Multiple tau gene mutations are pathogenic for
hereditary frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to
chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), with filamentous tau aggregates as the major
lesions in the CNS of these patients. Recent studies have shown that
bacterially expressed recombinant tau proteins with FTDP-17 missense
mutations cause functional impairments, i.e., a reduced ability of
mutant tau to bind to or promote the assembly of microtubules.
To investigate the biological consequences of FTDP-17 tau mutants and
assess their ability to form filamentous aggregates, we engineered
Chinese hamster ovary cell lines to stably express tau harboring one or
several different FTDP-17 mutations and showed that different tau
mutants produced distinct pathological phenotypes. For example, ΔK,
but not several other single tau mutants (e.g., V337 M, P301L, R406W),
developed insoluble amorphous and fibrillar aggregates, whereas a
triple tau mutant (VPR) containing V337M, P301L, and R406W
substitutions also formed similar aggregates. Furthermore, the
aggregates increased in size over time in culture. Significantly, the
formation of aggregated ΔK and VPR tau protein correlated with
reduced affinity of these mutants to bind microtubules. Reduced
phosphorylation and altered proteolysis was also observed in R406W and
ΔK tau mutants. Thus...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an important cause of sudden death in apparently healthy young individuals. In less than half of kindreds with HCM, the disease is linked to the beta-myosin heavy-chain gene locus (MYH7). We have recently described two missense MYH7 gene mutations [Arg-403 to Gln (R403Q) and Leu-908 to Val (L908V)] and found that the mutant message is present in skeletal muscle soleus) and that the mutant beta-myosin obtained from soleus muscle has abnormal in vitro motility activity. Having identified a second kindred with the R403Q mutation, and 3 other kindreds with two additional mutations (G741R and G256E), we performed histochemical analysis of soleus muscle biopsies from 25 HCM patients with one of these four mutations. Light microscopic examination of the NADH-stained biopsies revealed the presence of central core disease (CCD) of skeletal muscle, a rare autosomal dominant nonprogressive myopathy characterized by a predominance of type I "slow" fibers and an absence of mitochondria in the center of many type I fibers. CCD was present in 10 of 13 patients with the L908V mutation, 5 of 8 patients with the R403Q mutation, 1 of 3 patients with the G741R mutation, and 1 patient with the G256E mutation. Mild-to-moderate myopathic changes with muscle fiber hypertrophy were present in 16 patients. Notably...
Missense mutations in the SNF3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were previously found to cause defects in both glucose repression and derepression of the SUC2 (invertase) gene. In addition, the growth properties of snf3 mutants suggested that they were defective in uptake of glucose and fructose. We have cloned the SNF3 gene by complementation and demonstrated linkage of the cloned DNA to the chromosomal SNF3 locus. The gene encodes a 3-kilobase poly(A)-containing RNA, which was fivefold more abundant in cells deprived of glucose. The SNF3 gene was disrupted at its chromosomal locus by several methods to create null mutations. Disruption resulted in growth phenotypes consistent with a defect in glucose uptake. Surprisingly, gene disruption did not cause aberrant regulation of SUC2 expression. We discuss possible mechanisms by which abnormal SNF3 gene products encoded by missense alleles could perturb regulatory functions.
The base excision repair DNA glycosylase MutY homolog (MYH) is responsible for removing adenines misincorporated into DNA opposite guanine or 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG), thereby preventing G:C to T:A mutations. Biallelic germline mutations in the human MYH gene predispose individuals to multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma. We have recently demonstrated that hMYH interacts with the mismatch repair protein hMSH6, and that the hMSH2/hMSH6 (hMutSα) heterodimer stimulates hMYH activity. Here, we characterize the functional effect of two missense mutations (R227W and V232F) associated with hMYH polyposis that lie within, or adjacent to, the putative hMSH6 binding domain. Neither missense mutation affects the physical interaction between hMYH and hMSH6. However, hMYH(R227W) has a severe defect in A/8-oxoG binding and glycosylase activities, while hMYH(V232F) has reduced A/8-oxoG binding and glycosylase activities. The glycosylase activity of the V232F mutant can be partially stimulated by hMutSα but cannot be restored to the wild-type level. Both mutants also fail to complement mutY-deficiency in Escherichia coli. These data define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying two further hMYH polyposis-associated mutations.
