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‣ Análise do gene KISS1 nos distúrbios puberais humanos; KISS1 gene analysis in patients with central pubertal disorders

Silveira, Letícia Ferreira Gontijo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2009 Português
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A kisspeptina, codificada pelo gene KISS1, é um neuropeptídeo crucial na regulação do início da puberdade. A kisspeptina estimula a secreção hipotalâmica do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofinas (GnRH) após se ligar ao seu receptor GPR54. Mutações inativadoras do GPR54 são atualmente consideradas como uma causa rara de hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico isolado (HHI) normósmico. Recentemente, uma mutação ativadora no receptor GPR54 foi implicada na patogênese da puberdade precoce dependente de gonadotrofinas (PPDG). Com base nesses achados, levantamos a hipótese de que alterações no gene KISS1 poderiam contribuir para a patogênese de distúrbios puberais centrais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a presença de variantes no gene KISS1 em pacientes com PPDG e HHI. Sessenta e sete crianças brasileiras com PPDG (63 meninas e 4 meninos) e 61 pacientes com HHI (40 homens e 21 mulheres) foram selecionados, incluindo casos esporádicos e familiares em ambos os grupos. A população controle consistiu de 200 indivíduos com história de desenvolvimento puberal normal. A região promotora e os 3 exons do gene KISS1 foram amplificados e submetidos a sequenciamento automático. Duas novas variantes no gene KISS1...

‣ Investigação de Mutações no Gene BRCA1 em Famílias Brasileiras com Suspeita da Síndrome Hereditária do Câncer de Mama e/ou Ovário.; Investigation of Mutations in the BRCA1 Gene in Brazilian Families with Suspected of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

Cury, Nathália Moreno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2012 Português
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Cerca de 10% dos casos de câncer de mama e/ou ovário são caracterizados como hereditários, onde a presença de mutações germinativas no gene de suscetibilidade BRCA1 aumenta o risco de desenvolver esses cânceres durante a vida da mulher. O BRCA1 é um gene supressor tumoral envolvido na resposta de danos ao DNA, controle do ciclo celular, na remodelação da cromatina, ubiquitinação e regulação da transcrição. O presente estudo tem como objetivo central caracterizar as mutações do gene BRCA1 associadas a Síndrome Hereditária do Câncer de Mama e/ou Ovário (HBOC) em pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Aconselhamento Genético do Câncer do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMRP/USP). Os vinte e dois éxons codificantes do BRCA1 foram analisados utilizando o método de High Resolution Melting (HRM) para triagem de mutações pontuais, seguido pelo sequenciamento de DNA dos casos selecionados para validação. A técnica de MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification) também foi usada para detectar grandes deleções e duplicações. Uma vez confirmada a mutação, membros da família considerados de alto risco, serão investigados para a mutação específica...

‣ PITX2C loss-of-function mutations responsible for idiopathic atrial fibrillation

Qiu,Xing-Biao; Xu,Ying-Jia; Li,Ruo-Gu; Xu,Lei; Liu,Xu; Fang,Wei-Yi; Yang,Yi-Qing; Qu,Xin-Kai
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify novel PITX2c mutations responsible for idiopathic atrial fibrillation. METHODS: A cohort of 210 unrelated patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation and 200 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals used as controls were recruited. The whole coding exons and splice junctions of the PITX2c gene, which encodes a paired-like homeobox transcription factor required for normal cardiovascular morphogenesis, were sequenced in 210 patients and 200 control subjects. The causative potentials of the identified mutations were automatically predicted by MutationTaster and PolyPhen-2. The functional characteristics of the PITX2c mutations were explored using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. RESULTS: Two novel heterozygous PITX2c mutations (p.Q105L and p.R122C) were identified in 2 of the 210 unrelated patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation. These missense mutations were absent in the 400 control chromosomes and were both predicted to be pathogenic. Multiple alignments of PITX2c protein sequences across various species showed that the altered amino acids were highly evolutionarily conserved. A functional analysis demonstrated that the mutant PITX2c proteins were both associated with significantly reduced transcriptional activity compared with their wild-type counterparts. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study associate PITX2c loss-of-function mutations with atrial fibrillation...

