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‣ Avaliação da função pulmonar e da qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar por neoplasia; Assessment of lung function and quality of life in patients submitted to lung resection for cancer

Lima, Luciana Nunes Titton
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2008 Português
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Introdução: A ressecção pulmonar pode ser seguramente realizada em pacientes com função pulmonar comprometida se eles forem selecionados apropriadamente, sendo importante determinar o impacto do procedimento cirúrgico no estado funcional e nas atividades de vida diária do paciente. Objetivo: Avaliar as repercussões da ressecção pulmonar sobre a espirometria e sobre a qualidade de vida de pacientes com câncer de pulmão. Métodos: Estudo de coorte transversal que incluiu todos pacientes que realizaram cirurgia com ressecção pulmonar entre Setembro de 2006 e março de 2007, após assinar o termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. Os pacientes foram avaliados no pré-operatório e após seis meses do procedimento cirúrgico através de espirometria e responderam a dois questionários de qualidade de vida: um geral -The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey e um específico para sintomas respiratórios - Hospital Saint George. Resultados: Concluíram o estudo 33 pacientes, 14 homens e 19 mulheres com faixa etária entre 39 e 79 anos. Todos os pacientes independentemente de fumantes ou não, apresentaram piora significante da função pulmonar. Na análise de qualidade de vida, observamos valores próximos à população normal...

‣ Inflamação e câncer hepático e pulmonar em camundongos selecionados para máxima ou mínima resposta inflamatória aguda.; Inverse susceptibility to hepatic and lung cancer in mouse lines selected according to the acute inflammatory response.

Carvalho, Lílian Rêgo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2013 Português
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A inflamação é um componente essencial presente no microambiente tumoral, sendo relacionada a muitos tipos de câncer, como o de pulmão e de fígado. O objetivo foi estudar a influência de fatores genéticos relacionados à inflamação no desenvolvimento do câncer através da análise da progressão tumoral em camundongos AIRmax e AIRmin, geneticamente selecionados para máxima ou mínima resposta inflamatória. Os carcinomas foram induzidos pela injeção de Uretana ou DEN. 32 semanas após dose, a maioria dos AIRmax apresentaram tumores hepáticos, enquanto AIRmin foram resistentes. O contrário aconteceu com câncer de pulmão: todos os AIRmin foram acometidos e poucos AIRmax apresentaram pequenas lesões. As proteínas de fase aguda IL-6, TNFa e IL-1b são importantes nesse processo, pois tiveram aumento de produção em órgãos alvo horas após injeção. Esses resultados sugerem que um grupo de loci gênicos controla a resposta inflamatória e a susceptibilidade/resistência a diversos tipos de câncer e ressaltam o papel específico de células locais no controle da imunidade ao tumor.; Inflammatory components are an essential part of the tumor microenvironment being crucial in some types of cancer. Our objective was to study the influence of genetic factors relevant to inflammatory response regulation on cancer development by the comparative analysis of carcinogen-induced liver and lung tumors in AIRmax and AIRmin mouse strains...

‣ Mandible metastasis as the first sign from primary adenocarcinoma of the lung

Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Chaves, Marcelo Donizetti; Haddad, Jorge; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Hochulli-Vieira, Eduardo; Vargas, Pablo Agustin
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 224-227
Português
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Adenocarcinoma of the lung that metastasizes to the mandible is very uncommon; only a few cases have been described in the English-language literature. This article presents a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung affecting the mandible of a 64-year-old woman, in which the first discovered metastatic lesion was detected before the primary tumor. The immunoreactivity for human thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in the oral lesion was essential for determining the site and type of the primary tumor, as the patient showed no clinical or radiographic evidence of a tumor in the thyroid gland. After the primary tumor in the lung was diagnosed, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were initiated; unfortunately, the patient died two months after the start of treatment. This article emphasizes the importance of a well-conducted examination for diagnosing metastatic oral lesions.

