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‣ PIK3CA exon 20 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

Mangone, Flavia R.; Bobrovnitchaia, Irina G.; Salaorni, Sibeli; Manuli, Erika; Nagai, Maria A.
Fonte: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO Publicador: HOSPITAL CLINICAS, UNIV SAO PAULO; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJECTIVES: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT axis is an important cell-signaling pathway that mediates cell proliferation and survival, two biological processes that regulate malignant cell growth. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA gene encodes the p110 alpha subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase protein. There are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations in several types of human tumors, and they are frequently observed in breast cancer. However, these mutations have not been investigated in Brazilian breast cancer patients. METHODS: PCR-SSCP and direct DNA sequencing were performed to identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseCA exon 9 and exon 20 mutations in 86 patients with sporadic breast cancer. The relationships between PIK3CA mutations and patient clinicopathological characteristics and survival were analyzed. The presence of the TP53 mutation was also examined. RESULTS: Twenty-three (27%) of the 86 primary breast tumors contained PIK3CA mutations. In exons 9 and 20, we identified the hotspot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R, and we identified two new missense mutations (I1022V and L1028S) and one nonsense (R992X) mutation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA exon 20 mutations were associated with poor overall survival and TP53 gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations are common in tumors in Brazilian breast cancer patients...

‣ Identification and characterization of novel mutations of the aspartoacylase gene in non-Jewish patients with Canavan disease

Zeng, B. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Ribeiro, L. A.; Leone, P.; De Gaspari, R.; Kim, S. J.; Raghavan, S.; Ong, E.; Pastores, G. M.; Kolodny, E. H.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 557-570
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Canavan disease, an inherited leukodystrophy, is caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene. It is most common among children of Ashkenazi Jewish descent but has been diagnosed in many diverse ethnic groups. Two mutations comprise the majority of mutant alleles in Jewish patients, while mutations in the ASPA gene among non-Jewish patients are different and more diverse. In the present study, the ASPA gene was analysed in 22 unrelated non-Jewish patients with Canavan disease, and 24 different mutations were found. of these,14 are novel, including five missense mutations (E24G, D68A, D249V, C152W, H244R), two nonsense mutations (Q184X, E214X), three deletions (923delT, 33del13, 244delA), one insertion mutation (698insC), two sequence variations in one allele ([10T>G; 11insG]), an elimination of the stop codon (941A>G, TAG-->TGG, X314W), and one splice acceptor site mutation (IVS1 - 2A>T). The E24G mutation resulted in substitution of an invariable amino acid residue (Glu) in the first esterase catalytic domain consensus sequence. The IVS1 - 2A>T mutation caused the retention of 40 nucleotides of intron 1 upstream of exon 2. The results of transient expression of the mutant ASPA cDNA containing these mutations in COS-7 cells and assays for ASPA activity of patient fibroblasts indicated that these mutations were responsible for the enzyme deficiency. In addition...

‣ PIK3CA exon 20 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

Mangone,Flavia R.; Bobrovnitchaia,Irina G.; Salaorni,Sibeli; Manuli,Erika; Nagai,Maria A.
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT axis is an important cell-signaling pathway that mediates cell proliferation and survival, two biological processes that regulate malignant cell growth. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA gene encodes the p110α subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase protein. There are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations in several types of human tumors, and they are frequently observed in breast cancer. However, these mutations have not been investigated in Brazilian breast cancer patients. METHODS: PCR-SSCP and direct DNA sequencing were performed to identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseCA exon 9 and exon 20 mutations in 86 patients with sporadic breast cancer. The relationships between PIK3CA mutations and patient clinicopathological characteristics and survival were analyzed. The presence of the TP53 mutation was also examined. RESULTS: Twenty-three (27%) of the 86 primary breast tumors contained PIK3CA mutations. In exons 9 and 20, we identified the hotspot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R, and we identified two new missense mutations (I1022V and L1028S) and one nonsense (R992X) mutation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA exon 20 mutations were associated with poor overall survival and TP53 gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations are common in tumors in Brazilian breast cancer patients...

