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‣ Estudo do gene PTPN11 nos pacientes afetados pela síndrome de Noonan ; The PTPN11 gene analysis in Noonan syndrome patients

Bertola, Débora Romeo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2006 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome de Noonan é uma doença autossômica dominante caracterizada por baixa estatura, dismorfismos faciais (hipertelorismo ocular, inclinação para baixo das fendas palpebrais, ptose palpebral, palato alto e má-oclusão dentária), pescoço curto e/ou alado, defeitos cardíacos, principalmente a estenose pulmonar valvar, deformidade esternal e criptorquia nos pacientes do sexo masculino. O gene PTPN11, localizado no braço longo do cromossomo 12 (12q24.1), é responsável por aproximadamente 50% dos casos de síndrome de Noonan. OBJETIVO: Detectar a freqüência de mutações no gene PTPN11 em uma amostra de pacientes os quais preenchiam os critérios clínicos para a síndrome de Noonan e síndromes Noonan-like e estabelecer uma correlação genótipo-fenótipo. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta probandos com síndrome de Noonan, 3 com síndrome de LEOPARD, 3 com síndrome de Noonan-like/lesões múltiplas de células gigantes e 2 com neurofibromatose-Noonan foram incluídos nesse estudo. O estudo molecular foi realizado através da técnica da cromatografia líquida de alta precisão desnaturante e, naqueles com um perfil anormal, a técnica do seqüenciamento do éxon em questão foi concretizada. RESULTADOS: Mutações missense no gene PTPN11 foram identificadas em 21 probandos com síndrome de Noonan (42%)...

‣ Genotype-Phenotype correlation in Dravet Syndrome with SCN1A mutation increase efficiency of molecular diagnosis

Gonsales,MC; Preto,P; Montenegro,MA; Guerreiro,MM; Lopes-Cendes,I
Fonte: Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia (LBE) Publicador: Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia (LBE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to advance the knowledge on the clinical use of SCN1A testing for severe epilepsies within the spectrum of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus by performing genetic screening in patients with Dravet and Doose syndromes and establishing genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Mutation screening in SCN1A was performed in 15 patients with Dravet syndrome and 13 with Doose syndrome. Eight prediction algorithms were used to analyze the impact of the mutations in putative protein function. Furthermore, all SCN1A mutations previously published were compiled and analyzed. In addition, Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) technique was used to detect possible copy number variations within SCN1A. RESULTS: Twelve mutations were identified in patients with Dravet syndrome, while patients with Doose syndrome showed no mutations. Our results show that the most common type of mutation found is missense, and that they are mostly located in the pore region and the N- and C-terminal of the protein. No copy number variants in SCN1A were identified in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: SCN1A testing is clinically useful for patients with Dravet syndrome, but not for those with Doose syndrome...

‣ Adaptive evolution that requires multiple spontaneous mutations: mutations involving base substitutions.

Hall, B G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1991 Português
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A previous study has demonstrated that adaptive missense mutations occur in the trp operon of Escherichia coli. In this study it is shown that, under conditions of intense selection, a strain carrying missense mutations in both trpA and trpB reverts to Trp+ 10(8) times more frequently than would be expected if the two mutations were the result of independent events. Comparison of the single mutation rates with the double mutation rate and information obtained by sequencing DNA from double revertants show that neither our classical understanding of spontaneous mutation processes nor extant models for adaptive mutations can account for all of the observations. Despite a current lack of mechanistic understanding, it is clear that adaptive mutations can permit advantageous phenotypes that require multiple mutations to arise and that they appear enormously more frequently than would be expected.

‣ SMAD4 mutations in colorectal cancer probably occur before chromosomal instability, but after divergence of the microsatellite instability pathway

Woodford-Richens, K. L.; Rowan, A. J.; Gorman, P.; Halford, S.; Bicknell, D. C.; Wasan, H. S.; Roylance, R. R.; Bodmer, W. F.; Tomlinson, I. P. M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Loss of chromosome 18q21 is well documented in colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that this loss targets the DCC, DPC4/SMAD4, and SMAD2 genes. Recently, the importance of SMAD4, a downstream regulator in the TGF-β signaling pathway, in colorectal cancer has been highlighted, although the frequency of SMAD4 mutations appears much lower than that of 18q21 loss. We set out to investigate allele loss, mutations, protein expression, and cytogenetics of chromosome 18 copy number in a collection of 44 colorectal cancer cell lines of known status with respect to microsatellite instability (MSI). Fourteen of thirty-two MSI− lines showed loss of SMAD4 protein expression; usually, one allele was lost and the other was mutated in one of a number of ways, including deletions of various sizes, splice site changes, and missense and nonsense point mutations (although no frameshifts). Of the 18 MSI− cancers with retained SMAD4 expression, four harbored missense mutations in the 3′ part of the gene and showed allele loss. The remaining 14 MSI− lines had no detectable SMAD4 mutation, but all showed allele loss at SMAD4 and/or DCC. SMAD4 mutations can therefore account for about 50–60% of the 18q21 allele loss in colorectal cancer. No MSI+ cancer showed loss of SMAD4 protein or SMAD4 mutation...

