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‣ Carcinogênese pulmonar em camundongos portadores de deleção em um dos alelos do gene da Cx43 ; Lung carcinogenesis in mice with a deletion in one allele of Cx43 gene

Avanzo, José Luís
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2005 Português
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As junções comunicantes são canais protéicos formados entre células adjacentes que permitem a passagem de moléculas e íons menores do que 1kDa; conexinas são proteínas que formam estas junções. Vêm sendo demonstradas na literatura a diminuição da capacidade de comunicação celular e alterações na expressão e/ou localização das conexinas em neoplasias. Este estudo foi realizado com o intuito de se verificar a influência da deleção de um dos alelos da Cx43 na carcinogênese pulmonar. Para tanto, camundongos geneticamente manipulados heterozigotos (Cx43± ou selvagens (Cx43±) de ambos os sexos receberam 3g/kg de uretana aos 15 e 17 dias de idade, e foram sacrificados após 25 semanas. As quantificações macro e microscópicas das lesões revelaram que os camundongos Cx43± apresentaram maior multiplicidade de adenomas pulmonares. Estes apresentavam também maior taxa de proliferação celular, avaliada pela quantificação de núcleos positivos para o PCNA. As expressões das Cxs 26, 32, 43 e 46, presentes no epitélio pulmonar, foram avaliadas por PCR em tempo real (RT-PCR) e por imunoistoquímica. A expressão da Cx43 revelou-se cerca de 50% menor em camundongos Cx43± quando comparada à dos correspondentes Cx43+/+...

‣ Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

Fukumasu,H.; Cordeiro,Y.G.; Rochetti,A.L.; Barra,C.N.; Sámora,T.S.; Strefezzi,R.F.; Dagli,M.L.Z.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
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Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3−. Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3+ tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice.

‣ Epithelial NF-κB activation promotes urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

Stathopoulos, Georgios T.; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Scoggins, Robert M.; Han, Wei; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Connelly, Linda; Yull, Fiona E.; Fingleton, Barbara; Blackwell, Timothy S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Chronic inflammation is linked to carcinogenesis in several organ systems. In the lungs, NF-κB, a central effector of inflammatory responses, is frequently activated in non-small-cell lung cancer, but its role in tumor promotion has not been studied. Several lines of evidence indicate that ethyl carbamate (urethane)-induced lung tumor formation, a prototypical mouse model of multistage lung carcinogenesis, is potentiated by inflammation. We found that mouse strains susceptible to lung tumor formation (FVB, BALB/c) exhibited early NF-κB activation and inflammation in the lungs after urethane treatment. However, a resistant strain (C57B6) failed to activate NF-κB or induce lung inflammation. In FVB mice, we identified urethane-induced NF-κB activation in airway epithelium, as well as type II alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. Using an inducible transgenic mouse model (FVB strain) to express a dominant inhibitor of NF-κB specifically in airway epithelial cells, we found that urethane-induced lung inflammation was blocked and tumor formation was reduced by >50%. Selective NF-κB inhibition resulted in increased apoptosis of airway epithelial cells at 2 weeks after urethane treatment in association with a marked reduction of Bcl-2 expression. These studies indicate that NF-κB signaling in airway epithelium is integral to tumorigenesis in the urethane model and identify the NF-κB pathway as a potential target for chemoprevention of lung cancer.

‣ Inflammation in Lung Carcinogenesis: New Targets for Lung Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment

Lee, Jay M.; Yanagawa, Jane; Peebles, Katherine A.; Sharma, Sherven; Mao, Jenny T.; Dubinett, Steven M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process involving the acquisition of genetic mutations that confer cancer development and the malignant phenotype, and is critically linked to apoptosis resistance, unregulated proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Epithelial mesenchymal transition in cancer is an unregulated process in a host environment with deregulated inflammatory response that impairs cell-mediated immunity and permits cancer progression. Given the immunosuppressive tumor environment, strategies to reverse these events by stimulating host immune responses are an important area of investigation. COX-2 and its downstream signaling pathways are potential targets for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate COX-2 inhibitors as adjuvants to chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer and to determine efficacy in prevention of bronchogenic carcinoma. The understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in inflammation and lung carcinogenesis provide insight for new drug development that target reversible, non-mutational events in the chemoprevention and treatment of lung cancer.