‣ Cancer-associated mutations at the INK4a locus cancel cell cycle arrest by p16INK4a but not by the alternative reading frame protein p19ARF

Quelle, Dawn E.; Cheng, Mangeng; Ashmun, Richard A.; Sherr, Charles J.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/1997 Português
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The INK4a gene, one of the most frequently disrupted tumor suppressor loci in human cancer, encodes two unrelated proteins, p16INK4a and p19ARF, each of which is capable of inducing cell cycle arrest. Splicing of alternative first exons (1α vs. 1β) to a common second exon within INK4a generates mRNAs in which exon 2 sequences are translated in two different reading frames. One of the products, the cyclin D-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a, is functionally inactivated by mutations or deletions in a wide variety of cancers. However, because many such mutations reside in exon 2, they also affect the alternative reading frame (ARF) protein. To determine whether such mutations disrupt p19ARF function, we introduced naturally occurring missense mutations into mouse INK4a exon 2 sequences and tested mutant p16INK4a and p19ARF proteins for their ability to inhibit cell cycle progression. Six p19ARF point mutants remained fully active in mediating cell cycle arrest in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, whereas two of the corresponding mutations within p16INK4a resulted in complete loss of activity. Analysis of p19ARF deletion mutants indicated that the unique aminoterminal domain encoded by exon 1β was both necessary and sufficient for inducing G1 arrest. Therefore...

‣ Detection of heterozygous truncating mutations in the BRCA1 and APC genes by using a rapid screening assay in yeast

Ishioka, Chikashi; Suzuki, Takao; FitzGerald, Michael; Krainer, Michael; Shimodaira, Hideki; Shimada, Akira; Nomizu, Tadashi; Isselbacher, Kurt J.; Haber, Daniel; Kanamaru, Ryunosuke
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/1997 Português
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The detection of inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes is critical to their characterization, as well as to the development of diagnostic testing. Most approaches for mutational screening of germ-line specimens are complicated by the fact that mutations are heterozygous and that missense mutations are difficult to interpret in the absence of information about protein function. We describe a novel method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for detecting protein-truncating mutations in any gene of interest. The PCR-amplified coding sequence is inserted by homologous recombination into a yeast URA3 fusion protein, and transformants are assayed for growth in the absence of uracil. The high efficiency of homologous recombination in yeast ensures that both alleles are represented among transformants and achieves separation of alleles, which facilitates subsequent nucleotide sequencing of the mutated transcript. The specificity of translational initiation of the URA3 gene leads to minimal enzymatic activity in transformants harboring an inserted stop codon, and hence to reliable distinction between specimens with wild-type alleles and those with a heterozygous truncating mutation. This yeast-based stop codon assay accurately detects heterozygous truncating mutations in the BRCA1 gene in patients with early onset of breast cancer and in the APC gene in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. This approach offers a rapid and reliable method for genetic diagnosis in individuals at high risk for germ-line mutations in cancer susceptibility genes.

‣ Mutations in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase genes segregate with late-onset Alzheimer disease

Davis, Robert E.; Miller, Scott; Herrnstadt, Corinna; Ghosh, Soumitra S.; Fahy, Eoin; Shinobu, Leslie A.; Galasko, Douglas; Thal, Leon J.; Beal, M. Flint; Howell, Neil; Parker, W. Davis
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/1997 Português
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Mounting evidence suggests that defects in energy metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Cytochrome c oxidase (CO) is kinetically abnormal, and its activity is decreased in brain and peripheral tissue in late-onset AD. CO is encoded by both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes. Its catalytic centers, however, are encoded exclusively by two mitochondrial genes, CO1 and CO2 (encoding CO subunits I and II, respectively). We searched these genes, as well as other mitochondrial genes, for mutations that might alter CO activity and cosegregate with AD. In the present study, specific missense mutations in the mitochondrial CO1 and CO2 genes but not the CO3 gene were found to segregate at a higher frequency with AD compared with other neurodegenerative or metabolic diseases. These mutations appear together in the same mitochondrial DNA molecule and define a unique mutant mitochondrial genome. Asymptomatic offspring of AD mothers had higher levels of these mutations than offspring of AD fathers, suggesting that these mutations can be maternally inherited. Cell lines expressing these mutant mitochondrial DNA molecules exhibited a specific decrease in CO activity and increased production of reactive oxygen species. We suggest that specific point mutations in the CO1 and CO2 genes cause the CO defect in AD. A CO defect may represent a primary etiologic event...