Tryptophan auxotroph trp-28 is anomalous since preliminary mapping and suppression studies indicate the presence of a single amber nonsense mutation either late in trpE or early in trpD, but enzymological tests indicate the complete inactivation of both genes in this strain. Since the trpE and trpD genes are contiguous and encode the two subunits of a multifunctional enzyme complex, it was of interest to learn the mechanism of action of this apparent pleiotropic nonsense mutation. Our study has revealed that the phenotype of this strain derives not from a single mutation, but from the presence and interaction of multiple mutations. Besides the recognized amber mutation (designated trpD28), this strain carries two additional, conditionally expressed missense mutations (designated trpE1651 and trpD1652). The trpD28 amber codon maps in the promoter-proximal region 1 of trpD and eliminates the glutamine amidotransferase activity of the bifunctional trpD polypeptide. The trpD1652 mutation maps in the promoter-distal region 2 of trpD and severely reduces (but does not eliminate) the phosphoribosyl transferase activity of the trpD polypeptide. The trpE1651 mutation maps in the anterior part of trpE and causes a rapid loss of activity of the trpE polypeptide...
Smad4 is an essential signal transducer of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling pathway and has been identified as a tumour suppressor, being mutated in approx. 50% of pancreatic cancers and approx. 15% of colorectal cancers. Two missense mutations in the C-terminal domain of Smad4, D351H (Asp351-->His) and D537Y (Asp537-->Tyr), have been described recently in the human colorectal cancer cell lines CACO-2 and SW948 respectively [Woodford-Richens, Rowan, Gorman, Halford, Bicknell, Wasan, Roylance, Bodmer and Tomlinson (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 9719-9723]. Previous work in vitro suggested that only Asp-351 was required for interaction with Smad2 [Wu, Fairman, Penry and Shi (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 20688-20694]. In the present study, we investigate the functional consequences of these point mutations in vivo. We demonstrate that neither of these colorectal cancer cells undergo growth arrest in response to TGF-beta, which can be explained, at least in part, by their inability to up-regulate cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 (CIP1 ) or p15 ( INK4b) after TGF-beta stimulation. Although the point-mutated Smad4s are expressed at normal levels in these colorectal cancer cells, they cannot interact with either TGF-beta-induced phosphorylated Smad2 or Smad3. As a result...
We report missense mutations associated with haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 alleles of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Individual exon-containing regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA of a PKU patient who was a haplotype 1/4 compound heterozygote. The amplified DNA fragments were subcloned into M13 for sequence analysis. Missense mutations were observed in exons 5 and 7, resulting in the substitution of Arg by Gln at residues 158 and 261 of the enzyme, respectively. Expression analysis in heterozygous mammalian cells after site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the Arg158-to-Gln158 mutation is a PKU mutation, whereas the Arg261-to-Gln261 mutation is apparently silent in the assay system. Hybridization analysis using allele-specific oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that the Arg158-to-Gln158 mutation is present in two of six mutant haplotype 4 alleles among the Swiss and constitutes about 40% of all mutant haplotype 4 alleles in the European population. The mutation is not present in normal alleles or in any mutant alleles of other haplotypes. The results provide conclusive evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between mutation and haplotype in the PAH gene and that multiple mutations have occurred in the PAH gene of a prevalent haplotype among Caucasians.
In a Dutch pedigree suffering from autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ADNSHI), linkage was found to the locus for DFNA15, with a two-point logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 5.1. Sequence analysis of the POU4F3 gene that is involved in DFNA15 revealed the presence of a missense mutation (c.865C>T), segregating with the deafness in this family. The mutation is predicted to result in the substitution of a phenylalanine residue for a leucine residue (p.L289F) in the POU homeodomain of the transcription factor POU4F3. Mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 30 patients suffering from dominantly inherited hearing impairment revealed a second novel missense mutation (c.668T>C), resulting in the substitution of a proline for a leucine residue (p.L223P) within the POU-specific DNA-binding domain of the protein. In a computer model describing the structure of the two DNA-binding domains, the alterations are predicted to affect the tertiary structure of these domains. Transient transfection studies showed that whereas the wild-type POU4F3 is located almost exclusively in the nucleus, part of the mutant proteins was also present in the cytoplasm. In addition, both mutant proteins showed greatly reduced capability for binding to DNA as well as transcriptionally activating reporter gene expression. Together...
Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) is a degenerative genetic disorder of the corneal endothelium that represents one of the most common causes of corneal transplantation in the United States. Despite its high prevalence (4% over the age of 40), the underlying genetic basis of FCD is largely unknown. Here we report missense mutations in TCF8, a transcription factor whose haploinsufficiency causes posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD), in a cohort of late-onset FCD patients. In contrast to PPCD-causing mutations, all of which are null, FCD-associated mutations encode rare missense changes suggested to cause loss of function by an in vivo complementation assay. Importantly, segregation of a recurring p.Q840P mutation in a large, multigenerational FCD pedigree showed this allele to be sufficient but not necessary for pathogenesis. Execution of a genome-wide scan conditioned for the presence of the 840P allele identified an additional late-onset FCD locus on chromosome 9p, whereas haplotype analysis indicated that the presence of the TCF8 allele and the disease haplotype on 9p leads to a severe FCD manifestation with poor prognosis. Our data suggest that PPCD and FCD are allelic variants of the same disease continuum and that genetic interaction between genes that cause corneal dystrophies can modulate the expressivity of the phenotype.
Mutations of the sequence-specific master regulator p53 that alter transactivation function from promoter response elements (REs) could result in changes in the strength of gene activation or spectra of genes regulated. Such mutations in this tumor suppressor might lead to dramatic phenotypic changes and diversification of cell responses to stress. We have determined “functional fingerprints” of sporadic breast cancer-related p53 mutants many of which are also associated with familial cancer proneness such as the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and germline BRCA1/2 mutant-associated cancers. The ability of p53, wild type and mutants, to transactivate from 11 human target REs has been assessed at variable expression levels using a cellular, isogenomic yeast model system that allows for the rapid analysis of p53 function using a qualitative and a quantitative reporter. Among 50 missense mutants, 29 were classified as loss-of-function. The remaining 21 retained transactivation towards at least one RE. At high levels of galactose induced p53 expression, 12/21 mutants that retain transactivation appeared similar to WT. When the level of galactose was reduced, transactivation defects could be revealed suggesting that some breast cancer related mutants can have subtle changes in transcription. These findings have been compared with clinical data from an ongoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment trial for locally advanced breast tumors. The functional and nonfunctional missense mutations may distinguish tumors in terms of demographics...
Antigen-specific immune responses against peptides derived from missense gene mutations have been identified in multiple cancers. The application of personalized peptide vaccines based on the tumor mutation repertoire of each cancer patient is a near-term clinical reality. These peptides can be identified for pre-validation by leveraging the results of massive gene sequencing efforts in cancer. In this study, we utilized NetMHC 3.2 to predict nanomolar peptide binding affinity to 57 human HLA-A and B alleles. All peptides were derived from 5,685 missense mutations in 312 genes annotated as functionally relevant in the Cancer Genome Project. Of the 26,672,189 potential 8–11 mer peptide-HLA pairs evaluated, 0.4% (127,800) display binding affinities < 50 nM, predicting high affinity interactions. These peptides can be segregated into two groups based on the binding affinity to HLA proteins relative to germline-encoded sequences: peptides for which both the mutant and wild-type forms are high affinity binders, and peptides for which only the mutant form is a high affinity binder. Current evidence directs the attention to mutations that increase HLA binding affinity, as compared with cognate wild-type peptide sequences, as these potentially are more relevant for vaccine development from a clinical perspective. Our analysis generated a database including all predicted HLA binding peptides and the corresponding change in binding affinity as a result of point mutations. Our study constitutes a broad foundation for the development of personalized peptide vaccines that hone-in on functionally relevant targets in multiple cancers in individuals with diverse HLA haplotypes.