‣ Suppression of TGA Mutations in the Bacillus subtilis spoIIR Gene by prfB Mutations

Karow, Margaret L.; Rogers, Elizabeth J.; Lovett, Paul S.; Piggot, Patrick J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 Português
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An unexpectedly high proportion of TGA nonsense mutations was obtained in a collection of chemically induced mutations in the spoIIR locus of Bacillus subtilis. Of 11 different mutations obtained, TGA mutations were found in four codons, whereas only three codons yielded missense mutations. Six suppressors of the TGA mutations were isolated, and five of the suppressing mutations were mapped to the prfB gene encoding protein release factor 2. These are the first mutations shown to map to the B. subtilis prfB locus. The sequence of the prfB gene was completed, and two revisions of the published sequence were made. The five prfB mutations also resulted in suppression of the catA86-TGA mutation to between 19 and 54% of the expression of catA86+, compared to the readthrough level of 6% in the prfB+ strain. N-terminal sequencing of suppressed catA86-TGA-specified protein demonstrated that the amino acid inserted at UGA because of the prfB1 mutations was tryptophan.

‣ Genotype/phenotype correlations in type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2): evidence for more severe disease associated with truncating mutations.

Evans, D G; Trueman, L; Wallace, A; Collins, S; Strachan, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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Blood samples from 125 unrelated families with classical type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) with bilateral vestibular schwannomas have been analysed for mutations in the NF2 gene. A further 17 families fulfilling modified criteria for NF2 have also been analysed. Causative mutations have been identified in 54 (43%) classical families and six (35%) of those fulfilling modified criteria. Forty-two cases from 38 families with truncating mutations had an average age at onset of symptoms of 19 years and diagnosis at 22.4 years. Fifty-one cases from 16 families with splice site mutations (15 from six), missense mutations (18 from six), and large deletions (18 from five) had an average age of onset of 27.8 years and at diagnosis of 33.4 years. Subjects with truncating mutations were significantly more likely to have symptoms before 20 years of age (p<0.001) and to develop at least two symptomatic CNS tumours in addition to vestibular schwannoma before 30 years (p<0.001). There were also significantly fewer multigenerational families with truncating mutations. Four further truncating mutations were in mosaic form and were associated with milder disease than other similar mutations. This large study has confirmed the previous impression that truncating mutations are associated with severe disease...

‣ Exon Skipping in IVD RNA Processing in Isovaleric Acidemia Caused by Point Mutations in the Coding Region of the IVD Gene

Vockley, Jerry; Rogan, Peter K.; Anderson, Bambi D.; Willard, Jan; Seelan, Ratnam S.; Smith, David I.; Liu, Wanguo
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is a recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). We have reported elsewhere nine point mutations in the IVD gene in fibroblasts of patients with IVA, which lead to abnormalities in IVD protein processing and activity. In this report, we describe eight IVD gene mutations identified in seven IVA patients that result in abnormal splicing of IVD RNA. Four mutations in the coding region lead to aberrantly spliced mRNA species in patient fibroblasts. Three of these are amino acid altering point mutations, whereas one is a single-base insertion that leads to a shift in the reading frame of the mRNA. Two of the coding mutations strengthen pre-existing cryptic splice acceptors adjacent to the natural splice junctions and apparently interfere with exon recognition, resulting in exon skipping. This mechanism for missplicing has not been reported elsewhere. Four other mutations alter either the conserved gt or ag dinucleotide splice sites in the IVD gene. Exon skipping and cryptic splicing were confirmed by transfection of these mutations into a Cos-7 cell line model splicing system. Several of the mutations were predicted by individual information analysis to inactivate or significantly weaken adjacent donor or acceptor sites. The high frequency of splicing mutations identified in these patients is unusual...

‣ Characterization of mutations in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

Bassett, J H; Forbes, S A; Pannett, A A; Lloyd, S E; Christie, P T; Wooding, C; Harding, B; Besser, G M; Edwards, C R; Monson, J P; Sampson, J; Wass, J A; Wheeler, M H; Thakker, R V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumors of the parathyroids, pancreatic islets, and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, on chromosome 11q13, has recently been cloned, and mutations have been identified. We have characterized such MEN1 mutations, assessed the reliability of SSCP analysis for the detection of these mutations, and estimated the age-related penetrance for MEN1. Sixty-three unrelated MEN1 kindreds (195 affected and 396 unaffected members) were investigated for mutations in the 2,790-bp coding region and splice sites, by SSCP and DNA sequence analysis. We identified 47 mutations (12 nonsense mutations, 21 deletions, 7 insertions, 1 donor splice-site mutation, and 6 missense mutations), that were scattered throughout the coding region, together with six polymorphisms that had heterozygosity frequencies of 2%-44%. More than 10% of the mutations arose de novo, and four mutation hot spots accounted for >25% of the mutations. SSCP was found to be a sensitive and specific mutational screening method that detected >85% of the mutations. Two hundred and one MEN1 mutant-gene carriers (155 affected and 46 unaffected) were identified, and these helped to define the age-related penetrance of MEN1 as 7%...