‣ β-Catenin mutations in cell lines established from human colorectal cancers

Ilyas, M.; Tomlinson, I. P. M.; Rowan, A.; Pignatelli, M.; Bodmer, W. F.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/09/1997 Português
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β-catenin has functions as both an adhesion and a signaling molecule. Disruption of these functions through mutations of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) may be important in the development of colorectal tumors. We examined the entire coding sequence of β-catenin by reverse transcriptase–PCR (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing of 23 human colorectal cancer cell lines from 21 patients. In two cell lines, there was apparent instability of the β-catenin mRNA. Five different mutations (26%) were found in the remaining 21cell lines (from 19 patients). A three-base deletion (codon 45) was identified in the cell line HCT 116, whereas cell lines SW 48, HCA 46, CACO 2, and Colo 201 each contained single-base missense mutations (codons 33, 183, 245, and 287, respectively). All 23 cell lines had full-length β-catenin protein that was detectable by Western blotting and that coprecipitated with E-cadherin. In three of the cell lines with CTNNB1 mutations, complexes of β-catenin with α-catenin and APC were detectable. In SW48 and HCA 46, however, we did not detect complexes of β-catenin protein with α-catenin and APC, respectively. These results show that selection of CTNNB1 mutations occurs in up to 26% of colorectal cancers from which cell lines are derived. In these cases...

‣ Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/1992 Português
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Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-line mutant proteins observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, second primary neoplasms, or familial breast cancer to block the growth of malignant cells and compared the structural properties of the mutant proteins to that of the wild-type protein. Six of seven missense mutations disrupted the growth inhibitory properties and structure of the wild-type protein. One germ-line mutation retained the features of the wild-type p53. Genetic analysis of the breast cancer family in which this mutation was observed indicated that this germ-line mutation was not associated with the development of cancer. These results demonstrate that germ-line p53 mutations observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and with second malignancies have inactivated the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The inability of the germ-line p53 mutants to block the growth of malignant cells can explain why patients with these germ-line mutations have an increased risk for cancer. The observation of a functionally silent germ-line mutation indicates that...

‣ Molecular basis of galactosemia: mutations and polymorphisms in the gene encoding human galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

Reichardt, J K; Woo, S L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/1991 Português
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We describe the molecular characterization of two mutations responsible for galactosemia, an inherited disorder of galatose metabolism that causes jaundice, cataracts, and mental retardation in humans. The coding region of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT; UDPglucose:alpha-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.12) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction from total cDNA of a classic galactosemic individual and was characterized by direct sequencing of the products. Two missense mutations were identified: (i) replacement of valine-44 by methionine and (ii) replacement of methionine-142 by lysine. These mutations led to a drastic reduction in GALT activity when individual mutant cDNAs were overexpressed in a mammalian cell system, although full-length protein is synthesized in this assay. The two galactosemia mutations account for 3 of the 15 galactosemia alleles analyzed. These results suggest that galactosemia is caused by a variety of mutations, which might be responsible for the observed clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. We also present the molecular characterization of two GALT polymorphisms: (i) replacement of leucine-62 by methionine and (ii) replacement of asparagine-314 by aspartate. It appears that galactosemia mutations tend to occur in regions that are highly conserved throughout evolution while the polymorphisms change variable residues.

‣ The role of bile salt export pump mutations in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II

Wang, Lin; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2002 Português
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PFIC II is a subtype of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) that is associated with mutations in the ABCB11 gene encoding the bile salt export pump (BSEP). However it is not known how these mutations cause this disease. To evaluate these mechanisms, we introduced seven PFIC II–associated missense mutations into rat Bsep and assessed their effects on Bsep membrane localization and transport function in MDCK and Sf9 cells, respectively. Five mutations, G238V, E297G, G982R, R1153C, and R1268Q, prevented the protein from trafficking to the apical membrane, and E297G, G982R, R1153C, and R1268Q also abolished taurocholate transport activity, possibly by causing Bsep to misfold. Mutation C336S affected neither Bsep transport activity nor the apical trafficking of Bsep, suggesting that this mutation alone may not cause this disease. D482G did not affect the apical expression but partially decreased the transport activity of Bsep. Mutant G238V was rapidly degraded in both MDCK and Sf9 cells, and proteasome inhibitor resulted in intracellular accumulation of this and other mutants, suggesting proteasome-mediated degradation plays an important role in expression of these PFIC II mutants. Our studies highlight the heterogeneous nature of PFIC II mutations and illustrate the significance of these mutations in the function and expression of Bsep.

