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‣ Probable mechanisms underlying interallelic complementation and temperature-sensitivity of mutations at the shibire locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

Grant, D; Unadkat, S; Katzen, A; Krishnan, K S; Ramaswami, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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The shibire locus of Drosophila melanogaster encodes dynamin, a GTPase required for the fission of endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane. Biochemical studies indicate that mammalian dynamin is part of a complex containing multiple dynamin subunits and other polypeptides. To gain insight into sequences of dynamin critical for its function, we have characterized in detail a collection of conditional and lethal shi alleles. We describe a probable null allele of shi and show that its properties are distinct from those of two classes of lethal alleles (termed I and II) that show intergroup, interallelic complementation. Sequenced class I alleles, which display dominant properties, carry missense mutations in conserved residues in the GTPase domain of dynamin. In contrast, the sequenced class II alleles, which appear completely recessive, carry missense mutations in conserved residues of a previously uncharacterized "middle domain" that lies adjacent to the GTPase region. These data suggest that critical interactions mediated by this middle domain are severely affected by the class II lethal mutations; thus, the mutant sequences should be very useful for confirming the in vivo relevance of interactions observed in vitro. Viable heteroallelic combinations of shi lethals show rapid and reversible temperature-sensitive paralytic phenotypes hitherto only described for the ts alleles of shi. When taken together with the molecular analysis of shi mutations...

‣ An allelic series of mutations in the kit ligand gene of mice. I. Identification of point mutations in seven ethylnitrosourea-induced Kitl(Steel) alleles.

Rajaraman, S; Davis, W S; Mahakali-Zama, A; Evans, H K; Russell, L B; Bedell, M A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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An allelic series of mutations is an extremely valuable genetic resource for understanding gene function. Here we describe eight mutant alleles at the Steel (Sl) locus of mice that were induced with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). The product of the Sl locus is Kit ligand (or Kitl; also known as mast cell growth factor, stem cell factor, and Steel factor), which is a member of the helical cytokine superfamily and is the ligand for the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Seven of the eight ENU-induced Kitl(Sl) alleles, of which five cause missense mutations, one causes a nonsense mutation and exon skipping, and one affects a splice site, were found to contain point mutations in Kitl. Interestingly, each of the five missense mutations affects residues that are within, or very near, conserved alpha-helical domains of Kitl. These ENU-induced mutants should provide important information on structural requirements for function of Kitl and other helical cytokines.

‣ Calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) mutations increase expression of calreticulin and ryanodine receptors, causing catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

Song, Lei; Alcalai, Ronny; Arad, Michael; Wolf, Cordula M.; Toka, Okan; Conner, David A.; Berul, Charles I.; Eldar, Michael; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, J.G.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Catecholamine-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial disorder caused by cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) or calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) gene mutations. To define how CASQ2 mutations cause CPVT, we produced and studied mice carrying a human D307H missense mutation (CASQ307/307) or a CASQ2-null mutation (CASQΔE9/ΔE9). Both CASQ2 mutations caused identical consequences. Young mutant mice had structurally normal hearts but stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias; aging produced cardiac hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Mutant myocytes had reduced CASQ2 and increased calreticulin and RyR2 (with normal phosphorylated proportions) but unchanged calstabin levels, as well as reduced total sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+, prolonged Ca2+ release, and delayed Ca2+ reuptake. Stress further diminished Ca2+ transients, elevated cytosolic Ca2+, and triggered frequent, spontaneous SR Ca2+ release. Treatment with Mg2+, a RyR2 inhibitor, normalized myocyte Ca2+ cycling and decreased CPVT in mutant mice, indicating RyR2 dysfunction was critical to mutant CASQ2 pathophysiology. We conclude that CPVT-causing CASQ2 missense mutations function as null alleles. In the absence of CASQ2, calreticulin, a fetal Ca2+-binding protein normally downregulated at birth...