‣ Erlotinib in non-small-cell lung cancer patients from Hospital Fernado Fonseca

Fernandes, J; Frade, P; Teixeira, S; Afonso, R
Fonte: European Association of Hospital Pharmacist Publicador: European Association of Hospital Pharmacist
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2013 Português
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INTRODUTION: The oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inibitor (TKI) erlotinib is an established second-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).1 Erlotinib delays disease progression and increases survival after first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC as second-line therapy.2 Maintenance therapy with erlotinib, when compared to placebo, could be associated with a significantly longer progression free survival and tolerability mainly in EGFR activating mutation tumours.3 However second line therapy with erlotinib is not more effective than chemotherapy (pemetrexed or other).4,5 In terms of traditional toxicities associated with chemotherapy, Erlotinib seems to have a better safety profile than chemotherapy, with no haematological toxicities, the most common event was mild to moderate skin rash which is relatively manageable.5 There is a lack of evidence regarding efficacy of Erlotinib used as second line versus third line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To compare Erlotinib effectiveness profile in Hospital Fernando Fonseca NSCLC patients when used as second or third line therapy. METHODS: We have followed up 30 NSCLC patients, who have done Erlotinib before and after other approved chemotherapies...

‣ Polymorphism of the CYP1A1*2A gene and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Brazilian population

Honma,Helen Naemi; De Capitani,Eduardo Mello; Barbeiro,Aristóteles de Souza; Costa,Daniel Botelho; Morcillo,André; Zambon,Lair
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare the frequency of CYP1A1*2A gene polymorphisms in a Brazilian population and determine the possible contribution of these genetic variations to lung cancer risk. METHODS: The study population included 200 patients with lung cancer, and the control group consisted of 264 blood donors. Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood samples. The PCR-RFLP method was used for analysis of the CYP1A1*2A gene. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the lung cancer patients and the controls in terms of the distribution of CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms (p = 0.49). A multivariate logistic regression model analysis by ethnic group revealed that, within the lung cancer group, the CYP1A1*2A genotype CC plus TC was more common among the African-Brazilian patients than among the White patients (adjusted OR = 3.19; 95% CI: 1.53-6.65). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1*2A gene cannot be linked with lung cancer risk in Brazilian patients at this time. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed in order to establish whether the CC plus TC polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in African-Brazilians.

‣ Distribution of the Ca (Oxford) antigen in lung neoplasms and non-neoplastic lung tissues.

Paradinas, F J; Boxer, G; Bagshawe, K D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1984 Português
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The Ca (Oxford) antigen was originally isolated from a malignant neoplasm and with few exceptions was reported to discriminate between malignant and non-malignant neoplasms or normal tissues. Using the Ca 1 antibody we have studied the Ca distribution in 54 lung neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. Staining of tumours was very focal and the proportion of positive cells varied from about 50% for adenocarcinomas to less than 1% for oat cell carcinomas, which were often negative. Focal cytoplasmic staining can be seen in all neoplasms, whereas membrane staining is mainly seen in their areas of glandular and squamous differentiation. We found consistently strong membrane staining of alveolar type II pneumocytes in non-neoplastic lung. This staining may be useful in differentiating type II cells from alveolar macrophages which only occasionally showed granular cytoplasmic staining, probably due to phagocytosed Ca. Mucin from tumours and bronchi did not stain but there was consistent staining of alveolar serous exudate suggesting extracellular location of Ca.

‣ Broad overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase genes in mice specifically induces lung neoplasms

Xu, Xia; Page, Jennifer L.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Liu, Houchun; Lagedrost, Sarah; Lu, Young; Bronson, Roderick; Alani, Eric; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.; Weiss, Robert S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/2008 Português
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Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in nucleotide biosynthesis and plays a central role in genome maintenance. Although a number of regulatory mechanisms govern RNR activity, the physiological impact of RNR deregulation had not previously been examined in an animal model. We demonstrate here that overexpression of the small RNR subunit potently and selectively induces lung neoplasms in transgenic mice and is mutagenic in cultured cells. Combining RNR deregulation with defects in DNA mismatch repair, the cellular mutation correction system, synergistically increased RNR-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Moreover, the proto-oncogene K-ras was identified as a frequent mutational target in RNR-induced lung neoplasms. Together, these results demonstrate that RNR deregulation promotes lung carcinogenesis through a mutagenic mechanism and establish a new oncogenic activity for a key regulator of nucleotide metabolism. Importantly, RNR-induced lung neoplasms histopathologically resemble human papillary adenocarcinomas and arise stochastically via a mutagenic mechanism, making RNR transgenic mice a valuable model for lung cancer.

