França, trabalhos recentes de comentadores de diversas áreas fazem um balanço e uma retomada crítica dos temas e problemas estudados pela antropologia estrutural. Na historiografia francesa contemporânea, o pensamento de Lévi-Strauss serve como referência para a formulação de noções teóricas aplicadas aos estudos históricos a exemplo da noção de regimes de historicidade, concebida por François Hartog. Nosso trabalho se inscreve nesse novo momento da história da recepção das ideias da antropologia estrutural, em que os trabalhos de Lévi-Strauss são retomados e repensados à luz de novos problemas. A tese examina o lugar (ou, mais propriamente, os lugares) que ocupa a história no pensamento de Lévi-Strauss. Partindo da ideia de que existe uma relação de complementaridade entre os estudos históricos e etnológicos, Lévi-Strauss visava superar as aporias que sempre dominaram as análises nas ciências humanas e sociais: aquelas existentes entre as noções de estrutura e acontecimento...

‣ The Envelope of Global Trade: The Political Economy and Intellectual History of Jute in the Bengal Delta, 1850s to 1950s

Ali, Tariq Omar
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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During the second half of the nineteenth century, peasant smallholders in the Bengal delta – an alluvial tract formed out of the silt deposits of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna river-systems – expanded their cultivation of jute, a fibrous plant that was the world’s primary packaging material. Jute fibres were spun and woven into course cloths used to pack the world’s commodities – its grains, sugar, coffee, cotton, wool, and so forth – in their journey from farms and plantations to urban and industrial centres of consumption. The fibre connected the Bengal delta and its peasant smallholders to the vicissitudes of global commodity markets. This dissertation examines connections between the delta and international commodity markets from the 1850s to the 1950s – it is a local history of global capital. I explore how the commodity shaped the delta’s economic, political and intellectual history, how economic lives, social and cultural formations, and political processes in eastern Bengal were informed and influenced by the cultivation and trade of jute fibres. First, I look at how commodity production changed peasant households’ economic lives, particularly intensifying peasant interactions with markets. I focus on peasant households’ market-based consumption...

‣ The Books of Numa: Writing, Intellectuals and the Making of Roman Religion

Macrae, Duncan Eoin
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This dissertation provides an intellectual and social history of learned writing on Roman religious culture during the late Republic and early Empire. I examine the ways in which an elite learned literature, for which I propose the name "civil theology", constructed "Roman religion" as a religious system. The first part of the dissertation is an intellectual history of civil theology, especially focused on how these learned texts generated "Roman religion" as an object of knowledge. In order to elucidate how texts can authoritatively construct a religious system, I pursue a comparison between civil theology and the Mishnah, a rabbinic textual compilation. The second part of the dissertation is a social history of civil theology, concentrating on the social contexts of production and reception of the discourse. Firstly, I demonstrate how the discourse was embedded in the social relations of the profoundly competitive late Republican elite. Civil theology was not a socially marginal intellectual activity. Rather, knowledge about Roman religion provided resources for the social self-presentation of the elite. Secondly, I consider how civil theology became implicated in the new imperial socio-political order. Emperors drew on civil-theological knowledge to legitimize "religious reforms" and their personal rule; for the aristocracy...

‣ Modern International Thought: Problems and Prospects

Armitage, David R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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International intellectual history—the intellectual history of the international and an internationalised intellectual history—has recently emerged as one of the most fertile areas of research in the history of ideas. This article responds to eight essays inspired by my own contribution to this field in Foundations of Modern International Thought (2013). It engages with their positive achievements regarding the recovery of other foundations for modern international thought: for example, in theology, historiography and gender history. It addresses some of the methodological problems arising from the search for foundations, notably anachronism, presentism and diffusionism. It expands on others’ arguments about the international thought of Hobbes and Locke and the limits of cosmopolitanism. Finally, it points the way forward for international intellectual history as a collaborative, interdisciplinary, transnational and transtemporal enterprise.; History

‣ Viennese delights : remarks on the history of food and sociability in eighteenth-century Central Europe

DO PAÇO, David
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper aims to connect Franco-Italian and Anglo-American historiographies on the history of food thanks to a focus on sociability in a cross-cultural context. As an original case-study, eighteenthcentury Vienna allows us to develop an ecological approach to food, diet and food supply, contrasting interactions between the social actors and their intellectual, natural, economic, social and cultural environments. The history of food is an intellectual history and a history of science of the German Enlightenment, since studying cookbooks fits in with the history of books and statistics. The history of Viennese food also highlights the vibrant urban economy of supply as a key-element to understand the gentrification of the city and the reconfiguration of its markets as places of sociability. Contrary to both the London and Parisian models, the presence in Vienna of numerous foreigners also contributed to the emergence of taverns and coffeehouses as selective and private social places allowing moral transgression and the strengthening of social bonds within the different groups of newcomers, making up the new social elite of the city. Finally, the Viennese history of food is also a history of power; the circulation of food between social actors provides historians with a better understanding of the nature of social bonding and the different possible ways to strengthen...