‣ Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Calcium-Permeable Ion Channel TRPV4 Produce Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia, Kozlowski Type and Metatropic Dysplasia

Krakow, Deborah; Vriens, Joris; Camacho, Natalia; Luong, Phi; Deixler, Hannah; Funari, Tara L.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Irons, Mira B.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Sadler, Laurie; Okenfuss, Ericka B.; Janssens, Annelies; Voets, Thomas; Rimoin, David L.; Lachman, Ralph S.
Fonte: American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2009 Português
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The spondylometaphyseal dysplasias (SMDs) are a group of short-stature disorders distinguished by abnormalities in the vertebrae and the metaphyses of the tubular bones. SMD Kozlowski type (SMDK) is a well-defined autosomal-dominant SMD characterized by significant scoliosis and mild metaphyseal abnormalities in the pelvis. The vertebrae exhibit platyspondyly and overfaced pedicles similar to autosomal-dominant brachyolmia, which can result from heterozygosity for activating mutations in the gene encoding TRPV4, a calcium-permeable ion channel. Mutation analysis in six out of six patients with SMDK demonstrated heterozygosity for missense mutations in TRPV4, and one mutation, predicting a R594H substitution, was recurrent in four patients. Similar to autosomal-dominant brachyolmia, the mutations altered basal calcium channel activity in vitro. Metatropic dysplasia is another SMD that has been proposed to have both clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Patients with the nonlethal form of metatropic dysplasia present with a progressive scoliosis, widespread metaphyseal involvement of the appendicular skeleton, and carpal ossification delay. Because of some similar radiographic features between SMDK and metatropic dysplasia, TRPV4 was tested as a disease gene for nonlethal metatropic dysplasia. In two sporadic cases...

‣ Identification and Characterization of Eight Novel SMPD1 Mutations Causing Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease

Desnick, Jonathan P; Kim, Jungmin; He, Xingxuan; Wasserstein, Melissa P; Simonaro, Calogera M; Schuchman, Edward H
Fonte: ScholarOne Publicador: ScholarOne
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) result from the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), due to mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene. Here we report the identification, characterization and genotype/phenotype correlations of eight novel mutations in six unrelated NPD patients. These mutations included seven missense mutations: c.631T > C (p.W211R), c.757G > C (p.D253H), c.940G > A (p.V314M), c.1280A > G (p.H427R), c.1564A > G (p.N522S), c.1575G > C (p.Q525H) and c.1729A > G (p.H577R), and a novel frameshift mutation, c.1657delACCGCCT (fsT553). Each missense mutation was expressed in 293T or COS-7 cells; mutant enzymes p.W211R, p.D253H, p.H427R and p.H577R had <1% of expressed wild-type activity, whereas p.V314M, p.N522S and p.Q525H had 21.7%, 10.1% and 64% of expressed wild-type activity, respectively. The c.1564A > G mutation obliterated a known N-glycosylation site and its p.N522S mutant enzyme had ~10% of expressed wild-type activity. Western blot analysis revealed that each mutant protein was expressed at near wild-type amounts, despite their differences in residual activity. The novel seven-base deletion occurred at codon 553, leading to a premature truncation after residue 609. The expression studies predicted the clinical phenotypes of the six patients: two type A patients had genotypes with only type A alleles [c.631T > C (p.W211R)...

‣ Mutations in POLR3A and POLR3B Encoding RNA Polymerase III Subunits Cause an Autosomal-Recessive Hypomyelinating Leukoencephalopathy

Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Hamada, Keisuke; Yamashita, Akio; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Shiina, Masaaki; Kondo, Yukiko; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Doi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Inoue,
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2011 Português
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Congenital hypomyelinating disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited leukoencephalopathies characterized by abnormal myelin formation. We have recently reported a hypomyelinating syndrome characterized by diffuse cerebral hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of three unrelated individuals with HCAHC and identified compound heterozygous mutations in POLR3B in two individuals. The mutations include a nonsense mutation, a splice-site mutation, and two missense mutations at evolutionally conserved amino acids. Using reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing, we demonstrated that the splice-site mutation caused deletion of exon 18 from POLR3B mRNA and that the transcript harboring the nonsense mutation underwent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. We also identified compound heterozygous missense mutations in POLR3A in the remaining individual. POLR3A and POLR3B encode the largest and second largest subunits of RNA Polymerase III (Pol III), RPC1 and RPC2, respectively. RPC1 and RPC2 together form the active center of the polymerase and contribute to the catalytic activity of the polymerase. Pol III is involved in the transcription of small noncoding RNAs...

