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‣ A literatura: um espaço potencialmente aberto ao equívoco e à alteridade nas aulas de ELE para brasileiros; Literature:a potentially open place to the misconception and to the alterity in ELE classes for the Brazilians

Farrero, Marta Iglesis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2010 Português
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Diante do processo de instrumentalização de que vem sendo objeto a língua espanhola nas práticas de ensino aprendizado, nas quais fica reduzida a uma língua veicular a serviço de resolver as urgências do sujeito contemporâneo, entendido como um sujeito pragmático, propomos trabalhar o texto literário como um suporte ligado a experiências de leitura nessas práticas. Pensamos que dessa forma poderíamos oferecer uma certa resistência à referida redução da língua, pois, nossa hipótese é que a materialidade do texto literário torna possível o confronto entre um sujeito e duas dimensões que consideramos que não devem ser escamoteadas, tal como, a nosso ver, acontece no processo de instrumentalização de que falamos. Este, de fato, não apenas evita a dimensão do equívoco mas também contorna a exposição à alteridade. De nossa perspectiva, determinados textos literários apresentam de forma potencializada a não estabilização semântica dos sentidos e exploram a relação com o estranho. Nesse sentido, realizamos uma experiência piloto com aprendizes brasileiros de língua espanhola que nos permitiu constituir um corpus no qual a partir do lugar teórico da Análise do Discurso de linha francesa analisamos as imagens detectadas nas respostas dos aprendizes aos questionários aplicados ao longo do processo...

‣ Avaliação de aprendizagem: o importante é errar!; Learning assessment: what matters is the error!

Sanchez, Elúbian de Moraes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/2013 Português
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O aprendizado é o resultado desejado do processo educacional. Quando um aluno é exposto a determinadas experiências de ensino e oportunidades de aprendizagem de vários conhecimentos durante um período e, ao final de todo o processo, não aprender sequer os conhecimentos mínimos ou conceitos fundamentais daquele curso é um exemplo de não aprendizado. O não aprendizado dos alunos do curso de graduação em Ciências Contábeis pode ser de-duzido pelo baixo índice de aprovação em todas as edições do Exame de Suficiência, reali-zado pelo Conselho Federal de Contabilidade - CFC. A proposta de pesquisa é aprofundar o entendimento dos erros cometidos pelos egressos que acarretam na reprovação em massa no Exame de Suficiência, com o intuito de classifi-cá-los e verificar se são padrões de erros conceituais em Contabilidade, buscando evidên-cias de que eles ocorrem com frequência, intensidade, recorrência e persistência. A base de dados dos Exames de Suficiência não pôde ser compartilhada pelo CFC, então adaptamos a pesquisa aos relatórios disponíveis do ENADE, exame nacional aplicado em larga escala também para os concluintes do curso de graduação em Ciências Contábeis. Foi feita uma análise minuciosa das questões dos ENADES de 2006 e 2009 que tiveram uma concentração de escolha pelos avaliados em uma das alternativas erradas...

‣ Emoção, tomada de decisão e mudança conceitual: um estudo sobre concepções alternativas e científicas em biologia; Emotion, decision making and conceptual change: a study about misconceptions and scientific conceptions in biology

Gois, Fabio Moraes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2014 Português
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Concepções alternativas são compreensões não científicas estáveis e bastante resistentes a mudanças, forjadas pela experiência cotidiana dos indivíduos. Pesquisadores têm mobilizado esforços para entender como elas interagem com os conteúdos científicos presentes no contexto escolar e universitário. Tem ficado evidente que a mudança conceitual não depende apenas de processos puramente cognitivos. O ensino capaz de promover verdadeiramente uma mudança conceitual, deve integrar formas de aumentar o engajamento emocional dos estudantes, de modo que esta relação afetiva com o conhecimento faça com que suas crenças e pré-concepções sejam modificadas. Evidências tem demonstrado que processos cognitivos são fortemente influenciados tanto por aspectos racionais quanto emotivos. As emoções, por sua vez, são acompanhadas de marcadores somáticos, isto é, reações corporais fisiológicas, mediadas pelo sistema nervoso autônomo. Segundo alguns autores, elas são fundamentais nos processos de tomada de decisão. O presente estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver uma ferramenta para investigação do processo de mudança conceitual bem como aspectos fisiológicos desse processo. Para tanto, desenvolvemos um questionário que permite diferenciar biólogos de não-biólogos através de seu desempenho e identificamos 5 tipos diferentes de conceitos em biologia...