‣ On the intellectual history of freedom of contract and regulation

MICKLITZ, Hans-Wolfgang
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Are we, private lawyers and contract lawyers, not convinced that we share a common understanding of freedom of contract, of‚ freedom’, of ‚contract’, and of the restriction of freedom of contract through ‘regulation’? Is this common understanding not the basis on which we all operate – implicitly or explicitly – in our intellectual discourse while cutting across different legal traditions and different legal cultures? I argue that this common understanding is no more than a rather superficial ‘gentleman’s agreement’ which allows us to communicate with each other whilst maintaining our own preconceptions. In fact, there are different models of freedom of contract and regulation in Germany, France, the UK and the European legal order, each deeply ingrained in their respective intellectual history.

‣ Studies in French cultural and intellectual history

Bernard, Lauren S.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 112 p.; application/pdf
Português
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Four topics in the cultural and intellectual history of France are presented. The first is a comparative study examining the relationship between seventeenth-century philosophy and literature. It argues that elements of scientific rationalism found their way into contemporary literature, as evidenced in the work of Moliere. The second essay examines the writings of Hippolyte Taine and of Gustave Le Bon. The paper argues that the synthesis of their ideas and the popularity of their writings helped to transform the nineteenth-century French passion for "scientificity" into an obsession with race. The third study explores early twentieth-century French perceptions of race and demonstrates how media images of colonial peoples profoundly influenced the way in which ordinary French citizens understood race and difference. The fourth and final paper examines the importance of the department store in French women's lives during the interwar period and argues that it served as the crucial link between their public and private spheres.

‣ Fighting a New Deal: Intellectual origins of the Reagan Revolution, 1932--1952

Eow, Gregory Teddy
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 295 pp; application/pdf
Português
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This dissertation locates the origins of the modern conservative movement in the intellectual history of the 1930s and 1940s. I argue that it was during the years of the Great Depression, when laissez-faire capitalism was most discredited, that a group of conservative academics and intellectuals began to lay the foundations for its postwar resurgence. Angered by the New Deal, those intellectual activists honed their free market ideology and began to develop a network through which to distribute it. As a result, they began to lay the intellectual and institutional foundation for the conservative movement. This dissertation recovers a number of narratives that reveal the rudimentary makings of a movement. It was during the 1930s and 1940s that economist Henry Simons worked to turn the University of Chicago's economics department into a bastion of free market sentiment; Leonard Read, after a decade of free market advocacy, created the first libertarian think tank, the Foundation for Economic Education, in 1946; legal scholar Roscoe Pound, worried by the spread of legal realism in the academy and growth of government in Washington, dramatically moved to the political right to make common cause with conservatives; Albert Jay Nock, his protégé Frank Chodorov and Felix Morley created a network of conservative writers and publications that paved the way for William F. Buckley's National Review ; and writers such as Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson made the case for laissez-faire in the pages of popular publications such as the Saturday Evening Post and the New York Herald Tribune . Historians have generally attributed the rise of the modern right to the conservative political mobilization in response to the civil rights movement...

‣ Transformation of the Political Speech under Perestroika: Rise and fall of free agency in the changing idioms, rules and second-order statements of the emerging intellectual debates (1985-1991)

ATNASHEV, Timur
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Defense Date: 15/10/2010; Examining Board: Prof. Edward Arfon Rees (EUI) - Supervisor Prof. Steve Smith (EUI) Prof. Oleg Kharkhordin (European University at St. Petersburg) Prof. Alexei Miller (CEU Budapest); We would like to tell the story of the transformations of the political speech during perestroika by studying the changes in the intellectual vocabulary, professed values and conventional rules of public debates. This transformation is taken in the context of the major political events and socio-economic changes. We mostly considered the theoretical essays of publicists, politicians, thinkers and researchers corresponding to the realm of intellectual history. The study is based on the long series of texts from the corpus of the leading theoretical periodicals and thick journals systematically read through and completed by a number of articles from other journals, round-tables, Politburo notes, and memoir literature forming a large representative sample of the political debates between 1985 and 1991. The sense of this perestroika’s transformation can be described in terms of the rise and fall of human agency as one of the central themes and as the self-representation of the political speech. The emerging political philosophy backing up the reforms was marked by attempts to find an appropriate intellectual language and intellectual foundations for an authoritative...

