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‣ Bladder tumour-derived somatic TSC1 missense mutations cause loss of function via distinct mechanisms

Pymar, Louis S.; Platt, Fiona M.; Askham, Jon M.; Morrison, Ewan E.; Knowles, Margaret A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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More than 50% of transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder show loss of heterozygosity of a region spanning the TSC1 locus at 9q34 and mutations of TSC1 have been identified in 14.5% of tumours. These comprise nonsense mutations, splicing mutations, small deletions and missense mutations. Missense mutations are only rarely found in the germline in TSC disease. Therefore, we have examined six somatic missense mutations found in bladder cancer to determine whether these result in loss of function. We describe loss of function via distinct mechanisms. Five mutations caused mutually exclusive defects at mRNA and protein levels. Of these, two mutations caused pre-mRNA splicing errors that were predicted to result in premature protein truncation and three resulted in markedly reduced stability of exogenous TSC1 protein. Primary tumours with aberrant TSC1 pre-mRNA splicing were confirmed as negative for TSC1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression was also significantly reduced in a tumour with a TSC1 missense mutation resulting in diminished protein half-life. A single TSC1 missense mutation identified in a tumour with retained heterozygosity of the TSC1 region on chromosome 9 caused an apparently TSC2- and mTOR-independent localization defect of the mutant protein. We conclude that although TSC1 missense mutations do not play a major role in causation of TSC disease...

‣ An integrated computational approach can classify VHL missense mutations according to risk of clear cell renal carcinoma

Gossage, Lucy; Pires, Douglas E. V.; Olivera-Nappa, Álvaro; Asenjo, Juan; Bycroft, Mark; Blundell, Tom L.; Eisen, Tim
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mutations in the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) gene are pathogenic in VHL disease, congenital polycythaemia and clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). pVHL forms a ternary complex with elongin C and elongin B, critical for pVHL stability and function, which interacts with Cullin-2 and RING-box protein 1 to target hypoxia-inducible factor for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We describe a comprehensive database of missense VHL mutations linked to experimental and clinical data. We use predictions from in silico tools to link the functional effects of missense VHL mutations to phenotype. The risk of ccRCC in VHL disease is linked to the degree of destabilization resulting from missense mutations. An optimized binary classification system (symphony), which integrates predictions from five in silico methods, can predict the risk of ccRCC associated with VHL missense mutations with high sensitivity and specificity. We use symphony to generate predictions for risk of ccRCC for all possible VHL missense mutations and present these predictions, in association with clinical and experimental data, in a publically available, searchable web server.