‣ Graded Treadmill Stress Testing: Patterns of Physician Use and Abuse

Abbott, Joseph A.; Tedeschi, Mary Ann; Cheitlin, Melvin D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1977 Português
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Treadmill stress testing is used in assessing the condition of patients with known or suspected heart disease. We did a prospective study to clarify physician ordering and integration of the test. Ordering criteria were always complied with, although most tests were ordered for evaluation of atypical chest pain and only a few for high risk patients with known cardiac dysfunction, indicating a misplaced emphasis on the diagnostic capabilities of the test. Tests in patients with atypical chest pain and stress-induced ischemic changes were always integrated, but in 30 percent of patients with atypical pain and no stress-induced electrocardiographic changes, the tests were not used in patient management. This was often due to the misconception that negative findings on a stress test excluded coronary disease. Physicians should be alerted to this misplaced emphasis and misconception.

‣ Phase I oncology trials: why the therapeutic misconception will not go away

Glannon, W
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2006 Português
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In many cases, the “therapeutic misconception” may be an unavoidable part of the imperfect process of recruitment and consent in medical research

‣ Delayed diagnosis of cluster headache in African-American women.

Wheeler, S. D.; Carrazana, E. J.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2001 Português
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The male-to-female ratio has fallen in cluster headache over the last several decades and is now 2.1:1. Unfortunately, women still are not diagnosed accurately. This lack of appropriate diagnosis appears related to the misconception that cluster headache rarely occurs in women. Compounding this misconception, there seems to be an ethnic bias. We report cluster headache in five African-American women in whom diagnosis was delayed due to gender, ethnicity, and, most importantly, an inability to make a correct diagnosis of cluster headache. Cluster headache diagnostic criteria are no different in men or women and have no ethnic boundaries. Clinical features such as disordered chronobiology and abnormal behavior often suggest the diagnosis. Migrainous features occur commonly in cluster headache and, when present, should not exclude the diagnosis. Likewise, neither race nor sex should exclude the diagnosis. The diagnosis of cluster headache is easily made by considering unilateral orbital, supraorbital or temporal location; short duration (15-180 minutes, untreated), and ipsilateral autonomic dysfunction involving the eye or nose.

‣ Ethical Issues Involving Research Conducted With Homebound Older Adults

Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descriptive and intervention research focusing exclusively on the homebound older population in which the authors have collaborated. Therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict may occur because of methodological issues related to the recruitment of participants, the “homebound” status of participants, and the home setting as the interview site. Particular care is required on the part of the researcher to address these ethical issues. This may be accomplished especially through clear communication during the informed consent process with participants and in scientific communication with colleagues.

‣ Current misconception 3: that subgroup-specific trial mortality results often provide a good basis for individualising patient care

Peto, R
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Misconceptions and ill-founded theories can arise in all areas of science. However, the apparent accessibility of many epidemiology findings and popular interest in the subject can lead to additional misunderstandings. The article below is the third in an occasional series of short editorials highlighting some current misinterpretations of epidemiological findings. Invited authors will be given wide scope in judging the prevalence of the misconception under discussion. We hope that this series will prove instructive to cancer researchers in other disciplines as well as to students of epidemiology. Adrian L Harris and Leo Kinlen

‣ Why do individuals agree to enrol in clinical trials? A qualitative study of health research participation in Blantyre, Malawi

Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Ndebele, Paul; Jumbe, Vincent; Mkunthi, Matilda; Masiye, Francis; Molyneux, Sassy; Molyneux, Malcolm
Fonte: The Medical Association Of Malawi Publicador: The Medical Association Of Malawi
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2008 Português
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Current literature suggests that therapeutic misconception - a belief by participants in a clinical trial that they are in fact simply being given clinical care - is common, especially among illiterate populations in developing countries. Therapeutic misconception reflects problems in informed consent, as people agree to participate in clinical trials without being aware that the trial procedures and test products may not in fact benefit them.

‣ An Approach to Evaluating Therapeutic Misconception

Kim, Scott Y. H.; Schrock, Lauren; Wilson, Renee M.; Frank, Samuel A.; Holloway, Robert G.; Kieburtz, Karl; De Vries, Raymond G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Subjects enrolled in studies testing high risk interventions for incurable or progressive brain diseases may be vulnerable to deficiencies in informed consent, such as the therapeutic misconception (TM). However, there is a continuing debate about the definition and measurement of TM, making assessments of TM controversial. In this qualitative pilot study of persons enrolled in a phase I test of gene transfer for Parkinson’s disease, we developed and tested an interview guide focusing on how the subjects made their decision to participate, with an emphasis on understanding the subject as the unit of interest, rather than focusing only on isolated statements. The results indicate that a subject’s understanding of the purpose of research is best explored in juxtaposition to the subject’s motivation for participation. Doing so reveals potential avenues for measuring and preventing TM.