‣ Syncytial mutations in the herpes simplex virus type 1 gK (UL53) gene occur in two distinct domains.

Dolter, K E; Ramaswamy, R; Holland, T C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 Português
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Syncytial (syn) mutants of herpes simplex virus cause cell fusion. Many syn mutations map to the syn1 locus, which has been identified with the gK (UL53) gene. In this work, the gK genes of eight syn mutants derived from the KOS strain were sequenced to identify residues and, possibly, domains important for the fusion activity of mutant gK. DNA sequencing showed that six mutants (syn30, syn31, syn32, syn102, syn103, and syn105) had single missense mutations in the gK gene. Two of these, syn31 and syn32, had identical mutations that caused the introduction of a potential site for N-linked glycosylation. syn31 gK was analyzed by in vitro translation and found to utilize the novel glycosylation site. Two other mutants, syn8 and syn33, had three mutations each, resulting in three amino acid substitutions in syn8 and two substitutions in syn33. Of the 10 gK syn mutant sequences known, 8 have mutations in the N-terminal domain of gK, suggesting that this domain, which is likely to be an ectodomain, is important for the function of the protein. The other two mutants, syn30 and syn103, have mutations near the C terminus of gK.

‣ Nonsense mutations in the human beta-globin gene affect mRNA metabolism.

Baserga, S J; Benz, E J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1988 Português
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A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human alpha- and beta-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with beta zero-thalassemia have shown that for both the beta-17 and the beta-39 mutations less than normal levels of beta-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human beta-globin mRNA.) In vitro studies using the cloned beta-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. We have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, we have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human beta-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation.

‣ Heterogeneous mutations in the human lipoprotein lipase gene in patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

Gotoda, T; Yamada, N; Kawamura, M; Kozaki, K; Mori, N; Ishibashi, S; Shimano, H; Takaku, F; Yazaki, Y; Furuichi, Y
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1991 Português
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The DNA sequences were determined for the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene from five unrelated Japanese patients with familial LPL deficiency. The results demonstrated that all five patients are homozygotes for distinct point mutations dispersed throughout the LPL gene. Patient 1 has a G-to-A transition at the first nucleotide of intron 2, which abolishes normal splicing. Patient 2 has a nonsense mutation in exon 3 (Tyr61----Stop) and patient 3 in exon 8 (Trp382----Stop). The latter mutation emphasizes the importance of the carboxy-terminal portion of the enzyme in the expression of LPL activity. Missense mutations were identified in patient 4 (Asp204----Glu) and patient 5 (Arg243----His) in the strictly conserved amino acids. Expression study of both mutant genes in COS-1 cells produced inactive enzymes, establishing the functional significance of the two mis-sense mutations. In these patients, postheparin plasma LPL mass was either virtually absent (patients 1 and 2) or significantly decreased (patients 3-5). To detect these mutations more easily, we developed a rapid diagnostic test for each mutation. We also determined the DNA haplotypes for patients and confirmed the occurrence of multiple mutations on the chromosomes with an identical haplotype. These results demonstrate that familial LPL deficiency is a heterogeneous genetic disease caused by a wide variety of gene mutations.

‣ Maturation and function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator variants bearing mutations in putative nucleotide-binding domains 1 and 2.

