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‣ Correlation of germ-line mutations and two-hit inactivation of the WT1 gene with Wilms tumors of stromal–predominant histology

Schumacher, V.; Schneider, S.; Figge, A.; Wildhardt, G.; Harms, D.; Schmidt, D.; Weirich, A.; Ludwig, R.; Royer-Pokora, B.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1997 Português
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The WT1 gene, located on chromosome 11p13, is mutated in a low number of Wilms tumors (WTs). Germ-line mutations in the WT1 gene are found in patients with bilateral WT and/or associated genital tract malformations (GU). We have identified 19 hemizygous WT1 gene mutations/deletions in 64 patient samples. The histology of the tumors with mutations was stromal–predominant in 13, triphasic in 3, blastemal–predominant in 1, and unknown in 2 cases. Thirteen of 21 patients with stromal–predominant tumors had WT1 mutations and 10 of these were present in the germ line. Of the patients with germ-line alterations, six had GU and a unilateral tumor, two had a bilateral tumor and normal GU tracts, and two had a unilateral tumor and normal GU. Three mutations were tumor-specific and were found in patients with unilateral tumors without GU. These data demonstrate a correlation of WT1 mutations with stromal–predominant histology, suggesting that a germ-line mutation in WT1 predisposes to the development of tumors with this histology. Twelve mutations are nonsense mutations resulting in truncations at different positions in the WT1 protein and only two are missense mutations. Of the stromal–predominant tumors, 67% showed loss of heterozygosity...

‣ Mutations in CHEK2 Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk

Dong, Xiangyang; Wang, Liang; Taniguchi, Ken; Wang, Xianshu; Cunningham, Julie M.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Qian, Chiping; Marks, Angela F.; Slager, Susan L.; Peterson, Brett J.; Smith, David I.; Cheville, John C.; Blute, Michael L.; Jacobsen, Steve J.; Sch
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The DNA-damage–signaling pathway has been implicated in all human cancers. However, the genetic defects and the mechanisms of this pathway in prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed CHEK2, the upstream regulator of p53 in the DNA-damage–signaling pathway, in several groups of patients with prostate cancer. A total of 28 (4.8%) germline CHEK2 mutations (16 of which were unique) were found among 578 patients. Additional screening for CHEK2 mutations in 149 families with familial prostate cancer revealed 11 mutations (5 unique) in nine families. These mutations included two frameshift and three missense mutations. Importantly, 16 of 18 unique CHEK2 mutations identified in both sporadic and familial cases were not detected among 423 unaffected men, suggesting a pathological effect of CHEK2 mutations in prostate cancer development. Analyses of the two frameshift mutations in Epstein Barr virus–transformed cell lines, using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, revealed abnormal splicing for one mutation and dramatic reduction of CHEK2 protein levels in both cases. Overall, our data suggest that mutations in CHEK2 may contribute to prostate cancer risk and that the DNA-damage–signaling pathway may play an important role in the development of prostate cancer.

‣ Sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to de novo myosin mutations.

Watkins, H; Thierfelder, L; Hwang, D S; McKenna, W; Seidman, J G; Seidman, C E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1992 Português
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy occurs as an autosomal dominant familial disorder or as a sporadic disease without familial involvement. While missense mutations in the beta cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene account for approximately half of all cases of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the molecular causes of sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are unknown. To determine whether beta cardiac MHC mutations are also associated with sporadic disease, we screened this gene in seven individuals with sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mutations in the beta cardiac MHC genes were identified in two probands with sporadic disease. In that their parents were neither clinically nor genetically affected, we conclude that mutations in each proband arose de novo. Transmission of the mutation and disease to an offspring occurred in one pedigree, predicting that these are germline mutations. The demonstration of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy arising within a pedigree coincident with the appearance of a de novo mutation provides compelling genetic evidence that beta cardiac MHC mutations cause this disease. We suggest that de novo mutations account for some instances of sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and that these mutations can be transmitted to children. The clinical benefits of defining mutations responsible for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should also be available to some patients with sporadic disease.