‣ X-Linked chronic granulomatous disease: mutations in the CYBB gene encoding the gp91-phox component of respiratory-burst oxidase.

Rae, J; Newburger, P E; Dinauer, M C; Noack, D; Hopkins, P J; Kuruto, R; Curnutte, J T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a hereditary disorder of host defense due to absent or decreased activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The X-linked form of the disease derives from defects in the CYBB gene, which encodes the 91-kD glycoprotein component (termed "gp91-phox") of the oxidase. We have identified the mutations in the CYBB gene responsible for X-linked CGD in 131 consecutive independent kindreds. Screening by SSCP analysis identified mutations in 124 of the kindreds, and sequencing of all exons and intron boundary regions revealed the other seven mutations. We detected 103 different specific mutations; no single mutation appeared in more than seven independent kindreds. The types of mutations included large and small deletions (11%), frameshifts (24%), nonsense mutations (23%), missense mutations (23%), splice-region mutations (17%), and regulatory-region mutations (2%). The distribution of mutations within the CYBB gene exhibited great heterogeneity, with no apparent mutational hot spots. Evaluation of 87 available mothers revealed X-linked carrier status in all but 10. The heterogeneity of mutations and the lack of any predominant genotype indicate that the disease represents many different mutational events, without a founder effect...

‣ Mutation analysis of the RSK2 gene in Coffin-Lowry patients: extensive allelic heterogeneity and a high rate of de novo mutations.

Jacquot, S; Merienne, K; De Cesare, D; Pannetier, S; Mandel, J L; Sassone-Corsi, P; Hanauer, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 Português
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Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, facial and digital dysmorphisms, and progressive skeletal deformations. By using a positional cloning approach, we have recently shown that mutations in the gene coding for the RSK2 serine-threonine protein kinase are responsible for this syndrome. To facilitate mutational analysis, we have now determined the genomic structure of the human RSK2 gene. The open reading frame of the RSK2 coding region is split into 22 exons. Primers were designed for PCR amplification of single exons from genomic DNA and subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. We screened 37 patients with clinical features suggestive of CLS. Twenty-five nucleotide changes predicted to be disease-causing mutations were identified, including eight splice-site alterations, seven nonsense mutations, five frameshift mutations, and five missense mutations. Twenty-three of them were novel mutations. Coupled with previously reported mutations, these findings bring the total of different RSK2 mutations to 34. These are distributed throughout the RSK2 gene, with no clustering, and all but two, which have been found in two independent patients, are unique. A very high (68%) rate of de novo mutations was observed. It is noteworthy also that three mutations were found in female probands...

‣ Identification of cathepsin C mutations in ethnically diverse Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome patients

Hart, P; Zhang, Y; Firatli, E; Uygur, C; Lotfazar, M; Michalec, M; Marks, J; Lu, X; Coates, B; Seow, W; Marshall, R; Williams, D; Reed, J; Wright, J; Hart, T
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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INTRODUCTION—Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by palmoplantar keratoderma and severe, early onset periodontitis, which results from deficiency of cathepsin C activity secondary to mutations in the cathepsin C gene. To date, 13 different cathepsin C mutations have been reported in PLS patients, all of which are homozygous for a given mutation, reflecting consanguinity.
AIM—To evaluate the generality of cathepsin C mutations in PLS, we studied an ethnically diverse group of 20 unrelated families.
METHODS—Mutations were identified by direct automated sequencing of genomic DNA amplified for exonic regions and associated splice site junctions of the cathepsin C gene. Long range PCR was performed to determine the genomic structure of the cathepsin C gene.
RESULTS—The cathepsin C gene spans over 46 kb, with six introns ranging in size from 1.6 to 22.4 kb. Eleven novel mutations and four previously reported mutations were identified in affected subjects from 14 families. Missense mutations were most common (9/15), followed by nonsense mutations (3/15), insertions (2/15), and deletions (1/15). Among these 14 probands, two were compound heterozygotes. Affected subjects with transgressions of the dermal lesions onto the knees or elbows or both had mutations in both the pro- and mature regions of the enzyme...