Endothelial lipase (EL) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism. We sought to characterize EL and its interaction with HDL as well as its natural variants genetically, functionally and structurally. We screened our biethnic population sample (n = 802) for selected missense mutations (n = 5) and identified T111I as the only common variant. Multiple linear regression analyses in Hispanic subjects revealed an unexpected association between T111I and elevated LDL-C (p-value = 0.012) and total cholesterol (p-value = 0.004). We examined lipase activity of selected missense mutants (n = 10) and found different impacts on EL function, ranging from normal to complete loss of activity. EL-HDL lipidomic analyses indicated that EL has a defined remodeling of HDL without exhaustion of the substrate and a distinct and preference for several fatty acids that are lipid mediators and known for their potent pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Structural studies using homology modeling revealed a novel α/β motif in the C-domain, unique to EL. The EL dimer was found to have the flexibility to expand and to bind various sizes of HDL particles. The likely impact of the all known missense mutations (n = 18) on the structure of EL was examined using molecular modeling and the impact they may have on EL lipase activity using a novel structure-function slope based on their structural free energy differences. The results of this multidisciplinary approach delineated the impact of EL and its variants on HDL. Moreover...
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a form of X-linked leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene. Although PLP1 proteins with missense mutations have been shown to accumulate in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in disease model animals and cell lines transfected with mutant PLP1 genes, the exact pathogenetic mechanism of PMD has not previously been clarified. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two PMD patients carrying missense mutation and differentiated them into oligodendrocytes in vitro. In the PMD iPSC-derived oligodendrocytes, mislocalization of mutant PLP1 proteins to the ER and an association between increased susceptibility to ER stress and increased numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes were observed. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated drastically reduced myelin formation accompanied by abnormal ER morphology. Thus, this study demonstrates the involvement of ER stress in pathogenic dysmyelination in the oligodendrocytes of PMD patients with the PLP1 missense mutation.
The α7nicotinic receptor (nAChR) is a major subtype of the nAChRs in the central nervous system, and the receptor plays an important role in brain function. In the dbSNP database, there are 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cause missense mutations of the human α7nAChR in the coding region. In this study, we tested the impact of 14 SNPs that cause missense mutations in the agonist binding site or the coupling region between binding site and channel gate on the receptor function. The wild type or mutant receptors were expressed or co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the agonist-induced currents were tested using two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results demonstrated that 6 mutants were nonfunctional, 4 mutants had reduced current expression, and 1 mutants altered ACh and nicotine efficacy in the opposite direction, and one additional mutant had slightly reduced agonist sensitivity. Interestingly, the function of most of these nonfunctional mutants could be rescued by α7nAChR positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 and agonist-PAM 4BP-TQS. Finally, when coexpressed with the wild type, the nonfunctional mutants could also influence the receptor function. These changes of the receptor properties by the mutations could potentially have an impact on the physiological function of the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic synaptic transmission and anti-inflammatory effects in the human SNP carriers. Rescuing the nonfunctional mutants could provide a novel way to treat the related disorders.
Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder with cleidocranial dysplasia, digital anomalies, and severe neurological involvement. Enlarged vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified frameshift and missense mutations of FIG4 in affected individuals from three unrelated families. FIG4 encodes a phosphoinositide phosphatase required for regulation of PI(3,5)P(2) levels, and thus endosomal trafficking and autophagy. In a functional assay, both missense substitutions failed to correct the vacuolar phenotype of Fig4-null mouse fibroblasts. Homozygous Fig4-null mice exhibit features of YVS, including neurodegeneration and enlarged vacuoles in neurons. We demonstrate that Fig4-null mice also have small skeletons with reduced trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness and that cultured osteoblasts accumulate large vacuoles. Our findings demonstrate that homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for null mutations of FIG4 is responsible for YVS, the most severe known human phenotype caused by defective phosphoinositide metabolism. In contrast, in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (also caused by FIG4 mutations), one of the FIG4 alleles is hypomorphic and disease is limited to the peripheral nervous system. This genotype-phenotype correlation demonstrates that absence of FIG4 activity leads to central nervous system dysfunction and extensive skeletal anomalies. Our results describe a role for PI(3...