‣ Genetic Alterations in K-ras and p53 Cancer Genes in Lung Neoplasms From B6C3F1 Mice Exposed to Cumene

Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Ton, Thai-Vu. T.; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P.; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the controls. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87 % cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56 % cumene-induced neoplasms and mutations were detected in 52 % neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutation and one of 7 (14 %) K-ras mutation was detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13 %) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12 %). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene.

‣ Growth Pattern Analysis of Murine Lung Neoplasms by Advanced Semi-Automated Quantification of Micro-CT Images

Li, Minxing; Jirapatnakul, Artit; Biancardi, Alberto; Riccio, Mark L.; Weiss, Robert S.; Reeves, Anthony P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/12/2013 Português
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Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive imaging modality used to monitor human lung cancers. Typically, tumor volumes are calculated using manual or semi-automated methods that require substantial user input, and an exponential growth model is used to predict tumor growth. However, these measurement methodologies are time-consuming and can lack consistency. In addition, the availability of datasets with sequential images of the same tumor that are needed to characterize in vivo growth patterns for human lung cancers is limited due to treatment interventions and radiation exposure associated with multiple scans. In this paper, we performed micro-CT imaging of mouse lung cancers induced by overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase, a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and developed an advanced semi-automated algorithm for efficient and accurate tumor volume measurement. Tumor volumes determined by the algorithm were first validated by comparison with results from manual methods for volume determination as well as direct physical measurements. A longitudinal study was then performed to investigate in vivo murine lung tumor growth patterns. Individual mice were imaged at least three times, with at least three weeks between scans. The tumors analyzed exhibited an exponential growth pattern...

‣ Increased proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and reduced granzyme B in lung cancer: mechanism for immune evasion?

Soriano, C.; Mukaro, V.; Hodge, G.; Ahern, J.; Holmes, M.; Jersmann, H.; Moffat, D.; Meredith, D.; Jurisevic, C.; Reynolds, P.; Hodge, S.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells mount immune responses to cancer via cytotoxic pathways including granzyme B. Cancer cells are also known to develop immune evasion mechanisms. We hypothesised that lung cancer cells would over-express the granzyme B-inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and down-regulate granzyme B expression by neighbouring CD8(+) T-cells. We investigated PI-9 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and primary lung cancer cells obtained at curative lung resection from cancer patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Granzyme B and PI-9 expression was also determined in CD8(+) T-cells from the cancer and non-cancer areas of resected lung tissue and from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We then evaluated the effects of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines on granzyme B expression and the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T-cells. PI-9 was highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines. Increased PI-9 expression was also observed in primary cancer cells vs. epithelial cells from non-cancer tissue or bronchial brushing-derived normal primary large airway epithelial cells. Expression significantly correlated with cancer stage. Significantly reduced granzyme B was noted in CD8(+) T-cells from cancer vs. non-cancer tissue. Granzyme B production by CD8(+) T-cells was reduced in the presence of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that lung cancer cells utilise their increased PI-9 expression to protect from granzyme B-mediated cytotoxicity as an immune evasion mechanism...

‣ Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer±chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?; Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer +/- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?