‣ A Homozygous Missense Mutation in TGM5 Abolishes Epidermal Transglutaminase 5 Activity and Causes Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome

Cassidy, Andrew J.; van Steensel, Maurice A. M.; Steijlen, Peter M.; van Geel, Michel; Velden, Jaap van der; Morley, Susan M.; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora; McLean, W. H. Irwin
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Peeling skin syndrome is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by the shedding of the outer epidermis. In the acral form, the dorsa of the hands and feet are predominantly affected. Ultrastructural analysis has revealed tissue separation at the junction between the granular cells and the stratum corneum in the outer epidermis. Genomewide linkage analysis in a consanguineous Dutch kindred mapped the gene to 15q15.2 in the interval between markers D15S1040 and D15S1016. Two homozygous missense mutations, T109M and G113C, were found in TGM5, which encodes transglutaminase 5 (TG5), in all affected persons in two unrelated families. The mutation was present on the same haplotype in both kindreds, indicating a probable ancestral mutation. TG5 is strongly expressed in the epidermal granular cells, where it cross-links a variety of structural proteins in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis to form the cornified cell envelope. An established, in vitro, biochemical cross-linking assay revealed that, although T109M is not pathogenic, G113C completely abolishes TG5 activity. Three-dimensional modeling of TG5 showed that G113C lies close to the catalytic domain, and, furthermore, that this glycine residue is conserved in all known transglutaminases...

‣ Clinical and Molecular Genetic Analysis of 19 Wolfram Syndrome Kindreds Demonstrating a Wide Spectrum of Mutations in WFS1

Hardy, Carol; Khanim, Farhat; Torres, Rosarelis; Scott-Brown, Martin; Seller, Anneke; Poulton, Joanna; Collier, David; Kirk, Jeremy; Polymeropoulos, Mihael; Latif, Farida; Barrett, Timothy
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. mtDNA deletions have been described, and a gene (WFS1) recently has been identified, on chromosome 4p16, encoding a predicted 890 amino acid transmembrane protein. Direct DNA sequencing was done to screen the entire coding region of the WFS1 gene in 30 patients from 19 British kindreds with Wolfram syndrome. DNA was also screened for structural rearrangements (deletions and duplications) and point mutations in mtDNA. No pathogenic mtDNA mutations were found in our cohort. We identified 24 mutations in the WFS1 gene: 8 nonsense mutations, 8 missense mutations, 3 in-frame deletions, 1 in-frame insertion, and 4 frameshift mutations. Of these, 23 were novel mutations, and most occurred in exon 8. The majority of patients were compound heterozygotes for two mutations, and there was no common founder mutation. The data were also analyzed for genotype-phenotype relationships. Although some interesting cases were noted, consideration of the small sample size and frequency of each mutation indicated no clear-cut correlations between any of the observed mutations and disease severity. There were no obvious mutation hot spots or clusters. Hence...

‣ Analysis of P53 mutations and their expression in 56 colorectal cancer cell lines

Liu, Ying; Bodmer, Walter F.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A comprehensive analysis of the TP53 gene and its protein status was carried out on a panel of 56 colorectal cancer cell lines. This analysis was based on a combination of denaturing HPLC mutation screening of all exons of the p53 gene, sequencing the cDNA, and assessing the function of the p53 protein by assaying the induced expression of phosphorylated p53 and p21 after exposing cells to γ-rays. In a few cases where there was no production of p53 message nor evidence of functional p53 protein, all of the p53 exons were sequenced directly. Thirteen of the 56 cell lines had functional p53, 21 lines had missense mutations (one of which made no detectable protein), 4 lines produced no p53 transcripts, and the remaining 18 lines carried truncating TP53 mutations. Thus, our results showed a relatively high frequency of TP53 mutations (76.8%) in our cell lines, with almost half of the mutations being truncating mutations. This is a rather higher frequency of such mutations than usually reported. Of the 18 cell lines with truncating mutations, 12 had detectable truncated protein based on Western blot analysis, whereas no protein was detected in the remaining 6 cell lines. Our data provide a valuable source of TP 53 mutations for further studies and raise the question of the extent to which truncating mutations may have dominant negative effects...