Dettmer, Ulf; Newman, Andrew J.; Soldner, Frank; Luth, Eric S.; Kim, Nora C.; von Saucken, Victoria E.; Sanderson, John B.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Bartels, Tim; Selkoe, Dennis
Fonte: Nature Pub. GroupPublicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
β-Sheet-rich α-synuclein (αS) aggregates characterize Parkinson's disease (PD). αS was long believed to be a natively unfolded monomer, but recent work suggests it also occurs in α-helix-rich tetramers. Crosslinking traps principally tetrameric αS in intact normal neurons, but not after cell lysis, suggesting a dynamic equilibrium. Here we show that freshly biopsied normal human brain contains abundant αS tetramers. The PD-causing mutation A53T decreases tetramers in mouse brain. Neurons derived from an A53T patient have decreased tetramers. Neurons expressing E46K do also, and adding 1-2 E46K-like mutations into the canonical αS repeat motifs (KTKEGV) further reduces tetramers, decreases αS solubility and induces neurotoxicity and round inclusions. The other three fPD missense mutations likewise decrease tetramer:monomer ratios. The destabilization of physiological tetramers by PD-causing missense mutations and the neurotoxicity and inclusions induced by markedly decreasing tetramers suggest that decreased α-helical tetramers and increased unfolded monomers initiate pathogenesis. Tetramer-stabilizing compounds should prevent this.
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. We recently mapped an X-linked form of this condition to chromosome Xq13.1-q21 in two large unrelated families. The region of genetic linkage included ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting P-type ATPase mutated in patients with Menkes disease, a severe infantile-onset neurodegenerative condition. We identified two unique ATP7A missense mutations (p.P1386S and p.T994I) in males with distal motor neuropathy in two families. These molecular alterations impact highly conserved amino acids in the carboxyl half of ATP7A and do not directly involve the copper transporter's known critical functional domains. Studies of p.P1386S revealed normal ATP7A mRNA and protein levels, a defect in ATP7A trafficking, and partial rescue of a S. cerevisiae copper transport knockout. Although ATP7A mutations are typically associated with severe Menkes disease or its milder allelic variant, occipital horn syndrome, we demonstrate here that certain missense mutations at this locus can cause a syndrome restricted to progressive distal motor neuropathy without overt signs of systemic copper deficiency. This previously unrecognized genotype-phenotype correlation suggests an important role of the ATP7A copper transporter in motor-neuron maintenance and function.
The lack of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing enzyme that hydrolyzes fatty acids from triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in multiple tissues, causes the autosomal recessive disorder neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSD-M). In two families of Lebanese and Italian origin presenting with NLSD-M, we identified two new missense mutations in highly conserved regions of ATGL (p.Arg221Pro and p.Asn172Lys) and a novel nonsense mutation (p.Trp8X). The Lebanese patients harbor homozygous p.Arg221Pro, whereas the Italian patients are heterozygotes for p.Asn172Lys and the p.Trp8X mutation. The p.Trp8X mutation results in a complete absence of ATGL protein, while the p.Arg221Pro and p.Asn172Lys mutations result in proteins with minimal lipolytic activity. Although these mutations did not affect putative catalytic residues or the lipid droplet (LD)-binding domain of ATGL, cytosolic LDs accumulated in cultured skin fibroblasts from the patients. The missense mutations might destabilize a random coil (p.Asn172Lys) or a helix (p.Arg221Pro) structure within or proximal to the patatin domain of the lipase, thereby interfering with the enzyme activity, while leaving intact the residues required to localize the protein to LDs. Overexpressing wild-type ATGL in one patient's fibroblasts corrected the metabolic defect and effectively reduced the number and area of cellular LDs. Despite the poor lipase activity in vitro...
The low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a coreceptor in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has been implicated in human disorders of low and high bone mass. Loss-of-function mutations cause the autosomal recessive osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, and heterozygous missense mutations in families segregating autosomal dominant high bone mass (HBM) phenotypes have been identified. We expressed seven different HBM-LRP5 missense mutations to delineate the mechanism by which they alter Wnt signaling. None of the mutations caused activation of the receptor in the absence of ligand. Each mutant receptor was able to reach the cell surface, albeit at differing amounts, and transduce exogenously supplied Wnt1 and Wnt3a signal. All HBM mutant proteins had reduced physical interaction with and reduced inhibition by DKK1. These data suggest that HBM mutant proteins can transit to the cell surface in sufficient quantity to transduce Wnt signal and that the likely mechanism for the HBM mutations' physiologic effects is via reduced affinity to and inhibition by DKK1.