‣ Hereditary thrombophilia: identification of nonsense and missense mutations in the protein C gene.

Romeo, G; Hassan, H J; Staempfli, S; Roncuzzi, L; Cianetti, L; Leonardi, A; Vicente, V; Mannucci, P M; Bertina, R; Peschle, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1987 Português
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The structure of the gene for protein C, an anticoagulant serine protease, was analyzed in 29 unrelated patients with hereditary thrombophilia and protein C deficiency. Gene deletion(s) or gross rearrangement(s) was not demonstrable by Southern blot hybridization to cDNA probes. However, two unrelated patients showed a variant restriction pattern after Pvu II or BamHI digestion, due to mutations in the last exon: analysis of their pedigrees, including three or seven heterozygotes, respectively, with approximately 50% reduction of both enzymatic and antigen level, showed the abnormal restriction pattern in all heterozygous individuals, but not in normal relatives. Cloning of protein C gene and sequencing of the last exon allowed us to identify a nonsense and a missense mutation, respectively. In the first case, codon 306 (CGA, arginine) is mutated to an inframe stop codon, thus generating a new Pvu II recognition site. In the second case, a missense mutation in the BamHI palindrome (GGATCC----GCATCC) leads to substitution of a key amino acid (a tryptophan to cysteine substitution at position 402), invariantly conserved in eukaryotic serine proteases. These point mutations may explain the protein C-deficiency phenotype of heterozygotes in the two pedigrees.

‣ Characterization of Mutations in the CPO Gene in British Patients Demonstrates Absence of Genotype-Phenotype Correlation and Identifies Relationship between Hereditary Coproporphyria and Harderoporphyria

Lamoril, Jérôme; Puy, Hervé; Whatley, Sharon D.; Martin, Caroline; Woolf, Jacqueline R.; Da Silva, Vasco; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Elder, George H.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is the least common of the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias. It results from mutations in the CPO gene that encodes the mitochondrial enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase. A few patients have also been reported who are homoallellic or heteroallelic for CPO mutations and are clinically distinct from those with HCP. In such patients the presence of a specific mutation (K404E) on one or both alleles produces a neonatal hemolytic anemia that is known as “harderoporphyria”; mutations on both alleles elsewhere in the gene give rise to the “homozygous” variant of HCP. The molecular relationship between these disorders and HCP has not been defined. We describe the molecular investigation and clinical features of 17 unrelated British patients with HCP. Ten novel and four previously reported CPO mutations, together with three previously unrecognized single-nucleotide polymorphisms, were identified in 15 of the 17 patients. HCP is more heterogeneous than other acute porphyrias, with all but one mutation being restricted to a single family, with a predominance of missense mutations (10 missense, 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift, and 1 splice site). Of the four known mutations, one (R331W) has previously been reported to cause disease only in homozygotes. Heterologous expression of another mutation (R401W) demonstrated functional properties similar to those of the K404E harderoporphyria mutation. In all patients...

‣ Characterization of a germline mosaicism in families with Lowe syndrome, and identification of seven novel mutations in the OCRL1 gene.

Satre, V; Monnier, N; Berthoin, F; Ayuso, C; Joannard, A; Jouk, P S; Lopez-Pajares, I; Megabarne, A; Philippe, H J; Plauchu, H; Torres, M L; Lunardi, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1999 Português
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The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder characterized by major abnormalities of eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Mutations in the OCRL1 gene have been associated with the disease. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P2) 5-phosphatase. We have examined the OCRL1 gene in eight unrelated patients with OCRL and have found seven new mutations and one recurrent in-frame deletion. Among the new mutations, two nonsense mutations (R317X and E558X) and three other frameshift mutations caused premature termination of the protein. A missense mutation, R483G, was located in the highly conserved PtdIns(4,5)P2 5-phosphatase domain. Finally, one frameshift mutation, 2799delC, modifies the C-terminal part of OCRL1, with an extension of six amino acids. Altogether, 70% of missense mutations are located in exon 15, and 52% of all mutations cluster in exons 11-15. We also identified two new microsatellite markers for the OCRL1 locus, and we detected a germline mosaicism in one family. This observation has direct implications for genetic counseling of Lowe syndrome families.