‣ Ueki Emori and the use of history

Cheong, Loh Kwok
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Masters); Master of Philosophy (MPhil)
Português
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German historian Michael Sturmer ascribes a functional role for historical consciousness: "in a country without history, he who fills the memory, defines the concepts and interprets the past, wins the future."1 Although Sturmer was concerned with the way in which understanding of history shapes contemporary discourse in post World War Two Germany, his statement also aptly described the manner in which history has been used in Japan since the advent of the modem century. With my long-term goal of a study of the "use of history" by intellectuals in Japan and, perhaps later, a comparative study of Japan and Germany, I felt a need to embark on a smaller study to lead the way in. As history is a continuum of accumulated experience, it is necessary that I should look at an earlier attempt at historical construction in Japan. The present study was conceived upon this premise. In this study, I have restricted myself to looking at a "lesser name" in Meiji intellectual history, Ueki Emori (1857-92). Situated in a time marked by the breakdown of the traditional order and influx of new Western ideas, Ueki and his peers were confronted with the task of relating their discredited past to their present and the need to define new paradigms for the future. I shall be investigating the intellectual formation of Ueki and how it was shaped by his social upbringing...

‣ Entre a arte, a historia e a politica : itinerarios e representações da "Ficção Brasiliana" e da Nação Brasileira em Adonias Filho (1937-1976); Brazilian Literacy representations of the Nation and fiction on the Adonias Filho work (1937-1976)

Robson Norberto Dantas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2010 Português
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Este estudo trata do percurso intelectual e político do escritor Adonias Aguiar Filho, autor de obras importantes como Os Servos da Morte, Memórias de Lázaro e Corpo Vivo que tematizam os dramas engendrados pela sociedade do cacau da região de Ilhéus; e de significativa produção de crítica e história literária brasileiras no período entre 1930 e 1980. Dessa forma, construiu uma carreira extensa e movimentada, pois, além dos romances, escreveu em jornais do Rio de Janeiro e de São Paulo, também dirigiu órgãos de destaque ligados à cultura e à sociedade civil, especialmente durante o regime militar instaurado em 1964. Apesar desse percurso, críticos literários e historiadores da literatura e da história da região do cacau predeterminaram àquele autor, lugar e perfil imóveis na história intelectual brasileira - a de escritor "metafísico" e "apolítico" - verdadeiro contraponto ao seu conterrâneo, o "comunista" Jorge Amado. A despeito dessa imagem cristalizada no tempo, procuro demonstrar o quanto Adonias Filho atuou na construção de sua própria figura como escritor, assim como nas ocorrências de sua época e região; ainda, o quanto a sua argumentação foi moldada por elas. O estudo evidencia também como arte...

‣ L’histoire intellectuelle : quelles idées, quel contexte ?

THOMSON, Ann
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cet article discute dans un premier temps l’histoire intellectuelle telle qu’elle se pratique notamment dans le monde anglophone, tout en soulignant les résistances que rencontre en France cette branche des études historiques. On y examine les travaux ce qu’on appelle « l’école de Cambridge » (notamment Q. Skinner, J.G.A. Pocock, D. Forbes), mais également ceux d’une gamme plus large d’historiens, y compris ceux associés à l’Université de Sussex (notamment J. Burrow, D. Winch et S. Collini). Les différentes façons de théoriser ou de présenter cette approche sont comparées, ainsi que le rapport entre l’histoire intellectuelle et l’histoire des idées. On aborde également la question des liens et interactions entre l’histoire intellectuelle et d’autres domaines de la recherche historique : l’histoire de la pensée politique (à laquelle elle est souvent identifiée), l’histoire culturelle, l’histoire du livre, l’histoire des sciences... Après avoir évoqué la récente polémique autour des écrits de Jonathan Israel et notamment sa défense d’une certaine « histoire intellectuelle », critiquée par de nombreux historiens intellectuels comme un retour à l’étude anhistorique des idées...