Gregory, R J; Rich, D P; Cheng, S H; Souza, D W; Paul, S; Manavalan, P; Anderson, M P; Welsh, M J; Smith, A E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1991 Português
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One feature of the mutations thus far found to be associated with the disease cystic fibrosis (CF) is that many of them are clustered within the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We sought to discover the molecular basis for this clustering by introducing into the two NBDs of CFTR mutations either mimicking amino acid changes associated with CF or altering residues within highly conserved motifs. Synthesis and maturation of the mutant CFTR were studied by transient expression in COS cells. The ability of the altered proteins to generate cyclic AMP-stimulated anion efflux was assessed by using 6-methoxy-N-(sulfopropyl) quinolinium (SPQ) fluorescence measurements in HeLa cells expressing mutated plasmids. The results show that (i) all CF-associated mutants, with one exception, lack functional activity as measured in the SPQ assay, (ii) mutations in NBD1 are more sensitive to the effects of the same amino acid change than are the corresponding mutations in NBD2, (iii) cells transfected with plasmids bearing CF-associated mutations commonly but not exclusively lack mature CFTR, (iv) NBD mutants lacking mature CFTR fail to activate Cl- channels, and (v) the glycosylation of CFTR...

‣ Assessment of French patients with LPL deficiency for French Canadian mutations.

Foubert, L; De Gennes, J L; Lagarde, J P; Ehrenborg, E; Raisonnier, A; Girardet, J P; Hayden, M R; Benlian, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1997 Português
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Mutations in the LPL gene show high levels of allelic heterogeneity between and within different populations. Complete LPL deficiency has a very high prevalence in French Canadians, where only three missense mutations account for > 97% of cases, most consistent with founder mutations introduced early in Quebec by French immigrants. In order to determine whether these mutations were present in France, 12 unrelated French families with defined LPL deficiency were investigated for the presence of the mutations found in French Canadians. Of the 24 expected alleles, six (25%) represented mutations in French Canadians (Gly188Glu four alleles, Asp250Asn and Pro207Leu one allele each). Comparison of French Canadian and French alleles identified the same haplotype in all carriers of the Gly188Glu and of the Asp250Asn, suggesting a common origin. In contrast, the Pro207Leu occurred on different haplotypes in France and Quebec, compatible with a different ancestral origin.

‣ Genomic Structure and Identification of Novel Mutations in Usherin, the Gene Responsible for Usher Syndrome Type IIa

Weston, M. D.; Eudy, J. D.; Fujita, S.; Yao, S.-F.; Usami, S.; Cremers, C.; Greenburg, J.; Ramesar, R.; Martini, A.; Moller, C.; Smith, R. J.; Sumegi, J.; Kimberling, William J.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Usher syndrome type IIa (USHIIa) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This disorder maps to human chromosome 1q41. Recently, mutations in USHIIa patients were identified in a novel gene isolated from this chromosomal region. The USH2A gene encodes a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 171.5 kD and possesses laminin epidermal growth factor as well as fibronectin type III domains. These domains are observed in other protein components of the basal lamina and extracellular matrixes; they may also be observed in cell-adhesion molecules. The intron/exon organization of the gene whose protein we name “Usherin” was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products and cloned genomic DNA with cDNA-specific primers. The gene is encoded by 21 exons and spans a minimum of 105 kb. A mutation search of 57 independent USHIIa probands was performed with a combination of direct sequencing and heteroduplex analysis of PCR-amplified exons. Fifteen new mutations were found. Of 114 independent USH2A alleles, 58 harbored probable pathologic mutations. Ten cases of USHIIa were true homozygotes and 10 were compound heterozygotes; 18 heterozygotes with only one identifiable mutation were observed. Sixty-five percent (38/58) of cases had at least one mutation...

‣ Mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes in hereditary multiple exostoses.

Wuyts, W; Van Hul, W; De Boulle, K; Hendrickx, J; Bakker, E; Vanhoenacker, F; Mollica, F; Lüdecke, H J; Sayli, B S; Pazzaglia, U E; Mortier, G; Hamel, B; Conrad, E U; Matsushita, M; Raskind, W H; Willems, P J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
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Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT; MIM 133700) is an autosomal dominant bone disorder characterized by the presence of multiple benign cartilage-capped tumors (exostoses). Besides suffering complications caused by the pressure of these exostoses on the surrounding tissues, EXT patients are at an increased risk for malignant chondrosarcoma, which may develop from an exostosis. EXT is genetically heterogeneous, and three loci have been identified so far: EXT1, on chromosome 8q23-q24; EXT2, on 11p11-p12; and EXT3, on the short arm of chromosome 19. The EXT1 and EXT2 genes were cloned recently, and they were shown to be homologous. We have now analyzed the EXT1 and EXT2 genes, in 26 EXT families originating from nine countries, to identify the underlying disease-causing mutation. Of the 26 families, 10 families had an EXT1 mutation, and 10 had an EXT2 mutation. Twelve of these mutations have never been described before. In addition, we have reviewed all EXT1 and EXT2 mutations reported so far, to determine the nature, frequency, and distribution of mutations that cause EXT. From this analysis, we conclude that mutations in either the EXT1 or the EXT2 gene are responsible for the majority of EXT cases. Most of the mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 cause premature termination of the EXT proteins...