‣ Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mutations and coat color in pigs.

Kijas, J M; Wales, R; Törnsten, A; Chardon, P; Moller, M; Andersson, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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The melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) plays a central role in regulation of eumelanin (black/brown) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow) synthesis within the mammalian melanocyte and is encoded by the classical Extension (E) coat color locus. Sequence analysis of MC1R from seven porcine breeds revealed a total of four allelic variants corresponding to five different E alleles. The European wild boar possessed a unique MC1R allele that we believe is required for the expression of a wild-type coat color. Two different MC1R alleles were associated with the dominant black color in pigs. MC1R*2 was found in European Large Black and Chinese Meishan pigs and exhibited two missense mutations compared with the wild-type sequence. Comparative data strongly suggest that one of these, L99P, may form a constitutively active receptor. MC1R*3 was associated with the black color in the Hampshire breed and involved a single missense mutation D121N. This same MC1R variant was also associated with EP, which results in black spots on a white or red background. Two different missense mutations were identified in recessive red (e/e) animals. One of these, A240T, occurs at a highly conserved position, making it a strong candidate for disruption of receptor function.

‣ FAS (CD95) Mutations Are Rare in Gastric MALT Lymphoma but Occur More Frequently in Primary Gastric Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Wohlfart, Sabine; Sebinger, David; Gruber, Petra; Buch, Judith; Polgar, Doris; Krupitza, Georg; Rosner, Margit; Hengstschläger, Markus; Raderer, Markus; Chott, Andreas; Müllauer, Leonhard
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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A loss of FAS (CD95) function has been proposed to constitute an important step in early mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma development and FAS mutations have been recognized in malignant lymphomas, in particular at extranodal sites. Since primary gastric lymphomas frequently exhibit resistance to FAS-mediated apoptosis, we investigated whether FAS is mutated in 18 gastric MALT lymphomas and 28 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). We detected seven mutations in five lymphomas, one MALT lymphoma and four DLBCL; two DLBCL had two mutations. The MALT lymphoma exhibited a point mutation in the splice donor region of intron 3. Three DLBCL had missense mutations in exon 2, which encodes a signal peptide and a portion of the extracellular FAS ligand-binding domain. One DLBCL carried a point mutation in the splice donor region of intron 8, which would result in exon skipping. Two DLBCL harbored a missense mutation in exon 9, which encodes the intracellular death domain. The two death domain mutations inhibited FAS ligand-induced apoptosis in a dominant-negative mode, when transiently expressed in human T47D breast carcinoma and Jurkat T cells. A signal peptide and an extracellular domain mutation, however, failed to inhibit apoptosis in these transfection assays. They are likely to reduce apoptosis in lymphoma cells solely by a loss of function. In summary...

‣ Identification of 13 new mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene in 17 kindreds with familial autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

Rittig, S.; Robertson, G. L.; Siggaard, C.; Kovács, L.; Gregersen, N.; Nyborg, J.; Pedersen, E. B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1996 Português
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Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive postnatal deficiency of arginine vasopressin as a result of mutation in the gene that encodes the hormone. To determine the extent of mutations in the coding region that produce the phenotype, we studied members of 17 unrelated kindreds with the disorder. We sequenced all 3 exons of the gene by using a rapid, direct dye-terminator method and found the causative mutation in each kindred. In four kindreds, the mutations were each identical to mutations described in other affected families. In the other 13 kindreds each mutation was unique. There were two missense mutations that altered the cleavage region of the signal peptide, seven missense mutations in exon 2, which codes for the conserved portion of the protein, one nonsense mutation in exon 2, and three nonsense mutations in exon 3. These findings, together with the clinical features of FNDI, suggest that each of the mutations exerts an effect by directing the production of a pre-prohormone that cannot be folded, processed, or degraded properly and eventually destroys vasopressinergic neurons.