‣ Mutations in Exons 9 and 13 of KIT Gene Are Rare Events in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors : A Study of 200 Cases

Lasota, Jerzy; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Kordek, Radzislaw; Nassar, Aziza; Sobin, Leslie H.; Miettinen, Markku
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 Português
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, typically express the KIT protein. Activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit gene have been shown in a subset of GISTs. These mutations lead into ligand-independent activation of the tyrosine kinase of c-kit, and have a transforming effect in vitro. Several groups have studied the clinical implication of the c-kit mutation status of exon 11 in GISTs and a possible relationship between c-kit mutations and malignant behavior has been established. Recently, a 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and missense mutations, 1945A>G in exon 13 of the c-kit gene were reported. The frequency and clinical importance of these findings are unknown. In this study we evaluated 200 GISTs for the presence of mutations in exons 9 and 13 of c-kit. Six cases revealed 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and two cases 1945A>G mutation in exon 13. All tumors with mutations in exon 9 and 13 lacked mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. None of the analyzed tumors had more than one type of c-kit mutation. All but one of the eight tumors with mutations in exon 9 or 13 of the c-kit gene were histologically and clinically malignant. All four of six cases with exon 9 mutation of which location of primary tumor was known...

‣ Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in the United States: report from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study.

Guldberg, P.; Levy, H. L.; Hanley, W. B.; Koch, R.; Matalon, R.; Rouse, B. M.; Trefz, F.; de la Cruz, F.; Henriksen, K. F.; Güttler, F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1996 Português
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The major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The known mutations have been identified primarily in European patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of mutations responsible for PAH deficiency in the United States. One hundred forty-nine patients enrolled in the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study were subjects for clinical and molecular investigations. PAH gene mutations associated with phenylketonuria (PKU) or mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) were identified on 279 of 294 independent mutant chromosomes, a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. The spectrum is composed of 71 different mutations, including 47 missense mutations, 11 splice mutations, 5 nonsense mutations, and 8 microdeletions. Sixteen previously unreported mutations were identified. Among the novel mutations, five were found in patients with MHP, and the remainder were found in patients with PKU. The most common mutations were R408W, IVS12nt1g-->a, and Y414C, accounting for 18.7%, 7.8%, and 5.4% of the mutant chromosomes, respectively. Thirteen mutations had relative frequencies of 1%-5%, and 55 mutations each had frequencies < or = 1%. The mutational spectrum corresponded to that observed for the European ancestry of the U.S. population. To evaluate the extent of allelic variation at the PAH locus within the United States in comparison with other populations...

‣ Structural profiles of TP53 gene mutations predict clinical outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an international collaborative study

Young, Ken H.; Leroy, Karen; Møller, Michael B.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Kerbauy, Fábio R.; Haioun, Corinne; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Young, Allen H.; Gaulard, Philippe; Piris, Miguel A.; Oberley, Terry D.; Rehrauer, William M.; Kah
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2008 Português
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The purpose of this study is to correlate the presence of TP53 gene mutations with the clinical outcome of a cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) assembled from 12 medical centers. TP53 mutations were identified in 102 of 477 patients, and the overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53 mutations was significantly worse than those with wild-type TP53 (P < .001). However, subsets of TP53 mutations were found to have different effects on OS. Mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domains were the strongest predictors of poor OS (P < .001). Mutations in the Loop-Sheet-Helix and Loop-L3 were associated with significantly decreased OS (P = .002), but OS was not significantly affected by mutations in Loop-L2. A subset of missense mutations (His158, His175, Ser245, Gln248, His273, Arg280, and Arg282) in the DNA-binding domains had the worst prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the International Prognostic Index and mutations in the DNA-binding domains were independent predictors of OS. TP53 mutations also stratified patients with germinal center B cell–like DLBCL, but not nongerminal center B cell–like DLBCL, into molecularly distinct subsets with different survivals. This study shows the prognostic importance of mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domains in patients with DLBCL.

‣ TP53 Mutations in Korean Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

Lee, Eung Bae; Jin, Guang; Lee, Shin Yup; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Jin Eun; Jeon, Hyo Sung; Cha, Seung Ick; Cho, Sukki; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Tae-In; Jung, Tae Hoon; Son, Ji-Woong; Park, Jae Yong
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Publicador: The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although TP53 mutations have been widely studied in lung cancer, the majority of studies have focused on exons 5-8 of the gene. In addition, TP53 mutations in Korean patients with lung cancers have not been investigated. We searched for mutations in the entire coding exons, including splice sites of the gene, in Korean patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Mutations of the gene were determined by direct sequencing in 176 NSCLCs. Sixty-nine mutations (62 different mutations) were identified in 65 tumors. Of the 62 mutations, 12 were novel mutations. TP53 mutations were more frequent in males, ever-smokers and squamous cell carcinomas than in females, never-smokers and adenocarcinomas, respectively (all comparisons, P<0.001). Missense mutations were most common (52.2%), but frameshift, nonsense, and splice-site mutations were frequently observed at frequencies of 18.8%, 15.9% and 10.1%, respectively. Of the 69 mutations, 9 (13.0%) were found in the oligomerization domain. In addition, the proportion of mutations in the oligomerization domain was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas (23.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.01). Our study provides clinical and molecular characteristics of TP53 mutations in Korean patients with NSCLCs.