‣ Functional Studies of MLC1 Mutations in Chinese Patients with Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts

Xie, Han; Wang, Jingmin; Dhaunchak, Ajit Singh; Shang, Jing; Kou, Liping; Guo, Mangmang; Wu, Ye; Gu, Qiang; Colman, David; Wu, Xiru; Jiang, Yuwu
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2012 Português
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Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC, MIM# 604004) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease mostly resulting from MLC1 mutations. In this study, we finished the functional analysis of MLC1 mutations identified recently in Chinese patients, including five newly described missense mutations (R22Q, A32V, G73E, A275T, Y278H), one known nonsense mutation (Y198X), and two known missense mutations (S69L, T118M). We found MLC1wt was localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant R22Q, A32V, G73E, S69L and T118M were trapped in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when we transfected the wild-type and mutant MLC1 in U373MG cells. Compared to wild type, the mutant G73E, T118M, Y198X and A275T transcript decreased and all mutants except R22Q had lower protein expression in transfected U373MG cells. Therefore, we propose that all these eight MLC1 mutations had functional effect either on their protein/mRNA expression, or on their intracellular protein localization, or both.

‣ Disease mutations in disordered regions—exception to the rule?†

Vacic, Vladimir; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Although for some of these conditions molecular mechanisms are now better understood, the big picture connecting distinct structural properties and functional repertoire of IDPs to pathogenesis and disease progression is still incomplete. Recent studies suggest that signaling and regulatory roles carried out by IDPs require them to be tightly regulated, and that altered IDP abundance may lead to disease. Here, we propose another link between IDPs and disease that takes into account disease-associated missense mutations located in the intrinsically disordered regions. We argue that such mutations are more prevalent and have larger functional impact than previously thought. In addition, we demonstrate that deleterious amino acid substitutions that cause disorder-to-order transitions are particularly enriched among disease mutations compared to neutral polymorphisms. Finally, we discuss potential differences in functional outcomes between disease mutations in ordered and disordered regions, and challenge the conventional structure-centric view of missense mutations.

‣ Molecular Genetic Characterization of Novel Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase 1 Mutations Causing Niemann–Pick Disease

Tóth, Beata; Erdős, Melinda; Székely, Annamária; Ritli, László; Bagossi, Péter; Sümegi, János; Maródi, László
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2011 Português
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Niemann–Pick disease (NPD) types A and B are autosomal recessive disorders caused by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency due to mutation in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 gene (SMPD1). Although a number of SMPD1 mutations were reported, expression studies were performed for only a small number of missense mutations. We evaluated three unrelated patients with clinical manifestations of NPD. Sequence analysis revealed two previously described (S248R and W391G) and two novel (G247D and F572L) missense mutations. To analyze the effects of the novel mutations on ASM function, cDNA was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in COS-7 cells. In vitro biochemical assays revealed marked deficiency of ASM activity consistent with the disease phenotype in cells homoallelic for each mutation. We show that each mutation dramatically reduced half-life and catalytic activity of ASM with more pronounced decrease by the G247D mutation. These data suggest that impaired protein stability and decreased enzyme activity are responsible for the disease in sphingomyelinase-deficient patients carrying the G247D and F572L mutations.

‣ Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase α catalytic subunit gene somatic mutations in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours

CAPODANNO, ALESSANDRA; BOLDRINI, LAURA; ALÌ, GRETA; PELLICCIONI, SERENA; MUSSI, ALFREDO; FONTANINI, GABRIELLA
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (BP-NETs) comprise a large spectrum of tumours including typical carcinoids (TCs), atypical carcinoids (ACs), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) and small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) that exhibit considerably different biological aggressiveness and clinical behaviours. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase α catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) gene is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of human cancers through gene amplification, deletions or somatic missense mutations within the helical and catalytic domains. However, the PIK3CA gene status in BP-NETs has yet to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the PIK3CA gene status in a large series of BP-NETs by direct gene sequencing and to analyse its correlation with the main clinicopathological parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrated for the first time a high frequency of somatic missense mutations (23.2%) in the PIK3CA gene in a series of 190 BP-NETs, including 75 TCs, 23 ACs, 17 LCNECs and 75 SCLCs. The frequency of the PIK3CA gene mutation in the kinase domain was higher (17.9%) than that in the helical domain (5.3%). When the mutational status of the PIK3CA gene was compared with the main clinical and pathological characteristics of the BP-NET patients...