Dehle, F.; Mukaro, V.; Jurisevic, C.; Moffat, D.; Ahern, J.; Hodge, G.; Jersmann, H.; Reynolds, P.; Hodge, S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema) we have shown a reduced ability of lung and alveolar (AM) macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic cells (defective ‘efferocytosis’), associated with evidence of secondary cellular necrosis and a resultant inflammatory response in the airway. It is unknown whether this defect is present in cancer (no COPD) and if so, whether this results from soluble mediators produced by cancer cells. We investigated efferocytosis in AM (26 controls, 15 healthy smokers, 37 COPD, 20 COPD+ non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 8 patients with NSCLC without COPD) and tumor and tumor-free lung tissue macrophages (21 NSCLC with/13 without COPD). To investigate the effects of soluble mediators produced by lung cancer cells we then treated AM or U937 macrophages with cancer cell line supernatant and assessed their efferocytosis ability. We qualitatively identified Arachidonic Acid (AA) metabolites in cancer cells by LC-ESI-MSMS, and assessed the effects of COX inhibition (using indomethacin) on efferocytosis. Decreased efferocytosis was noted in all cancer/COPD groups in all compartments. Conditioned media from cancer cell cultures decreased the efferocytosis ability of both AM and U937 macrophages with the most pronounced effects occurring with supernatant from SCLC (an aggressive lung cancer type). AA metabolites identified in cancer cells included PGE2. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on efferocytosis...

‣ Glucose transporter expression in developing fetal lungs and lung neoplasms

Ito, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Udaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Satoh, S.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Glucose uptake and metabolism are essential for proliferation and survival of cells, and are supposed to be enhanced in actively proliferating cell systems such as embryonic and cancer tissues. Glucose uptake is usually carried out through glucose transporters. In the developing fetal lung, metabolism of glucose is thought to be an important process in cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation. Active glucose uptake could result in accumulation of glycogen in epithelial cells, and utilization of glycogen could be a critical phenomenon for lung epithelia1 development. In hamsters, although facilitative glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUTl) and isoform 4 (GLUT4) are not detected in adult lungs, expression of them is detected with immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses in the developing fetal lungs. In human lung carcinomas, GLUTl expression is seen in most cases of lung carcinoma, and is seen especially frequently in squamous cell carcinoma. GLUTl expression in adenocarcinoma of the lung is correlated with reduced cell differentiation, larger tumor size and positive lymph node metastasis. A few cases of lung carcinoma show positive staining for GLUT3 and GLUT4. Thus, expression of some facilitative glucose transporter isoforms is detected in developing fetal epithelium and in lung carcinomas. Overexpression of them could enhance uptake of glucose into these cells...

‣ Duodeno-colic fistula as a rare presentation of lung cancer - surgical treatment of a stage IV oligometastatic lung disease

Nunes, V; Santiago, I; Marinho, R; Pires, D; Theias, R; Pignatelli, N
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Rare adenosquamous carcinomas have no defined standard approach given their low incidence. They present with nonspecific imaging characteristics and are described as having worse prognosis than other lung malignancies, with greater likelihood of local invasion and early metastasis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Male caucasian patient, 43 years, 26 pack-year smoking history, presented with watery diarrhea, early emesis and loss of 25% body weight (20kg) in four weeks. Colonoscopy identified a left colonic mass. Abdominal CT/ultrasound showed a large fistulous lesion between the 4th portion of the duodenum and left colon. CT showed a solid mass in the right upper lung lobe. Endoscopy and transthoracic biopsy were inconclusive. En bloc D3 and D4 duodenectomy, proximal enterectomy and left hemicolectomy were performed, with inconclusive histology of the specimen. Three months later, a right upper lung lobectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed, revealing an adenosquamous carcinoma of lung origin, R0, staged as pT2pN0pM1b. Six months later, a single dural metastasis in the left cerebellopontine angle was detected and resected, with subsequent holocranial radiotherapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is currently with 18 months follow-up...

‣ Adrenal Insufficiency in Metastatic Lung Cancer

Carvalho, F; Louro, F; Zakout, R
Fonte: Elmer Press Publicador: Elmer Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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We report a case of adrenal insufficiency in patient with lung cancer. Although adrenal metastases are common in cancer patients, adrenal insufficiency is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency will improve the physical status and the quality of life in those patients.