‣ CLCN1 Mutations in Czech Patients with Myotonia Congenita, In Silico Analysis of Novel and Known Mutations in the Human Dimeric Skeletal Muscle Chloride Channel

Skálová, Daniela; Zídková, Jana; Voháňka, Stanislav; Mazanec, Radim; Mušová, Zuzana; Vondráček, Petr; Mrázová, Lenka; Kraus, Josef; Réblová, Kamila; Fajkusová, Lenka
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/12/2013 Português
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Myotonia congenita (MC) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) encoding the skeletal muscle chloride channel (ClC-1). Mutations of CLCN1 result in either autosomal dominant MC (Thomsen disease) or autosomal recessive MC (Becker disease). The ClC-1 protein is a homodimer with a separate ion pore within each monomer. Mutations causing recessive myotonia most likely affect properties of only the mutant monomer in the heterodimer, leaving the wild type monomer unaffected, while mutations causing dominant myotonia affect properties of both subunits in the heterodimer. Our study addresses two points: 1) molecular genetic diagnostics of MC by analysis of the CLCN1 gene and 2) structural analysis of mutations in the homology model of the human dimeric ClC-1 protein. In the first part, 34 different types of CLCN1 mutations were identified in 51 MC probands (14 mutations were new). In the second part, on the basis of the homology model we identified the amino acids which forming the dimer interface and those which form the Cl- ion pathway. In the literature, we searched for mutations of these amino acids for which functional analyses were performed to assess the correlation between localisation of a mutation and occurrence of a dominant-negative effect (corresponding to dominant MC). This revealed that both types of mutations...

‣ Drug Resistance Missense Mutations in Cancer Are Subject to Evolutionary Constraints

Friedman, Ran
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2013 Português
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Several tumour types are sensitive to deactivation of just one or very few genes that are constantly active in the cancer cells, a phenomenon that is termed ‘oncogene addiction’. Drugs that target the products of those oncogenes can yield a temporary relief, and even complete remission. Unfortunately, many patients receiving oncogene-targeted therapies relapse on treatment. This often happens due to somatic mutations in the oncogene (‘resistance mutations’). ‘Compound mutations’, which in the context of cancer drug resistance are defined as two or more mutations of the drug target in the same clone may lead to enhanced resistance against the most selective inhibitors. Here, it is shown that the vast majority of the resistance mutations occurring in cancer patients treated with tyrosin kinase inhibitors aimed at three different proteins follow an evolutionary pathway. Using bioinformatic analysis tools, it is found that the drug-resistance mutations in the tyrosine kinase domains of Abl1, ALK and exons 20 and 21 of EGFR favour transformations to residues that can be identified in similar positions in evolutionary related proteins. The results demonstrate that evolutionary pressure shapes the mutational landscape in the case of drug-resistance somatic mutations. The constraints on the mutational landscape suggest that it may be possible to counter single drug-resistance point mutations. The observation of relatively many resistance mutations in Abl1...

‣ Secondary and tertiary structure modeling reveals effects of novel mutations in polycystic liver disease genes PRKCSH and SEC63

Waanders, E; Venselaar, H; te Morsche, RHM; de Koning, DB; Kamath, PS; Torres, VE; Somlo, S; Drenth, JPH
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is characterized by intralobular bile duct cysts in the liver. It is caused by mutations in PRKCSH, encoding hepatocystin, and SEC63, encoding Sec63p. The main goals of this study were to screen for novel mutations and to analyze mutations for effects on protein structure and function. We screened 464 subjects including 76 probands by direct sequencing or conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the effects of all known and novel mutations using a combination of splice site recognition, evolutionary conservation, secondary and tertiary structure predictions, PolyPhen, and pMut and sift. We identified a total of 26 novel mutations in PRKCSH (n = 14) and SEC63 (n = 12), including four splice site mutations, eight insertions/deletions, six non-sense mutations, and eight missense mutations. Out of 48 PCLD mutations, 13 were predicted to affect splicing. Most mutations were located in highly conserved regions and homology modeling for two domains of Sec63p showed severe effects of the residue substitutions. In conclusion, we identified 26 novel mutations associated with PCLD and we provide in silico analysis in order to delineate the role of these mutations.