‣ CTNS mutations in an American-based population of cystinosis patients.

Shotelersuk, V; Larson, D; Anikster, Y; McDowell, G; Lemons, R; Bernardini, I; Guo, J; Thoene, J; Gahl, W A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by renal failure at 10 years of age and other systemic complications. The gene for cystinosis, CTNS, has 12 exons. Its 2.6-kb mRNA codes for a 367-amino-acid putative cystine transporter with seven transmembrane domains. Previously reported mutations include a 65-kb "European" deletion involving marker D17S829 and 11 small mutations. Mutation analysis of 108 American-based nephropathic cystinosis patients revealed that 48 patients (44%) were homozygous for the 65-kb deletion, 2 had a smaller major deletion, 11 were homozygous and 3 were heterozygous for 753G-->A (W138X), and 24 had 21 other mutations. In 20 patients (19%), no mutations were found. Of 82 alleles bearing the 65-kb deletion, 38 derived from Germany, 28 from the British Isles, and 4 from Iceland. Eighteen new mutations were identified, including the first reported missense mutations, two in-frame deletions, and mutations in patients of African American, Mexican, and Indian ancestry. CTNS mutations are spread throughout the leader sequence, transmembrane, and nontransmembrane regions. According to a cystinosis clinical severity score, homozygotes for the 65-kb deletion and for W138X have average disease...

‣ Mutations causing hemophilia B: direct estimate of the underlying rates of spontaneous germ-line transitions, transversions, and deletions in a human gene.

Koeberl, D D; Bottema, C D; Ketterling, R P; Bridge, P J; Lillicrap, D P; Sommer, S S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1990 Português
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Spontaneous mutation provides the substrate for evolution on one hand and for genetic susceptibility to disease on the other hand. X-linked diseases such as hemophilia B offer an opportunity to examine recent germ-line mutations in humans. By utilizing the direct sequencing method of genomic amplification with transcript sequencing, eight regions (2.46 kb) of likely functional significance in the factor IX gene have been sequenced in a total of 60 consecutive, unrelated hemophiliacs. The high frequency of patient ascertainment from three regions in the midwestern United States and Canada suggests that the sample is representative of hemophiliacs of northern European descent. Twenty-six of the delineated mutations are reported herein, and the group of 60 is analyzed as a whole. From the pattern of mutations causing disease and from a knowledge of evolutionarily conserved amino acids, it is possible to reconstruct the underlying pattern of mutation and to calculate the mutation rates per base pair per generation for transitions (27 x 10(-10)), transversions (4.1 x 10(-10), and deletions (0.9 x 10(-10)) for a total mutation rate of 32 x 10(-10). The proportion of transitions at non-CpG nucleotides is elevated sevenfold over that expected if one base substitution were as likely as another. At the dinucleotide CpG...

‣ Mutations and Allelic Deletions of the MEN1 Gene Are Associated with a Subset of Sporadic Endocrine Pancreatic and Neuroendocrine Tumors and Not Restricted to Foregut Neoplasms