‣ In Vivo Potential Effects of Adenovirus Type 5 E1A and E1B on Lung Carcinogenesis and Lymphoproliferative Inflammation▿

Yang, Yongping; McKerlie, Colin; Lu, Zhan; Wang, Lena; Buchwald, Manuel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Triggering uncontrolled cellular proliferation, chronic inflammation, and/or disruption of p53 activity is critical for tumorigenesis initiated by latent viral oncogenes. The adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) early genes E1A and E1B can maintain lifelong latency in the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. To determine the in vivo effects of the latent Ad5 E1A and E1B oncogenes, we have examined the influence of Ad5 E1A and E1B gene products on mouse lung carcinogenesis and inflammation by generation and characterization of lung-specific transgenic mouse models. Here, we show that either the Ad5 E1A 243-amino-acid (aa) protein or the E1B 58-kDa protein was dominantly expressed in the transgenic lung. Preferential expression of Ad5 E1A 243-aa protein alone was not sufficient to induce lung carcinogenesis but resulted in low-grade cellular proliferation and high-grade lymphoproliferative inflammation in the lung. The presence of Ad5 E1B dramatically enhanced the expression of the E1A 243-aa protein, in addition to impairing p53 and apoptosis response, resulting in uncontrolled cellular proliferation, lymphoproliferative inflammation, and metastatic carcinomas in the lung after a period of latency. Our studies may provide clues to understanding the potential in vivo biological effects of Ad5 E1A and E1B latent in the lung and a new scope for assessing in vivo functions of viral genes latent in the infection target tissue.

‣ Promotion of Lung Carcinogenesis by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease–Like Airway Inflammation in a K-ras–Induced Mouse Model

Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Li, Huaiguang; Cho, Sung-Nam; Dishop, Megan K.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ji, Lin; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Dickey, Burton F.; DeMayo, Francesco J.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. In addition to genetic abnormalities induced by cigarette smoke, several epidemiologic studies have found that smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an inflammatory disease of the lungs, have an increased risk of lung cancer (1.3- to 4.9-fold) compared to smokers without COPD. This suggests a link between chronic airway inflammation and lung carcinogenesis, independent of tobacco smoke exposure. We studied this association by assaying the inflammatory impact of products of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, which colonizes the airways of patients with COPD, on lung cancer promotion in mice with an activated K-ras mutation in their airway epithelium. Two new mouse models of lung cancer were generated by crossing mice harboring the LSL–K-rasG12D allele with mice containing Cre recombinase inserted into the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) locus, with or without the neomycin cassette excised (CCSPCre and CCSPCre-Neo, respectively). Lung lesions in CCSPCre-Neo/LSL–K-rasG12D and CCSPCre/LSL–K-rasG12D mice appeared at 4 and 1 month of age, respectively, and were classified as epithelial hyperplasia of the bronchioles, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Weekly exposure of CCSPCre/LSL–K-rasG12D mice to aerosolized nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae lysate from age 6–14 weeks resulted in neutrophil/macrophage/CD8 T-cell–associated COPD-like airway inflammation...

‣ Fish oil supplementation inhibits NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse

Mernitz, Heather; Lian, Fuzhi; Smith, Donald E.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Wang, Xiang-Dong
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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High intake of fish oil with a low omega-6 (n-6)/omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been suggested to protect against many chronic diseases. However, the effect of different ratios of dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFA on lung tumorigenesis has not been investigated. In this study, we examined the effect of a 4 month dietary supplementation with corn oil (with a high n-6/n-3 ratio) and fish oil (with a low n-6/n-3 ratio) as compared with soybean oil (isocaloric control with the same n-6/n-3 ratio as the base diet) on tumor incidence and tumor prevalence in the A/J mouse model of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung carcinogenesis. We found that dietary supplementation had no effect on overall lung tumor incidence but fish oil supplementation was able to decrease lung tumor prevalence by 78% and 80%, compared to groups receiving soybean oil and corn oil supplementation, respectively. The inhibitory effect of fish oil on lung tumor prevalence was associated with increased expressions of cell cycle inhibitor p21Cip1 and lipoxygenase isoforms 15-LOX in the lungs. These data suggest that fish oil with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA could be beneficial in the prevention of lung carcinogenesis.