‣ The TREAT-NMD DMD Global Database: Analysis of More than 7,000 Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mutations

Bladen, Catherine L; Salgado, David; Monges, Soledad; Foncuberta, Maria E; Kekou, Kyriaki; Kosma, Konstantina; Dawkins, Hugh; Lamont, Leanne; Roy, Anna J; Chamova, Teodora; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Chan, Sophelia; Korngut, Lawrence; Campbell, Craig; Dai, Y
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Analyzing the type and frequency of patient-specific mutations that give rise to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an invaluable tool for diagnostics, basic scientific research, trial planning, and improved clinical care. Locus-specific databases allow for the collection, organization, storage, and analysis of genetic variants of disease. Here, we describe the development and analysis of the TREAT-NMD DMD Global database (http://umd.be/TREAT_DMD/). We analyzed genetic data for 7,149 DMD mutations held within the database. A total of 5,682 large mutations were observed (80% of total mutations), of which 4,894 (86%) were deletions (1 exon or larger) and 784 (14%) were duplications (1 exon or larger). There were 1,445 small mutations (smaller than 1 exon, 20% of all mutations), of which 358 (25%) were small deletions and 132 (9%) small insertions and 199 (14%) affected the splice sites. Point mutations totalled 756 (52% of small mutations) with 726 (50%) nonsense mutations and 30 (2%) missense mutations. Finally, 22 (0.3%) mid-intronic mutations were observed. In addition, mutations were identified within the database that would potentially benefit from novel genetic therapies for DMD including stop codon read-through therapies (10% of total mutations) and exon skipping therapy (80% of deletions and 55% of total mutations).

‣ Molecular genetics of pseudoxanthoma elasticum: Type and frequency of mutations in ABCC6

Miksch, S.; Lumsden, A.; Guenther, U.; Foernzler, D.; Christen-Zach, S.; Daugherty, C.; Ramesar, R.; Lebwohl, M.; Hohl, D.; Neldner, K.; Lindpaintner, K.; Richards, R.; Struk, B.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic heritable disorder that affects the elastic tissue in the skin, eye, and cardiovascular system. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause PXE. We performed a mutation screen in ABCC6 using haplotype analysis in conjunction with direct sequencing to achieve a mutation detection rate of 97%. This screen consisted of 170 PXE chromosomes in 81 families, and detected 59 distinct mutations (32 missense, eight nonsense, and six likely splice-site point mutations; one small insertion; and seven small and five large deletions). Forty-three of these mutations are novel variants, which increases the total number of PXE mutations to 121. While most mutations are rare, three nonsense mutations, a splice donor site mutation, and the large deletion comprising exons 23-29 (c.2996_4208del) were identified as relatively frequent PXE mutations at 26%, 5%, 3.5%, 3%, and 11%, respectively. Chromosomal haplotyping with two proximal and two distal polymorphic markers flanking ABCC6 demonstrated that most chromosomes that carry these relatively frequent PXE mutations have related haplotypes specific for these mutations, which suggests that these chromosomes originate from single founder mutations. The types of mutations found support loss-of-function as the molecular mechanism for the PXE phenotype. In 76 of the 81 families...

‣ PIK3CA exon 20 mutations are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

Mangone, Flavia R.; Bobrovnitchaia, Irina G.; Salaorni, Sibeli; Manuli, Erika; Nagai, Maria A.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT axis is an important cell-signaling pathway that mediates cell proliferation and survival, two biological processes that regulate malignant cell growth. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA gene encodes the p110α subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase protein. There are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations in several types of human tumors, and they are frequently observed in breast cancer. However, these mutations have not been investigated in Brazilian breast cancer patients. METHODS: PCR-SSCP and direct DNA sequencing were performed to identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinaseCA exon 9 and exon 20 mutations in 86 patients with sporadic breast cancer. The relationships between PIK3CA mutations and patient clinicopathological characteristics and survival were analyzed. The presence of the TP53 mutation was also examined. RESULTS: Twenty-three (27%) of the 86 primary breast tumors contained PIK3CA mutations. In exons 9 and 20, we identified the hotspot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R, and we identified two new missense mutations (I1022V and L1028S) and one nonsense (R992X) mutation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA exon 20 mutations were associated with poor overall survival and TP53 gene mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations are common in tumors in Brazilian breast cancer patients...