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‣ Ressonância magnética nuclear na determinação de estrutura de proteínas: aplicação à mutante His15Ala de HPr de staphylococcus aureus.; Structure determination of proteins by NMR: application to a His15Ala mutant of HPr from staphylococcus aureus.

Munte, Claudia Elisabeth
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2001 Português
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A técnica de espectroscopia por Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (NMR) de alta resolução foi utilizada para estudos estruturais em duas biomoléculas: a proteína HPr da bactéria Staphylococcus aureus, e o peptídeo C da insulina humana. Ambas estão relacionadas com a regulação da absorção de glicose pelas células, no primeiro caso em procariontes, e no segundo em organismos superiores. A proteína HPr ("Histidine-containing protein") de Staphylococcus aureus é uma das componentes centrais do sistema PTS (fosfoenolpiruvato:açúcar-fosfotransferase) de translocação grupal, responsável pelo transporte ativo de açúcar para o interior da célula bacterial. Nesse processo, a His15 do sítio ativo de HPr é fosforilada pela enzima EI, transferindo, a seguir, o grupo fosfato para a enzima EUA A mutação His15→Ala interrompe a transferência do grupo fosfato; apesar disso, a afinidade entre HPr(H15A) e as enzimas EI/EIlA se mostrou semelhante à da nativa. Utilizando técnicas de NMR bidimensionais (COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC) etridimensionais (HNCA, HNCO, NOESY-HSQC) foi determinada a estrutura da mutante His15→Ala de HPr de S. aureus. Sua estrutura consiste de um sanduíche-aberto, composto de 3 hélices-a paralelamente empacotadas contra uma folha formada por 4 fitas-β anti-paralelas. Esse padrão é encontrado em todas as proteínas HPr já determinadas em diversas espécies...

‣ Immunochemical and Enzymatic Studies on Glutamate Dehydrogenase and a Related Mutant Protein from Neurospora crassa

Roberts, D. B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1966 Português
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Roberts, D. B. (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England). Immunochemical and enzymatic studies on glutamate dehydrogenase and a related mutant protein from Neurospora crassa. J. Bacteriol. 91:1888–1895. 1966.—When an investigation was made of the inhibition of Neurospora glutamate dehydrogenase by bivalent and univalent antibodies, it was shown that the enzyme inhibition is not complete even with excess antibodies. The residual activity was some three times greater with bivalent antibodies, in spite of the observation that the ratio of inhibiting antibodies to catalytic sites was 2:1 for both types of antibody. Substrates did not affect the inhibition of enzyme activity, nor did antibodies affect the Km for either substrate. An allosteric mechanism for the inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase by antibodies is proposed. It was also demonstrated that the mutant protein am-3 can be activated, to show glutamate dehydrogenase activity, by a number of activators. The requirement for the activation was the presence of a carboxymethyl group. The data suggest that the nonactivated protein has two combining sites for l-glutamate: the catalytic and activating sites. The wild-type enzyme has only one of these sites. Because the activating site is distinct from the catalytic site...

‣ Involvement of the chaperonin dnaK in the rapid degradation of a mutant protein in Escherichia coli.

Sherman MYu; Goldberg, A L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1992 Português
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The ability of Escherichia coli rapidly to degrade abnormal proteins is inhibited by mutations affecting any of several heat shock proteins (hsps). We therefore tested whether a short-lived mutant protein might become associated with hsps as part of its degradation. At 30 degrees C, the non-secreted mutant form of alkaline phosphatase, phoA61, is relatively stable, and very little phoA61 is found associated with the hsp dnaK. However, raising the temperature to 37 degrees C or 41 degrees C stimulated the degradation of this protein, and up to 30% of cellular phoA61 became associated with dnaK, as shown by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Also found in complexes with phoA61 were the hsps, protease La and grpE (but no groEL, or groES). The rapid degradation of phoA61 at 37 degrees C and 41 degrees C is in part by protease La, since it decreased by 50% in lon mutants. This process also requires dnaK, since deletion of this gene prevented phoA61 degradation almost completely (unless a wild-type dnaK gene was introduced). In contrast, the missense mutation, dnaK756, enhanced phoA61 degradation. The dnaK756 protein also was associated with phoA61, but this complex, unlike that containing wild-type dnaK could not be dissociated by ATP addition. Furthermore...