‣ Impacts of Usher Syndrome Type IB Mutations on Human Myosin VIIa Motor Function†

Watanabe, Shinya; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Usher syndrome (USH) is a human hereditary disorder characterized by profound congenital deafness, retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction. Myosin VIIa has been identified as the responsible gene for USH type 1B, and a number of missense mutations have been identified in the affected families. However, the molecular basis of the dysfunction of USH gene, myosin VIIa, in the affected families is unknown to date. Here we clarified the effects of USH1B mutations on human myosin VIIa motor function for the first time. The missense mutations of USH1B significantly inhibited the actin activation of ATPase activity of myosin VIIa. G25R, R212C, A397D and E450Q mutations abolished the actin-activated ATPase activity completely. P503L mutation increased the basal ATPase activity for 2-3 fold, but reduced the actin-activated ATPase activity to 50% of the wild type. While all the mutations examined, except for R302H, reduced the affinity for actin and the ATP hydrolysis cycling rate, they did not largely decrease the rate of ADP release from acto-myosin, suggesting that the mutations reduce the duty ratio of myosin VIIa. Taken together, the results suggest that the mutations responsible for USH1B cause the complete loss of the actin-activated ATPase activity or the reduction of duty ratio of myosin VIIa.

‣ Mutations in the c-Kit Gene Disrupt Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling during Tumor Development in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands1

Tetsu, Osamu; Phuchareon, Janyaporn; Chou, Annie; Cox, Darren P; Eisele, David W; Jordan, Richard CK
Fonte: Neoplasia Press Inc. Publicador: Neoplasia Press Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is considered to be a positive regulator of tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance. This study reports an opposite finding: we have found strong evidence that the MAPK pathway is inhibited in a subset of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) of the salivary glands. ACC tumors consistently overexpress the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) c-Kit, which has been considered a therapeutic target. We performed mutational analysis of the c-Kit gene (KIT in 17 cases of ACC and found that 2 cases of ACC had distinct missense mutations in KIT at both the genomic DNA and messenger RNA levels. These mutations caused G664R and R796G amino acid substitutions in the kinase domains. Surprisingly, the mutations were functionally inactive in cultured cells. We observed a significant reduction of MAPK (ERK1/2) activity in tumor cells, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. We performed further mutational analysis of the downstream effectors in the c-Kit pathway in the genes HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN. This analysis revealed that two ACC tumors without KIT mutations had missense mutations in either KRAS or BRAF, causing S17N K-Ras and V590I B-Raf mutants, respectively. Our functional analysis showed that proteins with these mutations were also inactive in cultured cells. This is the first time that MAPK activity from the RTK signaling has been shown to be inhibited by gene mutations during tumor development. Because ACC seems to proliferate despite inactivation of the c-Kit signaling pathway...

‣ Expansion of mutation spectrum, determination of mutation cluster regions and predictive structural classification of SPAST mutations in hereditary spastic paraplegia

Shoukier, Moneef; Neesen, Juergen; Sauter, Simone M; Argyriou, Loukas; Doerwald, Nadine; Pantakani, DV Krishna; Mannan, Ashraf U
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The SPAST gene encoding for spastin plays a central role in the genetically heterogeneous group of diseases termed hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). In this study, we attempted to expand and refine the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of SPAST associated HSP by examining a large cohort of HSP patients/families. Screening of 200 unrelated HSP cases for mutations in the SPAST gene led to detection of 57 mutations (28.5%), of which 47 were distinct and 29 were novel mutations. The distribution analysis of known SPAST mutations over the structural domains of spastin led to the identification of several regions where the mutations were clustered. Mainly, the clustering was observed in the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) domain; however, significant clustering was also observed in the MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking), MTBD (microtubule-binding domain) and an N-terminal region (228–269 residues). Furthermore, we used a previously generated structural model of spastin as a framework to classify the missense mutations in the AAA domain from the HSP patients into different structural/functional groups. Our data also suggest a tentative genotype–phenotype correlation and indicate that the missense mutations could cause an earlier onset of the disease.

‣ Overlapping syndrome with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy, Dunnigan variety and Cardiomyopathy due to Amino-terminal Heterozygous Missense lamin A/C Mutations

Subramanyam, Lalitha; Simha, Vinaya; Garg, Abhimanyu
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Familial partial lipodystrophy, Dunnigan variety (FPLD) is a well-recognized autosomal dominant disorder due to heterozygous missense mutations in lamin A/C (LMNA) gene. Most of the FPLD patients harbor mutations in the C-terminal of the lamin A/C and do not develop cardiomyopathy. On the other hand, affected subjects from three FPLD pedigrees with heterozygous R28W, R60G and R62G LMNA mutations in the amino-terminal had associated cardiomyopathy presenting as premature onset of congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction system disturbances. We report three new FPLD pedigrees presenting with cardiomyopathy associated with heterozygous LMNA mutations in the amino-terminal region. Two of them had previously reported R60G and R62G mutations and one has a novel D192V mutation. Affected subjects belonging to the pedigree with heterozygous R62G mutation had atrial fibrillation and required pacemaker implantation. The affected subjects from the other pedigrees with R60G and D192V mutation developed severe cardiomyopathy requiring defibrillator implantation and cardiac transplantation before 30 years of age in some and premature death in the fourth decade in others. Thus, our report provides further evidence of association of a multisystem dystrophy syndrome in FPLD patients harboring amino-terminal mutations in LMNA. Increased understanding of the genotype-phenotype association might help devise clinical strategies aimed at preventing devastating manifestations of cardiomyopathy including heart failure...