‣ The ethics of research on deep brain stimulation for depression: decisional capacity and therapeutic misconception

Fisher, Carl Erik; Dunn, Laura B.; Christopher, Paul P.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Leykin, Yan; Mayberg, Helen S.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Appelbaum, Paul S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant depression appears promising, but concerns have been raised about the decisional capacity of severely depressed patients and their potential misconceptions about the research. We assessed 31 DBS research participants with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), a well-validated capacity measure, and with a scale to measure therapeutic misconception, which occurs when subjects do not recognize key differences between treatment and clinical research. Correlations with baseline depressive symptoms were explored. Subjects’ performance on the MacCAT-CR was excellent, but therapeutic misconception was still apparent. A trend toward significance was found in the correlation between baseline depression ratings and total therapeutic misconception score. Responses to open-ended prompts revealed both reassuring and concerning statements related to expectations of risk, benefit, and individualization. Even severely depressed patients did not manifest impairments in their capacity to consent to DBS research. Therapeutic misconception, however, remained prevalent.

‣ Preventive Misconception as a Motivation for Participation and Adherence in Microbicide Trials: Evidence from Female Participants and Male Partners in Malawi and Zimbabwe

Woodsong, Cynthia; Alleman, Patty; Musara, Petina; Chandipwisa, Adlight; Chirenje, Mike; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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This paper presents empirical data on motivation to join an HIV prevention trial of vaginal microbicide gels in Malawi and Zimbabwe, and participant assumption of a preventive misconception. Interviews were conducted with women participating in the trial and their male partners. Most of the female participants were able to adequately describe basic aspects of the trial design. HIV counseling and testing were primary reasons motivating women’s participation, and male partners’ support of the trial. 29% of women and 20% of men also provided indications of a preventive misconception, attributing gel use and trial participation to avoiding HIV infection.

‣ Problems with the Consensus Definition of the Therapeutic Misconception

Wendler, David S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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In a previous article,1 I attempted to assess the likely impact of the most prominent versions of the therapeutic misconception (TM) on research subjects’ informed consent. I concluded that the TM is not nearly as significant a concern as is commonly thought, and that focusing on it is more likely to undermine than promote research subjects’ informed consent.

‣ Guía de Práctica Clínica: Abordaje del Dolor en el Recién Nacido; Clinical Practice Guideline: Addressing Pain in the Newborn

Niño, Ada Virginia; Cristo, Javier
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Medicina; Neonatología Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Medicina; Neonatología
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
Português
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La asociación Internacional para el estudio del dolor ha definido el dolor como “ Toda experiencia sensorial y emocional no placentera relacionada con un daño real o potencial de un tejido", dicho daño es motivado por la puesta en marcha de mecanismos hormonales diversos, así como por un aumento del grado de estrés oxidativo. Al ser el dolor una sensación subjetiva se entiende que la imposibilidad del recién nacido para comunicar las sensaciones dolorosas haya contribuido a desatender durante mucho tiempo este aspecto fundamental en la buena práctica médica. El estrés se ha definido como "todo factor emocional, físico o químico que origina tensión mental y puede ser causa de enfermedad". El dolor es siempre estresante, pero el estrés no es necesariamente doloroso; ambos requieren ser reconocidos, evaluados (medidos) y tratados. Durante años ha existido la falsa creencia de que el recién nacido, por su inmadurez biológica, percibe menos el dolor y lo tolera mejor estando actualmente demostrada, en diversas investigaciones en campos como la psicología, anatomía y neurofisiología del recién nacido la falsedad de ambas teorías. Esta concepción errónea del dolor en el neonato había motivado un insuficiente tratamiento del mismo...

‣ A common misconception about LIGO detectors of gravitational waves

Faraoni, Valerio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/02/2007 Português
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A common misconception about laser interferometric detectors of gravitational waves purports that, because the wavelength of laser light and the length of an interferometer's arm are both stretched by a gravitational wave, no effect should be visible, invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe. The issue is clarified with the help of a direct calculation.; Comment: 9 pages, LaTeX, to appear in Gen. Rel. Grav

‣ Exploring Student Understanding of Energy through the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey

McKagan, S. B.; Wieman, C. E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2006 Português
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We present a study of student understanding of energy in quantum mechanical tunneling and barrier penetration. This paper will focus on student responses to two questions that were part of a test given in class to two modern physics classes and in individual interviews with 17 students. The test, which we refer to as the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS), is being developed to measure student understanding of basic concepts in quantum mechanics. In this paper we explore and clarify the previously reported misconception that reflection from a barrier is due to particles having a range of energies rather than wave properties. We also confirm previous studies reporting the student misconception that energy is lost in tunneling, and report a misconception not previously reported, that potential energy diagrams shown in tunneling problems do not represent the potential energy of the particle itself. The present work is part of a much larger study of student understanding of quantum mechanics.