‣ Cathepsin F mutations cause Type B Kufs disease, an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

Smith, Katherine R.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Canafoglia, Laura; Andermann, Eva; Damiano, John; Morbin, Michela; Bruni, Amalia C.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Cossette, Patrick; Saftig, Paul; Grötzinger, Joachim; Schwake, Michael; Andermann, Frederick; Staropoli, Jo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Kufs disease, an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is challenging to diagnose and genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in CLN6 were recently identified in recessive Kufs disease presenting as progressive myoclonus epilepsy (Type A), whereas the molecular basis of cases presenting with dementia and motor features (Type B) is unknown. We performed genome-wide linkage mapping of two families with recessive Type B Kufs disease and identified a single region on chromosome 11 to which both families showed linkage. Exome sequencing of five samples from the two families identified homozygous and compound heterozygous missense mutations in CTSF within this linkage region. We subsequently sequenced CTSF in 22 unrelated individuals with suspected recessive Kufs disease, and identified an additional patient with compound heterozygous mutations. CTSF encodes cathepsin F, a lysosomal cysteine protease, dysfunction of which is a highly plausible candidate mechanism for a storage disorder like ceroid lipofuscinosis. In silico modeling suggested the missense mutations would alter protein structure and function. Moreover, re-examination of a previously published mouse knockout of Ctsf shows that it recapitulates the light and electron-microscopic pathological features of Kufs disease. Although CTSF mutations account for a minority of cases of type B Kufs...

‣ Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosislinked to gain-of-function mutations in mechanically activated PIEZO1 ion channels

Albuisson, Juliette; Murthy, Swetha E.; Bandell, Michael; Coste, Bertrand; Louis-dit-Picard, Hélène; Mathur, Jayanti; Fénéant-Thibault, Madeleine; Tertian, Gérard; de Jaureguiberry, Jean-Pierre; Syfuss, Pierre-Yves; Cahalan, Stuart; Garçon, Loic; To
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) is a genetic condition with defective red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties that causes an imbalance in intracellular cation concentrations. Recently, two missense mutations inthe mechanically activated PIEZO1(FAM38A) ion channel were associated with DHS. However, it is not known how these mutations affect PIEZO1 function. Here, by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a large pedigree and Sanger sequencing in two additional kindreds and 11 unrelated DHS cases, we identifythree novel missense mutations and one recurrent duplication in PIEZO1, demonstrating that it is the major gene for DHS. All the DHS-associated mutations locate at C-terminal half of PIEZO1. Remarkably, we find that all PIEZO1 mutations give rise to mechanically activated currents that inactivate more slowly than wild-type currents. This gain-of-function PIEZO1 phenotype provides insight that helps to explain the increased permeability of cations in RBCs of DHS patients. Our findings also suggest a new role for mechanotransduction in RBC biology and pathophysiology.

‣ Gain-of-Function Mutations in SCN11A Cause Familial Episodic Pain

Zhang, Xiang Yang; Wen, Jingmin; Yang, Wei; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Luna; Zheng, Liang Hong; Wang, Tao; Ran, Kaikai; Li, Yulei; Li, Xiangyang; Xu, Ming; Luo, Junyu; Feng, Shenglei; Ma, Xixiang; Ma, Hongying; Chai, Zuying; Zhou, Zhuan; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Xue; L
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/2013 Português
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Many ion channel genes have been associated with human genetic pain disorders. Here we report two large Chinese families with autosomal-dominant episodic pain. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan with microsatellite markers after excluding mutations in three known genes (SCN9A, SCN10A, and TRPA1) that cause similar pain syndrome to our findings, and we mapped the genetic locus to a 7.81 Mb region on chromosome 3p22.3–p21.32. By using whole-exome sequencing followed by conventional Sanger sequencing, we identified two missense mutations in the gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.9 (SCN11A): c.673C>T (p.Arg225Cys) and c.2423C>G (p.Ala808Gly) (one in each family). Each mutation showed a perfect cosegregation with the pain phenotype in the corresponding family, and neither of them was detected in 1,021 normal individuals. Both missense mutations were predicted to change a highly conserved amino acid residue of the human Nav1.9 channel. We expressed the two SCN11A mutants in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and showed that both mutations enhanced the channel’s electrical activities and induced hyperexcitablity of DRG neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that gain-of-function mutations in SCN11A can be causative of an autosomal-dominant episodic pain disorder.