Görtz, Birgit; Roth, Jürgen; Krähenmann, Akiko; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Muletta-Feurer, Seraina; Rütimann, Katrin; Saremaslani, Parvin; Speel, Ernst J. M.; Heitz, Philipp U.; Komminoth, Paul
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 Português
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Endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT) and neuroendocrine tumors (NET) occur sporadically and rarely in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). We analyzed the frequency of allelic deletions and mutations of the recently identified MEN1 gene in 53 sporadic tumors including 30 EPT and 23 NET (carcinoids) of different locations and types. Allelic deletion of the MEN1 locus was identified in 18/49 (36.7%) tumors (13/30, 43.3% in EPT and 5/19, 26.3% in NET) and mutations of the MEN1 gene were present in 8/52 (15.3%) tumors (4/30 (13.3%) EPT and 4/22 (18.1%) NET). The somatic mutations were clustered in the 5′ region of the coding sequence and most frequently encompassed missense mutations. All tumors with mutations exhibited a loss of the other allele and a wild-type sequence of the MEN1 gene in nontumorous DNA. In one additional patient with a NET of the lung and no clinical signs or history of MEN1, a 5178–9G→A splice donor site mutation in intron 4 was identified in both the tumor and blood DNA, indicating the presence of a thus far unknown MEN1 syndrome. In most tumor groups the frequency of allelic deletions at 11q13 was 2 to 3 times higher than the frequency of identified MEN1 gene mutations. Some tumor types...

‣ Association between cyclo-oxygenase-2 overexpression and missense p53 mutations in gastric cancer

Leung, W K; To, K-F; Ng, Y-P; Lee, T-L; Lau, J Y W; Chan, F K L; Ng, E K W; Chung, S C S; Sung, J J Y
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2001 Português
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Wild-type p53 competitively binds to the promoter region of COX-2 in vitro and inhibits its transcription. We examined the association between p53 mutation and COX-2 expression in gastric cancer. COX-2 over-expression was seen in 19 (48.7%) cases. These tumours had more lymph-node metastasis (P = 0.048) and tended to have a poorer survival (P = 0.07). Missense mutations of p53 were detected in 20 (51.3%) patients and had a significantly stronger COX-2 expression than tumours without p53 mutation (P = 0.016). Our results suggest a link between p53 mutation and COX-2 overexpression in gastric cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

‣ Missense mutations and polymorphisms of the MC4R gene in Polish obese children and adolescents in relation to the relative body mass index

Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Cieslak, Jakub; Skowronska, Bogda; Majewska, Katarzyna A.; Stankiewicz, Witold; Fichna, Piotr; Switonski, Marek
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Extensive studies of the MC4R gene polymorphism showed that, among numerous variants, there are mutations responsible for monogenic obesity, as well as polymorphisms negatively correlated with the risk of obesity. In this report, we present the first studies of the whole coding sequence of the MC4R gene in 243 Polish obese children and adolescents (the mean relative body mass index [RBMI] was 163.6). In addition, 101 non-obese adults were also analyzed. Direct sequencing facilitated the identification of six missense (K73R, V103I, T112M, S127L, M215L, and I251L) and one silent (c.756 C > T) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two non-synonymous polymorphisms (K73R and M215L) appeared to be novel and one was found in obese patients (M215L, one patient) and one in non-obese adults (K73R, one person). The overall frequency of non-synonymous variant carriers reached 4.1% and 6.9% in obese patients and non-obese adults, respectively. Only one obesity-associated variant (127L) was found in two obese patients (0.82%) and in two non-obese adults (1.98%). The obesity-protecting variants (103I and 251L) appeared to be the most common in both groups: 3.3% and 4.0%, respectively. It was also observed that the RBMI in obese children and adolescents carrying the minor variants did not differ significantly from the non-carriers; however...