‣ NF-kappaB, a mediator for lung carcinogenesis and a target for lung cancer prevention and therapy

Chen, Wenshu; Li, Zi; Bai, Lang; Lin, Yong
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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Lung cancer ranks as the first malignant tumor killer worldwide. Despite the knowledge that carcinogens from tobacco smoke and the environment constitute the main causes of lung cancer, the mechanisms for lung carcinogenesis are still elusive. Cancer development and progression depend on the balance between cell survival and death signals. Common cell survival signaling pathways are activated by carcinogens as well as by inflammatory cytokines, which contribute substantially to cancer development. As a major cell survival signal, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in multiple steps in carcinogenesis and in cancer cell’s resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent studies with animal models and cell culture systems have established the links between NF-kappaB and lung carcinogenesis, highlighting the significance of targeting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway for lung cancer treatment and chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize progresses in understanding the NF-kappaB pathway in lung cancer development as well as in modulating NF-kappaB for lung cancer prevention and therapy.

‣ Opposing effects of bortezomib-induced nuclear factor-κB inhibition on chemical lung carcinogenesis

Karabela, Sophia P.; Psallidas, Ioannis; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Kairi, Chrysoula A.; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Vassiliou, Spyridoula; McMahon, Frank; Gleaves, Linda A.; Han, Wei; Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, Spyros G.; Yull, Fiona E.;
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Since recent evidence indicates a requirement for epithelial nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling in lung tumorigenesis, we investigated the impact of the NF-κB inhibitor bortezomib on lung tumor promotion and growth. We used an experimental model in which wild-type mice or mice expressing an NF-κB reporter received intraperitoneal urethane (1 g/kg) followed by twice weekly bortezomib (1 mg/kg) during distinct periods of tumor initiation/progression. Mice were serially assessed for lung NF-κB activation, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Short-term proteasome inhibition with bortezomib did not impact tumor formation but retarded the growth of established lung tumors in mice via effects on cell proliferation. In contrast, long-term treatment with bortezomib resulted in significantly increased lung tumor number and size. This tumor-promoting effect of prolonged bortezomib treatment was associated with perpetuation of urethane-induced inflammation and chronic upregulation of interleukin-1β and proinflammatory C-X-C motif chemokine ligands (CXCL) 1 and 2 in the lungs. In addition to airway epithelium, bortezomib inhibited NF-κB in pulmonary macrophages in vivo, presenting a possible mechanism of tumor amplification. In this regard, RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to bortezomib showed increased expression of interleukin-1β...

‣ Evolving Concepts in Lung Carcinogenesis

Gomperts, Brigitte N.; Spira, Avrum; Massion, Pierre P.; Walser, Tonya C.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Dubinett, Steven M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lung carcinogenesis is a complex, stepwise process that involves the acquisition of genetic mutations and epigenetic changes that alter cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we review some of the latest concepts in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and highlight the roles of inflammation, the “field of cancerization,” and lung cancer stem cells in the initiation of the disease. Furthermore, we review how high throughput genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and proteomics are advancing the study of lung carcinogenesis. Finally, we reflect on the potential of current in vitro and in vivo models of lung carcinogenesis to advance the field and on the areas of investigation where major breakthroughs will lead to the identification of novel chemoprevention strategies and therapies for lung cancer.

‣ The significance of epigenetic alterations in lung carcinogenesis

Brzeziańska, Ewa; Dutkowska, Agata; Antczak, Adam
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lung cancer is recognized as a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and its frequency is still increasing. The prognosis in lung cancer is poor and limited by the difficulties of diagnosis at early stage of disease, when it is amenable to surgery treatment. Therefore, the advance in identification of lung cancer genetic and epigenetic markers with diagnostic and/or prognostic values becomes an important tool for future molecular oncology and personalized therapy. As in case of other tumors, aberrant epigenetic landscape has been documented also in lung cancer, both at early and late stage of carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation of specific genes, mainly tumor suppressor genes, as well as hypomethylation of oncogenes and retrotransposons, associated with histopathological subtypes of lung cancer, has been found. Epigenetic aberrations of histone proteins and, especially, the lower global levels of histone modifications have been associated with poorer clinical outcome in lung cancer. The recently discovered role of epigenetic modifications of microRNA expression in tumors has been also proven in lung carcinogenesis. The identified epigenetic events in lung cancer contribute to its specific epigenotype and correlated phenotypic features. So far...