‣ De novo TBR1 mutations in sporadic autism disrupt protein functions

Deriziotis, Pelagia; O’Roak, Brian J.; Graham, Sarah A.; Estruch, Sara B.; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Bernier, Raphael A.; Gerdts, Jennifer; Shendure, Jay; Eichler, Evan E.; Fisher, Simon E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/09/2014 Português
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Next-generation sequencing recently revealed that recurrent disruptive mutations in a few genes may account for 1% of sporadic autism cases. Coupling these novel genetic data to empirical assays of protein function can illuminate crucial molecular networks. Here we demonstrate the power of the approach, performing the first functional analyses of TBR1 variants identified in sporadic autism. De novo truncating and missense mutations disrupt multiple aspects of TBR1 function, including subcellular localization, interactions with co-regulators and transcriptional repression. Missense mutations inherited from unaffected parents did not disturb function in our assays. We show that TBR1 homodimerizes, that it interacts with FOXP2, a transcription factor implicated in speech/language disorders, and that this interaction is disrupted by pathogenic mutations affecting either protein. These findings support the hypothesis that de novo mutations in sporadic autism have severe functional consequences. Moreover, they uncover neurogenetic mechanisms that bridge different neurodevelopmental disorders involving language deficits.

‣ Structure-based predictions broadly link transcription factor mutations to gene expression changes in cancers

Ashworth, Justin; Bernard, Brady; Reynolds, Sheila; Plaisier, Christopher L.; Shmulevich, Ilya; Baliga, Nitin S.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Thousands of unique mutations in transcription factors (TFs) arise in cancers, and the functional and biological roles of relatively few of these have been characterized. Here, we used structure-based methods developed specifically for DNA-binding proteins to systematically predict the consequences of mutations in several TFs that are frequently mutated in cancers. The explicit consideration of protein–DNA interactions was crucial to explain the roles and prevalence of mutations in TP53 and RUNX1 in cancers, and resulted in a higher specificity of detection for known p53-regulated genes among genetic associations between TP53 genotypes and genome-wide expression in The Cancer Genome Atlas, compared to existing methods of mutation assessment. Biophysical predictions also indicated that the relative prevalence of TP53 missense mutations in cancer is proportional to their thermodynamic impacts on protein stability and DNA binding, which is consistent with the selection for the loss of p53 transcriptional function in cancers. Structure and thermodynamics-based predictions of the impacts of missense mutations that focus on specific molecular functions may be increasingly useful for the precise and large-scale inference of aberrant molecular phenotypes in cancer and other complex diseases.

‣ Collocation of androgen receptor gene mutations in prostate cancer

Buchanan, G.; Greenberg, N.; Scher, H.; Harris, J.; Marshall, V.; Tilley, W.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Cancer Research Publicador: Amer Assoc Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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Consistent with both the development of the normal prostate gland and prostate tumorigenesis being dependent on testicular androgens, targeting the androgen-signaling axis (i.e., androgen ablation therapy) remains the predominant treatment regime for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Although there is a very good initial response to androgen ablation, these treatments are essentially palliative. Recent evidence suggests that treatment failure may not result from a loss of androgen signaling but, rather, from the acquisition of genetic changes that lead to aberrant activation of the androgen-signaling axis. A consistent finding is that androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations, present in metastatic prostate cancer and in human prostate cancer cell lines as well as in xenograft and other animal models, result in decreased specificity of ligand-binding and inappropriate receptor activation by estrogens, progestins, adrenal androgens, glucocorticoids and/or AR antagonists. Because a significant proportion of missense mutations in the AR gene reported in prostate cancer collocate to the signature sequence and AF-2, two discrete regions of the ligand-binding domain critical for androgen signaling, we recently proposed that collocation of mutations identified in prostate cancer would identify additional regions of the AR important in receptor function. This approach led to the identification of a four-amino acid region at the boundary of the hinge and ligand-binding domains of the receptor that forms half of a potential protein-protein binding site. AR gene mutations have also been identified that collocate to areas in the DNA-binding domain...