‣ ELANE Mutations in Cyclic and Severe Congenital Neutropenia—Genetics and Pathophysiology

Horwitz, Marshall S.; Corey, Seth J.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Tidwell, Timothy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There are two main forms of hereditary neutropenia: cyclic and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Cyclic neutropenia is an autosomal dominant disorder in which neutrophil counts fluctuate between nearly normal levels and close to zero with 21-day periodicity. In contrast, SCN, also known as Kostmann syndrome, consists of chronic and profound neutropenia, with a characteristic promyelocytic maturation arrest in the bone marrow. Unlike cyclic neutropenia, SCN displays frequent acquisition of somatic mutations in the gene, CSF3R, encoding the Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor (G-CSFR), and a strong predisposition to developing myelodysplasia (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cyclic neutropenia is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene, ELANE (formerly known as ELA2), encoding the neutrophil granule serine protease, neutrophil elastase. SCN is genetically heterogeneous, but it is most frequently associated with ELANE mutations. While some of the different missense mutations in ELANE exhibit phenotype-genotype correlation, the same mutations are sometimes found in patients with either form of inherited neutropenia. The mutations lead to production of a mutant polypeptide, but no common biochemical abnormality...

‣ Three missense mutations of DNA topoisomerase I in highly camptothecin-resistant colon cancer cell sublines

ARAKAWA, YASUHIRO; OZAKI, KOJI; OKAWA, YUTAKA; YAMADA, HISASHI
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Various anticancer drugs, including camptothecins and indolocarbazoles, target DNA topoisomerase I (Top1). We previously described the camptothecin-resistant colon cancer cell line DLDSNR6, which has a Gly365Ser missense mutation in Top1. In the present study, we established highly camptothecin-resistant sublines from DLDSNR6 cells by continuous exposure to higher camptothecin concentrations. The established sublines grew in the presence of 30 μM of camptothecin, but exhibited markedly retarded growth. In addition to Gly365Ser, these sublines harbored a Top1 Gly717Arg mutation and some had also a Top1 Gln421Arg mutation. Top1 activity was reduced to approximately one-eighth in highly resistant cell lines compared with that in parental DLD-1 cells. Resistant clones with 3 Top1 mutations including Gln421RArg exhibited the highest resistance to the indolocarbazole J-107088 in terms of the effect on the cell cycle distribution. The Gln421 mutation was equivalent to a mutation recently found in camptothecin biosynthesizing plants, but it has not previously been found in mammalian cells.

‣ Highly Prevalent LIPH Founder Mutations Causing Autosomal Recessive Woolly Hair/Hypotrichosis in Japan and the Genotype/Phenotype Correlations

Tanahashi, Kana; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Kono, Michihiro; Takama, Hiromichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Masashi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/02/2014 Português
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Mutations in LIPH cause of autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH), and the 2 missense mutations c.736T>A (p.Cys246Ser) and c.742C>A (p.His248Asn) are considered prevalent founder mutations for ARWH in the Japanese population. To reveal genotype/phenotype correlations in ARWH cases in Japan and the haplotypes in 14 Japanese patients from 14 unrelated Japanese families. 13 patients had woolly hair, and 1 patient had complete baldness since birth. An LIPH mutation search revealed homozygous c.736T>A mutations in 10 of the patients. Compound heterozygous c.736T>A and c.742C>A mutations were found in 3 of the patients, and homozygous c.742C>A mutation in 1 patient. The phenotype of mild hypotrichosis with woolly hair was restricted to the patients with the homozygous c.736T>A mutation. The severe phenotype of complete baldness was seen in only 1 patient with homozygous c.742C>A. Haplotype analysis revealed that the alleles containing the LIPH c.736T>A mutation had a haplotype identical to that reported previously, although 4 alleles out of 5 chromosomes containing the LIPH c.742C>A mutation had a different haplotype from the previously reported founder allele. These alleles with c.742C>A are thought to be the third founder LIPH mutation causing ARWH. To accurately determine the prevalence of the founder mutations...