‣ Unusual patterns of exon skipping in Bruton tyrosine kinase are associated with mutations involving the intron 17 3' splice site.

Haire, R N; Ohta, Y; Strong, S J; Litman, R T; Liu, Y; Prchal, J T; Cooper, M D; Litman, G W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1997 Português
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Seven individuals with the diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia were analyzed for mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene at both the cDNA transcript and genomic DNA levels. In addition, maternal carrier status was determined in six of the seven families by examining X chromosome-inactivation patterns for B cells in comparison with other types of blood cells. Three categories of mutations were identified: (1) three patients have missense mutations in either the pleckstrin or SH2 domains of Btk; (2) three patients exhibit mutations at or near intron/exon splice sites, two of which represent inherited mutations within the kinase domain; and (3) one patient has inherited a 2.5-kb deletion with the loss of a DNA segment encoding three exons of the kinase domain. Variation in the lengths of Btk transcripts was evident in two patients with splice-site mutations and in the patient with the DNA deletion. Sequences of the different cDNA transcripts from the patients with 3' splice-site mutations reveal complex patterns of exon skipping involving from one to four exons of the kinase domain. These findings implicate 3' splice sites of the penultimate exon in the recognition or processing of upstream exons.

‣ Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and the von Hippel-Lindau disease tumour suppressor gene in sporadic and syndromic phaeochromocytomas.

Eng, C; Crossey, P A; Mulligan, L M; Healey, C S; Houghton, C; Prowse, A; Chew, S L; Dahia, P L; O'Riordan, J L; Toledo, S P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1995 Português
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Phaeochromocytomas may occur sporadically, or as part of the inherited cancer syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), and, rarely, in type 1 neurofibromatosis. In MEN 2, germline missense mutations have been found in one of eight codons within exons 10, 11, 13, 14, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. In VHL, germline mutations within one of the three exons are responsible for the majority of cases. To determine if somatic mutations similar to those seen in the germline in MEN 2 or VHL disease play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic or familial phaeochromocytomas, we analysed 48 sporadic tumours and tumours from 17 MEN 2 and five VHL patients for mutations in RET exons 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16, and the entire coding sequence of VHL. Five of 48 sporadic phaeochromocytomas had RET mutations within exons 10, 11, and 16. Of these, one was proven to be germline and two were proven to be somatic mutations. Four of 48 had VHL mutations; these included both the bilateral cases in the series (one was proven to be a germline mutation) and two others, of which one was proven somatic.

‣ WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients: genomic rearrangements, unusual intronic mutations and ethnic-specific alterations

Friedrich, Katrin; Lee, Lin; Leistritz, Dru F.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saha, Bidisha; Hisama, Fuki M.; Eyman, Daniel K.; Lessel, Davor; Nürnberg, Peter; Li, Chumei; Garcia-F-Villalta, María J.; Kets, Carolien M.; Schmidtke, Joerg; Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Van de
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Text
Português
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Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by null mutations at the WRN locus, which codes for a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Since 1988, the International Registry of Werner syndrome had enrolled 130 molecularly confirmed WS cases from among 110 worldwide pedigrees. We now report 18 new mutations, including two genomic rearrangements, a deep intronic mutation resulting in a novel exon, a splice consensus mutation leading to utilization of the nearby splice site, and two rare missense mutations. We also review evidence for founder mutations among various ethnic/geographic groups. Founder WRN mutations had been previously reported in Japan and Northern Sardinia. Our Registry now suggests characteristic mutations originated in Morocco, Turkey, The Netherlands and elsewhere.