‣ Interference with splicing of Presenilin transcripts has potent dominant negative effects on Presenilin activity

Nornes, S.; Newman, M.; Verdile, G.; Wells, S.; Stoick-Cooper, C.; Tucker, B.; Frederich-Sleptsova, I.; Martins, R.; Lardelli, M.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Missense mutations in the PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1) gene frequently underlie familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). Nonsense and most splicing mutations result in the synthesis of truncated peptides, and it has been assumed that truncated PSEN1 protein is functionless so that heterozygotes for these mutations are unaffected. Some FAD mutations affecting PSEN1 mRNA splicing cause loss of exon 8 or 9 sequences while maintaining the reading frame. We attempted to model these exon-loss mutations in zebrafish embryos by injecting morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (morpholinos) directed against splice acceptor sites in zebrafish psen1 transcripts. However, this produced cryptic changes in splicing potentially forming mRNAs encoding truncated presenilin proteins. Aberrant splicing in the region between exons 6 and 8 produces potent dominant negative effects on Psen1 protein activity, including Notch signalling, and causes a hydrocephalus phenotype. Reductions in Psen1 activity feedback positively to increase psen1 transcription through a mechanism apparently independent of -secretase. We present evidence that the dominant negative effects are mediated through production of truncated Psen1 peptides that interfere with the normal activity of both Psen1 and Psen2. Mutations causing such truncations would be dominant lethal in embryo development. Somatic cellular changes in ageing cells that interfere with PSEN1 splicing...

‣ The Spectrum of Mutations and Molecular Pathogenesis of Hemophilia A in 181 Portuguese Patients

David, D; Ventura, C; Moreira, I; Diniz, MJ; Antunes, M; Tavares, A; Araújo, F; Morais, S; Campos, M; Lavinha, J; Kemball-Cook, G
Fonte: Ferrata Storti Foundation Publicador: Ferrata Storti Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Disease-causing alterations within the F8 gene were identified in 177 hemophilia A families of Portuguese origin. The spectrum of non-inversion F8 mutations in 101 families included 67 different alterations, namely: 36 missense, 8 nonsense and 4 splice site mutations, as well as 19 insertions/deletions. Thirty-four of these mutations are novel. Molecular modeling allowed prediction of the conformational changes introduced by selected amino acid substitutions and their correlation with the patients' phenotypes. The relatively frequent, population-specific, missense mutations together with de novo alterations can lead to significant differences in the spectrum of F8 mutations among different populations.

‣ Mutations that inactivate a yeast transcriptional regulatory protein cluster in an evolutionarily conserved DNA binding domain.

Johnston, M; Dover, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1987 Português
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The protein encoded by the GAL4 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to DNA upstream of several genes and activates transcription. To try to understand these processes, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of GAL4. Here we report that nearly all missense mutations in GAL4, selected in vivo to lack function of the protein, cluster in the small region of the gene that encodes the DNA binding domain. About half of these mutations alters a cysteine-rich region of the protein highly homologous to several eukaryotic DNA binding proteins; the other half alters some of the 20 amino acids adjacent to the cysteine-rich region. Nearly all of the missense mutations that alter the DNA binding domain abolish the DNA binding activity of GAL4 protein measured in vitro. In contrast, nearly all of the mutations that alter the 3' 95% of the gene that encodes the transcription activation function are nonsense or frameshift mutations. These results support the idea that the conserved cysteine-rich sequence motif is directly involved in binding of several eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins to DNA.

‣ Mutations in LOXHD1, a Recessive-Deafness Locus, Cause Dominant Late-Onset Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy

Riazuddin, S. Amer; Parker, David S.; McGlumphy, Elyse J.; Oh, Edwin C.; Iliff, Benjamin W.; Schmedt, Thore; Jurkunas, Ula; Schleif, Robert; Katsanis, Nicholas; Gottsch, John D.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2012 Português
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Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) is a genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium and is the most common cause of corneal transplantation in the United States. Previously, we mapped a late-onset FCD locus, FCD2, on chromosome 18q. Here, we present next-generation sequencing of all coding exons in the FCD2 critical interval in a multigenerational pedigree in which FCD segregates as an autosomal-dominant trait. We identified a missense change in LOXHD1, a gene causing progressive hearing loss in humans, as the sole variant capable of explaining the phenotype in this pedigree. We observed LOXHD1 mRNA in cultured human corneal endothelial cells, whereas antibody staining of both human and mouse corneas showed staining in the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Corneal sections of the original proband were stained for LOXHD1 and demonstrated a distinct increase in antibody punctate staining in the endothelium and Descemet membrane; punctate staining was absent from both normal corneas and FCD corneas negative for causal LOXHD1 mutations. Subsequent interrogation of a cohort of >200 sporadic affected individuals identified another 15 heterozygous missense mutations that were absent from >800 control chromosomes. Furthermore, in silico analyses predicted that these mutations reside on the surface of the protein and are likely to affect the protein's interface and protein-protein interactions. Finally...