‣ Mutations in FKBP10, which result in Bruck syndrome and recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, inhibit the hydroxylation of telopeptide lysines in bone collagen

Schwarze, Ulrike; Cundy, Tim; Pyott, Shawna M.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Hegde, Madhuri R.; Bank, Ruud A.; Pals, Gerard; Ankala, Arunkanth; Conneely, Karen; Seaver, Laurie; Yandow, Suzanne M.; Raney, Ellen; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Stoler, Joan; Ben-Ne
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although biallelic mutations in non-collagen genes account for <10% of individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, the characterization of these genes has identified new pathways and potential interventions that could benefit even those with mutations in type I collagen genes. We identified mutations in FKBP10, which encodes the 65 kDa prolyl cis–trans isomerase, FKBP65, in 38 members of 21 families with OI. These include 10 families from the Samoan Islands who share a founder mutation. Of the mutations, three are missense; the remainder either introduce premature termination codons or create frameshifts both of which result in mRNA instability. In four families missense mutations result in loss of most of the protein. The clinical effects of these mutations are short stature, a high incidence of joint contractures at birth and progressive scoliosis and fractures, but there is remarkable variability in phenotype even within families. The loss of the activity of FKBP65 has several effects: type I procollagen secretion is slightly delayed, the stabilization of the intact trimer is incomplete and there is diminished hydroxylation of the telopeptide lysyl residues involved in intermolecular cross-link formation in bone. The phenotype overlaps with that seen with mutations in PLOD2 (Bruck syndrome II)...

‣ Mutations in Planar Cell Polarity Gene SCRIB Are Associated with Spina Bifida

Lei, Yunping; Zhu, Huiping; Duhon, Cody; Yang, Wei; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Shaw, Gary M.; Finnell, Richard H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/07/2013 Português
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Neural tube defects (NTDs) (OMIM #182940) including anencephaly, spina bifida and craniorachischisis, are severe congenital malformations that affect 0.5–1 in 1,000 live births in the United States, with varying prevalence around the world. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes are believed to cause a variety of NTDs in both mice and humans. SCRIB is a PCP-associated gene. Mice that are homozygous for the Scrib p.I285K and circletail (Crc) mutations, present with the most severe form of NTDs, namely craniorachischisis. A recent study reported that mutations in SCRIB were associated with craniorachischisis in humans, but whether SCRIB mutations contribute to increased spina bifida risk is still unknown. We sequenced the SCRIB gene in 192 infants with spina bifida and 190 healthy controls. Among the spina bifida patients, we identified five novel missense mutations that were predicted-to-be-deleterious by the PolyPhen software. Of these five mutations, three of them (p.P1043L, p.P1332L, p.L1520R) significantly affected the subcellular localization of SCRIB. In addition, we demonstrated that the craniorachischisis mouse line-90 mutation I285K, also affected SCRIB subcellular localization. In contrast, only one novel missense mutation (p.A1257T) was detected in control samples...

‣ Rare Germline Mutations in PALB2 and Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Study

Tischkowitz, Marc; Capanu, Marinela; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Li, Lili; Liang, Xiaolin; Vallée, Maxime P.; Tavtigian, Sean; Concannon, Patrick; Foulkes, William D.; Bernstein, Leslie; ; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Begg, Colin B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Germline mutations in the PALB2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing breast but little is known about the frequencies of rare variants in PALB2 and the nature of the variants that influence risk. We selected participants recruited to the Women’s Environment, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study and screened lymphocyte DNA from cases with contralateral breast cancer (n = 559) and matched controls with unilateral breast cancer (n = 565) for PALB2 mutations. Five pathogenic PALB2 mutations were identified among the cases (0.9%) versus none among the controls (p=0.04). The first degree female relatives of these five carriers demonstrated significantly higher incidence of breast cancer than relatives of non-carrier cases, indicating that pathogenic PALB2 mutations confer an estimated 5.3 fold increase in risk (95% CI: 1.8–13.2). The frequency of rare (<1% MAF) missense mutations was similar in both groups (23 versus 21). Our findings confirm in a population-based study setting of women with breast cancer the strong risk associated with truncating mutations in PALB2 that has been reported in family studies. Conversely, there is no evidence from this study that rare PALB2 missense mutations strongly influence breast cancer risk.