‣ An evaluation of the relative efficacy of an open airway, an oxygen reservoir and continuous positive airway pressure 5 cmH2O on the non-ventilated lung

Slimani, J.; Russell, W.; Jurisevic, C.
Fonte: Australian Soc Anaesthetists Publicador: Australian Soc Anaesthetists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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The aim of this study, during one-lung ventilation, was to evaluate if oxygenation could be improved by use of a simple oxygen reservoir or application of 5 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the non-ventilated lung compared with an open airway. Twenty-three patients with lung malignancy, undergoing thoracotomy requiring at least 60 minutes of one-lung ventilation before lung lobe excision, were studied. After routine induction and establishment of one-lung ventilation, the three treatments were applied in turn to the same patient in a sequence selected randomly. The first treatment was repeated as a fourth treatment and these results of the repeated treatment averaged to minimize the effect of slow changes. Arterial oxygenation was measured by an arterial blood gas 15 minutes after the application of each treatment. Twenty patients completed the study. Mean PaO2 (in mmHg) was 210.3 (SD 105.5) in the 'OPEN' treatment, 186.0 (SD 109.2) in the 'RESERVOIR' treatment, and 240.5 (SD 116.0) in the 'CPAP' treatment. This overall difference was not quite significant (P=0.058, paired ANOVA), but comparison of the pairs showed that there was a significant better oxygenation only with the CPAP compared to the reservoir treatments (t=2.52...

‣ Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal.

Beveridge, Rachelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Cancer du poumon associé à l’exposition au nickel, au chrome VI et au cadmium dans le milieu de travail utilisant deux études populationnelles cas-témoins à Montréal. Au début des années 1990, le nickel, le chrome VI et le cadmium ont été classés en tant qu’agents cancérigènes de classe 1 par le CIRC (Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer). Cependant, les résultats des études ayant permis la classification de ces métaux n’ont pas toujours été reproduits, et d’importantes questions demeurent quant aux effets de ces métaux à de faibles niveaux d’exposition. Un plus grand nombre de recherches empiriques est donc nécessaire afin de réaffirmer la cancérogénicité de ces agents, et d’identifier les circonstances dans lesquelles ils peuvent être néfastes. L'objectif de cette étude était d'explorer la relation entre l’exposition à un des métaux (soit le nickel, le chrome VI, ou le cadmium) et les risques subséquents de développer un cancer du poumon chez des travailleurs provenant de différents milieux de travail qui sont exposés à ces métaux à de différents degrés. Deux études cas-témoins de base populationnelle menées à Montréal ont fourni les données nécessaires pour examiner la cancérogénicité de ces métaux. La première étude était menée entre 1979 et 1986 chez des hommes âgés de 35 à 70 ans ayant un cancer dans l’un de 19 sites anatomiques de cancer sélectionnés. La seconde étude était menée entre 1996 et 2001 chez des hommes et des femmes âgés de 35 à 75 ans...

‣ Recent advances in management of small-cell lung cancer

Chua, Yu; Steer, C; Yip, Desmond
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Publicador: W B Saunders Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a smoking-related disease with a poor prognosis. While SCLC is usually initially sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, responses are rarely long lasting. Frustratingly, most patients ultimately relapse, often with increasingly treatment resistant disease. Many strategies have been developed in an attempt to improve treatment outcomes, which have plateaued since the introduction of combination chemotherapy in the 1980s. These include trials of maintenance therapy, and dose intensification, the latter by means of increasing dose density, growth factor support and high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. None have been shown to improve patient survival. On the other hand, the integration of concurrent thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation has improved the survival outcomes in patients with limited disease. In extensive disease, irinotecan combined with cisplatin has shown promise in improving survival over conventional platinum/etoposide chemotherapy schedules and a confirmatory study is awaited. The future of SCLC treatment may however lie with molecularly targeted therapies, such as antiangiogenesis agents and signal transduction inhibitors, which are being studied at present.