‣ Achaete-Scute Complex Homolog-1 Promotes DNA Repair in the Lung Carcinogenesis through Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 and O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase

Wang, Xiao-Yang; Jensen-Taubman, Sandra M.; Keefe, Kathleen M.; Yang, Danlei; Linnoila, R. Ilona
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/12/2012 Português
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Achaete-scute complex homolog-1 (Ascl1) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family that has multiple functions in the normal and neoplastic lung such as the regulation of neuroendocrine differentiation, prevention of apoptosis and promotion of tumor–initiating cells. We now show that Ascl1 directly regulates matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in human bronchial epithelial and lung carcinoma cell lines revealed that Ascl1, MMP-7 and MGMT are able to protect cells from the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK-induced DNA damage and the alkylating agent cisplatin-induced apoptosis. We also examined the role of Ascl1 in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in vivo. Using transgenic mice which constitutively expressed human Ascl1 in airway lining cells, we found that there was a delay in lung tumorigenesis. We conclude that Ascl1 potentially enhances DNA repair through activation of MMP-7 and MGMT which may impact lung carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. The study has uncovered a novel and unexpected function of Ascl1 which will contribute to better understanding of lung carcinogenesis and the broad implications of transcription factors in tobacco-related carcinogenesis.

‣ Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

Whang, Young Mi; Jo, Ukhyun; Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/2013 Português
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Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion...

‣ TPL2 kinase is a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis

Gkirtzimanaki, Katerina; Gkouskou, Kalliopi K.; Oleksiewicz, Urszula; Nikolaidis, Georgios; Vyrla, Dimitra; Liontos, Michalis; Pelekanou, Vassiliki; Kanellis, Dimitris C.; Evangelou, Kostantinos; Stathopoulos, Efstathios N.; Field, John K.; Tsichlis, Phil
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease at both clinical and molecular levels, posing conceptual and practical bottlenecks in defining key pathways affecting its initiation and progression. Molecules with a central role in lung carcinogenesis are likely to be targeted by multiple deregulated pathways and may have prognostic, predictive, and/or therapeutic value. Here, we report that Tumor Progression Locus 2 (TPL2), a kinase implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, fulfils a role as a suppressor of lung carcinogenesis and is subject to diverse genetic and epigenetic aberrations in lung cancer patients. We show that allelic imbalance at the TPL2 locus, up-regulation of microRNA-370, which targets TPL2 transcripts, and activated RAS (rat sarcoma) signaling may result in down-regulation of TPL2 expression. Low TPL2 levels correlate with reduced lung cancer patient survival and accelerated onset and multiplicity of urethane-induced lung tumors in mice. Mechanistically, TPL2 was found to antagonize oncogene-induced cell transformation and survival through a pathway involving p53 downstream of cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and be required for optimal p53 response to genotoxic stress. These results identify multiple oncogenic pathways leading to TPL2 deregulation and highlight its major tumor-suppressing function in the lung.

‣ Gender-dependent effects of gonadectomy on lung carcinogenesis by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in female and male A/J mice

NINOMIYA, FUMIKO; YOKOHIRA, MASANAO; KISHI, SOSUKE; NAKANO, YUKO; YAMAKAWA, KEIKO; INOUE, TATSUSHI; KUNO, TOSHIYA; IMAIDA, KATSUMI
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of gonadectomy on lung carcinogenesis in female and male mice, and to determine an association between sex hormone and lung carcinogenesis. Female and male A/J mice were divided into gonadectomized and unoperated control groups and all animals were treated intraperitoneally with 1 or 2 injections of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) at the dose of 2 mg/mouse. The mice were sacrificed 18 or 56 weeks after surgery. Serum levels of estradiol in females and testosterone in males were confirmed to be decreased by gonadectomy. Lung white nodules were detected in all mice of all groups. In the control groups of 18- and 56-week studies, the multiplicities of lung nodules in females were significantly greater than in males. In males in the 56-week study, the multiplicity of macroscopical lung nodules, bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas and tumors (adenomas and adenocarcinomas) showed significant increase with castration. In females in the 18-week study, the multiplicity of adenomas decreased significantly by ovariectomy. Based on the results of the present study, female A/J mice were confirmed to be more susceptible to NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis than males. Furthermore...

‣ Expression of HDAC9 in lung cancer – potential role in lung carcinogenesis

Okudela, Koji; Mitsui, Hideaki; Suzuki, Takehisa; Woo, Tetsukan; Tateishi, Yoko; Umeda, Shigeaki; Saito, Yuichi; Tajiri, Michihiko; Masuda, Munetaka; Ohashi, Kenichi
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2013 Português
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Our previous studies identified important molecules involved in lung carcinogenesis through a comprehensive search for the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, and these findings suggested that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS might represent a useful strategy for elucidating the common molecular bases of lung cancer. Among the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS, a focus was placed on HDAC9, a member of the histone deacetylase family, in the present study because epigenetic modification of DNA or the histone proteins is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The immunohistochemical expression of HDAC9 was examined in surgically resected primary lung cancers (130 adenocarcinoma, 49 squamous cell carcinomas, one large cell carcinoma, and 6 small cell carcinomas) and potential associations between its expression level and pathologic factors were analyzed. The results showed that HDAC9 expression levels were lower in lung cancer cells than in non-tumor epithelial cells, and were also significantly lower in adenocarcinomas among the histological types. Moreover, HDAC9 expression levels were significantly lower in adenocarcinomas with lymphatic canal involvement. The restoration of HDAC9 in lung cancer cells losing its expression severely attenuated their growth activity in vitro. These results suggest that HDAC9 may be a suppressor and its downregulation might promote the progression process...