‣ Attenuated Renal Disease Severity Associated with a Missense PKD1 Mutation

Pei, York; Lan, Zheng; Wang, Kairong; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel; He, Ning; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick; Germino, Gregory; Watnick, Terry
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mutations of PKD1 and PKD2 account for most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Compared to PKD2, patients with PKD1 typically have more severe renal disease. Here, we report a follow-up study of a unique multi-generation family with bilineal ADPKD (NFL10) in which a PKD1 disease haplotype and a PKD2 (L736X) mutation co-segregated with 18 and 14 affected individuals, respectively. In our updated genotype-phenotype analysis of NFL10, we found that PKD1-affected individuals had uniformly mild renal disease similar to PKD2-affected individuals. By sequencing all the exons and splice junctions of PKD1, we identified two missense mutations (Y528C and R1942H) from a PKD1-affected individual. Although both variants were predicted to be damaging to the mutant protein, only Y528C co-segregated with all the PKD1-affected individuals in NFL10. To further establish the pathogenicity of Y528C, we performed in-vitro studies in stable MDCK cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant forms of PKD1. We found that MDCK cell lines expressing the Y528C variant formed cysts in culture and demonstrated increased rates of growth and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that Y528C functions as a hypomorphic PKD1 allele. These findings have important implications for pathogenic mechanisms and molecular diagnostics of ADPKD.

‣ Diagnosis of ABCB11 gene mutations in children with intrahepatic cholestasis using high resolution melting analysis and direct sequencing

HU, GUORUI; HE, PING; LIU, ZHIFENG; CHEN, QIAN; ZHENG, BIXIA; ZHANG, QIHUA
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Intrahepatic cholestasis represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that begin during childhood, most commonly manifesting as neonatal cholestasis, and lead to ongoing liver dysfunction in children and adults. For children, inherited pathogenic factors of cholestasis have gained increasing attention owing to the rapid development of molecular biology technology. However, these methods have their advantages and disadvantages in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, specificity, time required and expense. In the present study, an effective, sensitive and economical method is recommended, termed high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and direct sequencing, based on general polymerase chain reaction, to detect mutations in disease-causing genes. As one type of inherited intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is caused by pathogenic mutations in the ABCB11 gene, HRM was used to detect mutations in the ABCB11 gene in the present study, and the diagnosis for PFIC2 was made by comprehensive analysis of genetic findings and clinical features. Furthermore, the characteristics of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCB11 gene were elucidated. A total of 14 types of mutations/polymorphisms were identified in 20 patients from mainland China...

‣ ARX, a novel Prd-class-homeobox gene highly expressed in the telencephalon, is mutated in X-linked mental retardation

Bienvenu, T.; Poirier, K.; Friocourt, G.; Bahi, N.; Beaumont, D.; Fauchereau, F.; Jeema, L.; Zemni, R.; Vinet, M.C.; Francis, F.; Couvert, P.; Gomot, M.; Moraine, C.; van Bokhoven, H.; Kalscheuer, V.; Frints, S.; Gecz, J.; Ohzaki, K.; Chaabouni, H.; Fryns
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Investigation of a critical region for an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) locus led us to identify a novel Aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX ). Inherited and de novo ARX mutations, including missense mutations and in frame duplications/insertions leading to expansions of polyalanine tracts in ARX, were found in nine familial and one sporadic case of MR. In contrast to other genes involved in XLMR, ARX expression is specific to the telencephalon and ventral thalamus. Notably there is an absence of expression in the cerebellum throughout development and also in adult. The absence of detectable brain malformations in patients suggests that ARX may have an essential role, in mature neurons, required for the development of cognitive abilities.; Thierry Bienvenu, Karine Poirier, Gaelle Friocourt, Nadia Bahi, Delphine Beaumont, Fabien Fauchereau, Lamia Ben Jeema, Ramzi Zemni, Marie-Claude Vinet, Fiona Francis, Philippe Couvert, Marie Gomot, Claude Moraine, Hans van Bokhoven, Vera Kalscheuer, Suzanne Frints, Josef Gecz, Kanae Ohzaki, Habiba Chaabouni, Jean-Pierre Fryns, Vincent Desportes, Cherif Beldjord and Jamel Chelly

‣ Conséquences fonctionnelles de mutations affectant le récepteur de la vasopressine de type 2 et implications thérapeutiques