‣ Comparação de algoritmos computacionais de cálculo de dose em radioterapia aplicada aos tumores de pulmão; Comparison of dose calculation algorithms in radiotherapy applied to lung tumors

Santos, Gabriela Reis dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2015 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: Na Radioterapia, a acurácia da distribuição de dose em cálculos com correção de heterogeneidade está diretamente relacionada à escolha do algoritmo de cálculo. Existe uma variedade de algoritmos de cálculo disponíveis no mercado, variando em tempo de processamento e acurácia. Este estudo teve como objetivos quantificar a acurácia de dez diferentes algoritmos de cálculo em objetos simuladores de pulmão e analisar o impacto da escolha do algoritmo na distribuição de dose em radioterapia aplicada a tumores de pulmão. METODOLOGIA: Foram utilizados placas simuladoras de água (água sólida RW3) e pulmão (cortiça) para determinar a Porcentagem de Dose em Profundidade (PDP) e perfil transversal dentro da heterogeneidade (cortiça). As medidas foram realizadas em um Clinac Varian 6EX, com feixes de fótons de 6 MV e dois tamanhos de campo (5 x 5 cm2 e 10 x 10 cm2), irradiando-se filmes radiocrômicos Gafchromic EBT3 e câmara de ionização Scanditronix Wellhofer CC13. Planejamentos de 25 pacientes - 11 com técnica tridimendional (3D) e 14 com técnica de Radioterapia Estereotática Corpórea (SBRT) - foram realizados, inicialmente sem correção de heterogeneidade e, mantendo-se as UM, os cálculos com os diferentes algoritmos/métodos de correção foram comparados com o planejamento inicial. Foram avaliados as doses no volume alvo e nos órgãos em risco. RESULTADOS: As medidas realizadas em objetos simuladores revelaram que os algoritmos baseados no princípio da convolução (Eclipse® Pencil Beam Convolution com métodos de correção Batho...

‣ Risco de câncer de pulmão, laringe e esôfago atribuível ao fumo; Attributed risk to smoking for lung cancer, laryngeal cancer and esophageal cancer

Menezes, Ana MB; Horta, Bernardo L; Oliveira, André Luiz B; Kaufmann, Ricardo AC; Duquia, Rodrigo; Diniz, Alessandro; Motta, Luiz Henrique; Centeno, Marco S; Estanislau, Gustavo; Gomes, Laura
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2002 Português
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OBJETIVO: Os tipos de câncer de pulmão, laringe e esôfago têm como um de seus principais fatores de risco o fumo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o risco populacional atribuível ao fumo nesses tipos de câncer. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa baseou-se em três estudos de caso-controle em cidade de médio porte do Brasil. Analisaram-se casos incidentes hospitalares de câncer de pulmão, de laringe e de esôfago diagnosticados por biópsias; os controles foram pacientes hospitalizados por outros motivos, sem ser câncer ou doenças altamente relacionadas ao fumo. O fator de exposição foi o tabagismo medido em três níveis: não-fumantes, ex-fumantes e fumantes atuais, definidos por meio de questionários aplicados por entrevistadores treinados. Para a medida de efeito, foi utilizado o odds ratio obtendo-se, dessa forma, o "risco populacional atribuível" ao fumo com IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 122 casos e 244 controles de câncer de pulmão, 50 casos de câncer de laringe e 48 casos de câncer de esôfago, com um grupo de 96 controles comum a ambos. A prevalência da exposição ao fumo utilizada para a análise foi de 34%, que corresponde à prevalência de fumo na população adulta da cidade. Os odds ratios para o cálculo do risco populacional atribuível foram obtidos por análises ajustadas para os fatores de confusão de cada um dos estudos. Para ex-fumantes com câncer de pulmão...

‣ Genética do câncer de pulmão; Genetics of lung neoplasms

Capelozzi, Vera Luiza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/03/2001 Português
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The lung cancer is one of the neoplasms of higher mortality. Biologicaly is the expression of the genetic alterations in the epithelial cells of the aerial ways. It is necessary to study the genetics and the pathology so that let us can arrive the best responses about the treatment, diagnosis and evolution of the disease.; O câncer de pulmão é uma das neoplasias de mais alta mortalidade. Biologicamente é a expressão das alterações genéticas nas células epiteliais das vias aéreas. E necessário estudar a genética e patologia para que possamos chegar a melhores respostas quanto ao tratamento, diagnóstico e evolução da doença.