‣ Nanosized zinc oxide particles do not promote DHPN-induced lung carcinogenesis but cause reversible epithelial hyperplasia of terminal bronchioles

Xu, Jiegou; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Alexander, David B.; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Numano, Takamasa; Suzui, Masumi; Shimizu, Hideo; Omori, Toyonori; Kanno, Jun; Hirose, Akihiko; Tsuda, Hiroyuki
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Zinc oxide (ZnO) is known to induce lung toxicity, including terminal bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, which gives rise to concerns that nanosized ZnO (nZnO) might lead to lung carcinogenesis. We studied the tumor promoting activity of nZnO by an initiation–promotion protocol using human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats (Hras128 rats). The rats were given 0.2 % N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (DHPN) in the drinking water for 2 weeks and then treated with 0.5 ml of 250 or 500 μg/ml nZnO suspension by intra-pulmonary spraying once every 2 weeks for a total of 7 times. Treatment with nZnO particles did not promote DHPN-induced lung carcinogenesis. However, nZnO dose-dependently caused epithelial hyperplasia of terminal bronchioles (EHTB) and fibrosis-associated interstitial pneumonitis (FAIP) that were independent of DHPN treatment. Tracing the fate of EHTB lesions in wild-type rats indicated that the hyperplastic lesions almost completely disappeared within 12 weeks after the last nZnO treatment. Since nZnO particles were not found in the lung and ZnCl2 solution induced similar lung lesions and gene expression profiles, the observed lesions were most likely caused by dissolved Zn2+. In summary, nZnO did not promote carcinogenesis in the lung and induced EHTB and FAIP lesions that regressed rapidly...

‣ Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

Colombo,N.B.R.; Rangel,M.P.; Martins,V.; Hage,M.; Gelain,D.P.; Barbeiro,D.F.; Grisolia,C.K.; Parra,E.R.; Capelozzi,V.L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 Português
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The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

‣ The Combination of Three Natural Compounds Effectively Prevented Lung Carcinogenesis by Optimal Wound Healing

Liu, Linxin; Li, Hong; Guo, Zhenzhen; Ma, Xiaofang; Cao, Ning; Zheng, Yaqiu; Geng, Shengnan; Duan, Yongjian; Han, Guang; Du, Gangjun
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/11/2015 Português
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The tumor stroma has been described as “normal wound healing gone awry”. We explored whether the restoration of a wound healing-like microenvironment may facilitate tumor healing. Firstly, we screened three natural compounds (shikonin, notoginsenoside R1 and aconitine) from wound healing agents and evaluated the efficacies of wound healing microenvironment for limiting single agent-elicited carcinogenesis and two-stage carcinogenesis. The results showed that three compounds used alone could promote wound healing but had unfavorable efficacy to exert wound healing, and that the combination of three compounds made up treatment disadvantage of a single compound in wound healing and led to optimal wound healing. Although individual treatment with these agents may prevent cancer, they were not effective for the treatment of established tumors. However, combination treatment with these three compounds almost completely prevented urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis and reduced tumor burden. Different from previous studies, we found that urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis was associated with lung injury independent of pulmonary inflammation. LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation did not increase lung carcinogenesis, whereas decreased pulmonary inflammation by macrophage depletion promoted lung carcinogenesis. In addition...

‣ Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts

Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that smoking-related promotion is the dominant model mechanism associated with lung cancer mortality in all cohorts. Smoking-related initiation is less important than promotion but interacts synergistically with it. Although no information on ex-smokers is available in these data, the model with estimated variables can be used to project risks among ex-smokers. These projected risks are in good agreement with the risk among ex-smokers derived from other studies. We present 10-year projected risks for current and former smokers adjusted for competing causes of mortality. The importance of smoking duration on lung cancer risk in these cohorts is a direct consequence of promotion. Intervention and treatment strategies should focus on promotion as the primary etiologic mechanism in lung carcinogenesis.