‣ What's the Big Idea? Intellectual History and the Longue Durée

Armitage, David R.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Historians of all kinds are beginning to return to temporally expansive studies after decades of aversion and neglect. There are even signs that intellectual historians are returning to the longue durée. What are the reasons for this revival of long-range intellectual history? And how might it be rendered methodologically robust as well as historically compelling? This article proposes a model of transtemporal history, proceeding via serial contextualism to create a history in ideas spanning centuries, even millennia: key examples come from work in progress on ideas of civil war from ancient Rome to the present. The article concludes with brief reflections on the potential impact of the digital humanities on the practice of intellectual history.; History

‣ El projecte Philosophy and Catalan Intellectual History

Casanovas, Pompeu; Montserrat Molas, Josep
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
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En aquest article es pretén exposar el Projecte «Philosophy and Intellectual History in Catalonia (1860-1975)», que conduirà a la redacció i publicació de tres volums en anglès. Aquest és un Projecte col•lectiu coordinat en el si de la Societat Catalana de Filosofia, filial de l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans. No és l’únic en aquest camp: el projecte que Josep Maria Terricabras desenvolupa en el si de l’IEC implica treballs tan importants com el buidatge de l’arxiu de la Universitat de Cervera i la catalogació de l’obra de Jaume Serra Húnter. El projecte que exposem s’ha preparat conjuntament amb l’organització i reconeixement d’una Xarxa Temàtica dedicada a la matèria i a l’organització de tres cicles de conferències, una Jornada Científica i la publicació de tres volums en català amb els materials recollits1. L’objectiu perseguit és que el debat que es pugui suscitar a partir d’aquest document sigui acollit en una nova Jornada Científica a l’Institut d’Estudis Catalans que ens ajudi a madurar les decisions que cal prendre sobre la periodització, els autors i les classificacions necessàries per a poder ordenar i estudiar aquest període.

‣ A virada internacional na História Intelectual; The international turn in Intellectual History

Armitage, David
Fonte: Intelligere: Revista de História Intelectual Publicador: Intelligere: Revista de História Intelectual
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2015 Português
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Historiadores de todos os campos recentemente têm se movimentado na direção de estudos que são descritos variadamente como internacional, transnacional, comparativo e global. Seus esforços não têm sido idênticos em alcance, em matéria ou em motivação, e nem existe algum consenso sobre como as abordagens não nacionais da história deveriam ser diferenciadas entre si. A semelhança familiar que liga essas abordagens é o desejo de ir acima ou além das histórias dos Estados definidos pelas nações e das nações delimitadas por Estados. Tomados em conjunto, esses projetos abrangem a “international turn” na escrita da história. Nesse caso, a melhor maneira de proceder é retornar às raízes da história intelectual, no período anterior ao que a historiografia fora adotada como a serva dos Estados nacionais.; Historians in all fields have more recently been moving towards studies they describe variously as international, transnational, comparative, and global. Their efforts have not been identical in scope, in subject matter, or in motivation, nor is there any consensus on how these non-national approaches to history should be distinguished from each other. The family resemblance that links these approaches is the desire to go above or beyond the histories of states defined by nations and of nations bounded by states. Taken together...

‣ Max Weber and the cultural history of modernity; Max Weber e a história cultural da modernidade

Hübinger, Gangolf
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I); Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II); the cardinal question of cultural history in general: how ideas take effect in historical constellations and conflicts, and how the peculiarity of European cultural development is to be described in its universal-historical significance (III); the relevance of the First World War for Weber's problems and perspectives: his concentration on a historical-political theory of power and domination and of the genesis and structure of the modern state and democracy (IV).; Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói...

‣ Idéias para um programa de História intelectual; Ideas for a program of intellectual History

Altamirano, Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2007 Português
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The text introduces and explains the proposal for a research program within the field known as intellectual history. The central concern is Latin American intellectual history, more typically reduced to a history of ideas. The program outlined in the article formulates an alternative approach, based on tools created by the sociology of intellectuals, political history and literary criticism in its analysis of literary works and discursive practices.; Este texto define uma perspectiva e a indicação de um programa de trabalho dentro do campo conhecido como História intelectual. A preocupação central é a História intelectual latino-americana, habitualmente reduzida a uma História das idéias. O programa que se esboça formula uma alternativa que deveria apoiar-se nas ferramentas forjadas pela sociologia dos intelectuais, pela História política e pelos meios produzidos pela crítica literária para introduzir-se nas obras e nas práticas discursivas.

‣ Intellectual history in Brazil: rhetoric as a key to reading

Carvalho,José Murilo de
Fonte: Topoi: Revista de História Publicador: Topoi: Revista de História
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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The paper suggests the use of concepts and practices related to rhetoric as analytical instruments of use in the study of the intellectual history of Brazil. Intellectual history is taken here in its strict sense of history of discursive forms of thought. The paper starts with a brief evaluation of the state of the art of intellectual history in Brazil and continues with a discussion of the rhetorical tradition the country inherited from Portugal. Finally, ways of using this tradition to interpret Brazilian texts, especially those from the XIX century are suggested.