‣ Functional characterization of human CTC1 mutations reveals novel mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of the telomere disease Coats plus

Gu, Peili; Chang, Sandy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Coats plus is a rare recessive disorder characterized by intracranial calcifications, hematological abnormalities, and retinal vascular defects. This disease results from mutations in CTC1, a member of the CTC1–STN1–TEN1 (CST) complex critical for telomere replication. Telomeres are specialized DNA/protein structures essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Several patients with Coats plus display critically shortened telomeres, suggesting that telomere dysfunction plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. These patients inherit CTC1 mutations in a compound heterozygous manner, with one allele encoding a frameshift mutant and the other a missense mutant. How these mutations impact upon telomere function is unknown. We report here the first biochemical characterization of human CTC1 mutations. We found that all CTC1 frameshift mutations generated truncated or unstable protein products, none of which were able to form a complex with STN1–TEN1 on telomeres, resulting in progressive telomere shortening and formation of fused chromosomes. Missense mutations are able to form the CST complex at telomeres, but their expression levels are often repressed by the frameshift mutants. Our results also demonstrate for the first time that CTC1 mutations promote telomere dysfunction by decreasing the stability of STN1 to reduce its ability to interact with DNA Polα...

‣ A positive genotype–phenotype correlation in a large cohort of patients with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ia and Pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism and 33 newly identified mutations in the GNAS gene

Thiele, Susanne; Werner, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Brix, Bettina; Staedt, Pia; Struve, Dagmar; Reiz, Benedikt; Farida, Jennane; Hiort, Olaf
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Maternally inherited inactivating GNAS mutations are the most common cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) due to Gsα deficiency. Paternally inherited inactivating mutations lead to isolated AHO signs characterizing pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). Mutations are distributed throughout the Gsα coding exons of GNAS and there is a lack of genotype–phenotype correlation. In this study, we sequenced exon 1–13 of GNAS in a large cohort of PHPIa- and PPHP patients and identified 58 different mutations in 88 patients and 27 relatives. Thirty-three mutations including 15 missense mutations were newly discovered. Furthermore, we found three hot spots: a known hotspot (p.D190MfsX14), a second at codon 166 (p.R166C), and a third at the exon 5 acceptor splice site (c.435 + 1G>A), found in 15, 5, and 4 unrelated patients, respectively. Comparing the clinical features to the molecular genetic data, a significantly higher occurrence of subcutaneous calcifications in patients harboring truncating versus missense mutations was demonstrated. Thus, in the largest cohort of PHPIa patients described to date, we extend the spectrum of known GNAS mutations and hot spots and demonstrate for the first time a correlation between the genetic defects and the expression of a clinical AHO-feature.

‣ Mutations in the KDM5C ARID Domain and Their Plausible Association with Syndromic Claes-Jensen-Type Disease

Peng, Yunhui; Suryadi, Jimmy; Yang, Ye; Kucukkal, Tugba G.; Cao, Weiguo; Alexov, Emil
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/11/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
384.6652%
Mutations in KDM5C gene are linked to X-linked mental retardation, the syndromic Claes-Jensen-type disease. This study focuses on non-synonymous mutations in the KDM5C ARID domain and evaluates the effects of two disease-associated missense mutations (A77T and D87G) and three not-yet-classified missense mutations (R108W, N142S, and R179H). We predict the ARID domain’s folding and binding free energy changes due to mutations, and also study the effects of mutations on protein dynamics. Our computational results indicate that A77T and D87G mutants have minimal effect on the KDM5C ARID domain stability and DNA binding. In parallel, the change in the free energy unfolding caused by the mutants A77T and D87G were experimentally measured by urea-induced unfolding experiments and were shown to be similar to the in silico predictions. The evolutionary conservation analysis shows that the disease-associated mutations are located in a highly-conserved part of the ARID structure (N-terminal domain), indicating their importance for the KDM5C function. N-terminal residues’ high conservation suggests that either the ARID domain utilizes the N-terminal to interact with other KDM5C domains or the N-terminal is involved in some yet unknown function. The analysis indicates that...