Carpentier, Eric
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Le récepteur de la vasopressine de type 2 (V2R) joue un rôle crucial dans l’homéostasie hydrique. Exprimé principalement au niveau du rein, son activation par l’hormone antidiurétique arginine-vasopressine (AVP) favorise la réabsorption d’eau, participant ainsi à diminuer la diurèse. Plus de 200 mutations dans le gène du V2R ont été associées au diabète néphrogénique insipide congénital (DINc), une maladie causée par une perte de fonction du récepteur. À l’opposé, trois mutations découvertes récemment induisent un gain de fonction du V2R, et sont la cause du syndrome néphrogénique de l’anti-diurèse inappropriée (NSIAD). Les travaux de cette thèse visent à mieux comprendre les bases moléculaires responsables de la perte ou du gain de fonction des récepteurs mutants associés à ces deux maladies. Dans plus de 50% des cas, les mutations faux-sens affectent négativement l’adoption d’une conformation native par le V2R, provoquant la reconnaissance et la rétention intracellulaire des mutants par le système de contrôle de qualité du réticulum endoplasmique. Nos résultats ont démontré que l’interaction entre les récepteurs mutants et le chaperon moléculaire calnexine est dépendante de N-glycosylation et que sa durée varie en fonction de la mutation. De plus...

‣ Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: novel mutations in the TRKA (NTRK1) gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor.

Mardy, S; Miura, Y; Endo, F; Matsuda, I; Sztriha, L; Frossard, P; Moosa, A; Ismail, E A; Macaya, A; Andria, G; Toscano, E; Gibson, W; Graham, G E; Indo, Y
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 Português
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Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, anhidrosis (inability to sweat), absence of reaction to noxious stimuli, self-mutilating behavior, and mental retardation. Human TRKA encodes a high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family that induces neurite outgrowth and promotes survival of embryonic sensory and sympathetic neurons. We have recently demonstrated that TRKA is responsible for CIPA by identifying three mutations in a region encoding the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of TRKA in one Ecuadorian and three Japanese families. We have developed a comprehensive strategy to screen for TRKA mutations, on the basis of the gene's structure and organization. Here we report 11 novel mutations, in seven affected families. These are six missense mutations, two frameshift mutations, one nonsense mutation, and two splice-site mutations. Mendelian inheritance of the mutations is confirmed in six families for which parent samples are available. Two mutations are linked, on the same chromosome, to Arg85Ser and to His598Tyr;Gly607Val, hence, they probably represent double and triple mutations. The mutations are distributed in an extracellular domain...

‣ Effects of the Missense Mutations in Canine BRCA2 on BRC Repeat 3 Functions and Comparative Analyses between Canine and Human BRC Repeat 3

Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Suzuki, Yu; Wada, Seiichi; Taoda, Takahiro; Iwai, Satomi; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/10/2012 Português
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Mammary tumors are the most common tumor type in both human and canine females. Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, have been found in most cases of inherited human breast cancer. Similarly, the canine BRCA2 gene locus has been associated with mammary tumors in female dogs. However, deleterious mutations in canine BRCA2 have not been reported, thus far. The BRCA2 protein is involved in homologous recombination repair via its interaction with RAD51 recombinase, an interaction mediated by 8 BRC repeats. These repeats are 26-amino acid, conserved motifs in mammalian BRCA2. Previous structural analyses of cancer-associated mutations affecting the BRC repeats have shown that the weakening of RAD51's affinity for even 1 repeat is sufficient to increase breast cancer susceptibility. In this study, we focused on 2 previously reported canine BRCA2 mutations (T1425P and K1435R) in BRC repeat 3 (BRC3), derived from mammary tumor samples. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51, and were considered deleterious. Two BRC3 mutations (K1440R and K1440E), reported in human breast cancer patients, occur at amino acids corresponding to those of the K1435R mutation in dogs. These mutations affected the interaction of canine BRC3 with RAD51...