‣ A clarification on a common misconception about interferometric detectors of gravitational waves

Corda, Christian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/03/2011 Português
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The aims of this letter are two. First, to show the angular gauge-invariance on the response of interferometers to gravitational waves (GWs). In this process, after resuming for completeness results on the Transverse-Traceless (TT) gauge, where, in general, the theoretical computations on GWs are performed, we analyse the gauge of the local observer, which represents the gauge of a laboratory environment on Earth. The gauge-invariance between the two gauges is shown in its full angular and frequency dependences. In previous works in the literature this gauge-invariance was shown only in the low frequencies approximation or in the simplest geometry of the interferometer with respect to the propagating GW (i.e. both of the arms of the interferometer are perpendicular to the propagating GW). Second, as far as the computation of the response functions in the gauge of the local observer is concerned, a common misconception about interferometers is also clarified. Such a misconception purports that, as the wavelength of laser light and the length of an interferometer's arm are both stretched by a GW, no effect should be visible, invoking an analogy with cosmological redshift in an expanding universe.; Comment: To appear in the Special Issue on Cosmology of the Hadronic Journal...

‣ Misconception in Theory of Quantum Key Distribution -Reply to Renner-

Hirota, Osamu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/06/2013 Português
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It has been pointed out by Yuen that the security theory of quantum key distribution(QKD) guided by Shor-Preskill theory has serious defects, in particular their key rate theory is not correct. Theory groups of QKD tried to improve several defects. Especially, Renner employed trace distance and quantum leftover Hash Lemma. However, the present theory encountered a problem of a quantitative evaluation of security. To cope with it, he uses a wrong interpretation on the trace distance and its level epsilon_{sec}, and justifies the unconditional security of own system when epsilon_{sec} is 10^{-6 } ~ 10^{-20}. In this paper, we discuss the following problems. What is the origin of the misconception of the present theory? How does the present theory lead to the misconception?. To show their process toward the misconception, Koashi-Preskill's theory which has a typical misconception is examined. A main point of our comment is that QKD theory ignores the security requirement against attacker which is necessary to compare whole encryption schemes from classical to quantum. To clarify it, we emphasize that the trace distance itself cannot have any operational meaning such as failure probability, and it is only mathematical tool as a measure of closeness. As a result...

‣ Fanny Hensel, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, and the Formation of the "Mendelssohnian" Style

Mace, Angela Regina
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Fanny Hensel wrote much of Felix Mendelssohn's music. Or so goes the popular misconception. It is true that Felix did publish six of his sister's Lieder under his own name, in his Op. 8 and Op. 9, but there is no evidence that anything else he published was actually by Fanny. The perpetuation of this idea is by no means new to our century; even during her lifetime, Fanny received letters alluding to the possibility that some of her music was masquerading as Felix's. But how could this supposition even be possible?

Complicating our reception of Hensel's works and our knowledge of her influence over him, and perpetuating our misconception (and perhaps hopes) that some of Felix's music was by Fanny was the unavailability of her music to the general public. For most of the twentieth century, she was known mostly by her eleven published opera (five of which were released posthumously). Before she was able to plan and accomplish any sort of systematic publication of her works, she died suddenly, at the age of 41, leaving behind upwards of 450 unrevised, unpublished works.

Clearly, we need to reconsider the term "Mendelssohnian," and bring Hensel to the foreground as an equal partner in forming the Mendelssohns' common style. I examine the roots of the "Mendelssohnian" style in their parallel musical educations...

‣ A cross sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA)

Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 12/12/2015 Português
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We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial—MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0–28), average (29–55) and good (56–82). Analysis was performed by Pearson’s Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman’s correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p < 0.01. 538 questionnaires were distributed, response rate was (96 %). On knowledge scale, respondents had a mean score of 8.0 ± 1.7, attitude 5.8 ± 3.4, perception 23.4 ± 4.1, misconceptions 8.0 ± 2.1 and views 8.0 ± 3.9. The respondents mean score was 53.2 ± 9.1 (64.9 %). Overall, level of education, marital status, religious beliefs, and employment status has significant (p < 0.001) associations with KAP-MV. Knowledge was significantly correlated with respondents’ attitude (r = −0.15, p < 0.001), perception (0.39; p < 0.001), and views (0.381; p < 0.001). Family members of PLWHA with less knowledge score had more negative attitude...