‣ Mapping of a Domain Required for Protein-Protein Interactions and Inhibitory Activity of a Helicobacter pylori Dominant-Negative VacA Mutant Protein

Torres, Victor J.; McClain, Mark S.; Cover, Timothy L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin is an 88-kDa secreted protein that causes multiple alterations in mammalian cells and is considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We have shown previously that a VacA mutant protein lacking amino acids 6 to 27 (Δ6-27p88 VacA) is able to inhibit many activities of wild-type VacA in a dominant-negative manner. Analysis of a panel of C-terminally truncated Δ6-27p88 VacA proteins indicated that a fragment containing amino acids 1 to 478 (Δ6-27p48) exhibited a dominant-negative phenotype similar to that of the full-length Δ6-27p88 VacA protein. In contrast, a shorter VacA fragment lacking amino acids 6 to 27 (Δ6-27p33) did not exhibit detectable inhibitory activity. The Δ6-27p48 protein physically interacted with wild-type p88 VacA, whereas the Δ6-27p33 protein did not. Mutational analysis indicated that amino acids 351 to 360 are required for VacA protein-protein interactions and for dominant-negative inhibitory activity. The C-terminal portion (p55 domain) of wild-type p88 VacA could complement either Δ6-27p33 or Δ(6-27/351-360)p48, reconstituting dominant-negative inhibitory activity. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that the inhibitory properties of dominant-negative VacA mutant proteins are dependent on interactions between the mutant VacA proteins and wild-type VacA...

‣ Improvements of rolling circle amplification (RCA) efficiency and accuracy using Thermus thermophilus SSB mutant protein

Inoue, Jin; Shigemori, Yasushi; Mikawa, Tsutomu
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Rolling circle amplification (RCA) of plasmid or genomic DNA using random hexamers and bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase has become increasingly popular in the amplification of template DNA in DNA sequencing. We have found that the mutant protein of single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) from Thermus thermophilus (Tth) HB8 enhances the efficiency of amplification of DNA templates. In addition, the TthSSB mutant protein increased the specificity of phi29 DNA polymerase. We have overexpressed the native and mutant forms of TthSSB protein in Escherichia coli and purified them to homogeneity. In vitro, these proteins were found to bind specifically to single-stranded DNA. Addition of TthSSB mutant protein to RCA halved the elongation time required for phi29 DNA polymerase to synthesize DNA fragments in RCA. Furthermore, the presence of the TthSSB mutant protein essentially eliminates nonspecific DNA products in RCA reactions.

‣ Abnormalities of Germ Cell Maturation and Sertoli Cell Cytoskeleton in Androgen Receptor 113 CAG Knock-In Mice Reveal Toxic Effects of the Mutant Protein

Yu, Zhigang; Dadgar, Nahid; Albertelli, Megan; Scheller, Arno; Albin, Roger L.; Robins, Diane M.; Lieberman, Andrew P.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 Português
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An unresolved question in the study of the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders is the extent to which partial loss of normal function of the mutant protein contributes to the disease phenotype. To address this, we studied Kennedy disease, a degenerative disorder of lower motor neurons caused by a CAG/glutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (Ar) gene. Signs of partial androgen insensitivity, including testicular atrophy and decreased fertility, are common in affected males, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we describe a knock-in mouse model that reproduces the testicular atrophy, diminished fertility, and systemic signs of partial androgen insensitivity that occur in Kennedy disease patients. Using this model, we demonstrate that the testicular pathology in this disorder is distinct from that mediated by loss of AR function. Testes pathology in 113 CAG knock-in mice was characterized by morphological abnormalities of germ cell maturation, decreased solubility of the mutant AR protein, and alterations of the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton, changes that are distinct from those produced by AR loss-of-function mutation in testicular feminization mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that toxic effects of the mutant protein mediate aspects of the Kennedy disease phenotype previously attributed to a loss of AR function.

‣ An interleukin 4 (IL-4) mutant protein inhibits both IL-4 or IL-13- induced human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE synthesis and B cell proliferation: support for a common component shared by IL-4 and IL-13 receptors

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1993 Português
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Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 share many biological functions. Both cytokines promote growth of activated human B cells and induce naive human surface immunoglobulin D+ (sIgD+) B cells to produce IgG4 and IgE. Here we show that a mutant form of human IL-4, in which the tyrosine residue at position 124 is replaced by aspartic acid (hIL- 4.Y124D), specifically blocks IL-4 and IL-13-induced proliferation of B cells costimulated by anti-CD40 mAbs in a dose-dependent fashion. A mouse mutant IL-4 protein (mIL-4.Y119D), which antagonizes the biological activity of mouse IL-4, was ineffective. In addition, hIL- 4.Y124D, at concentrations of up to 40 nM, did not affect IL-2-induced B cell proliferation. hIL-4.Y124D did not have detectable agonistic activity in these B cell proliferation assays. Interestingly, hIL- 4.Y124D also strongly inhibited both IL-4 or IL-13-induced IgG4 and IgE synthesis in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or highly purified sIgD+ B cells cultured in the presence of anti-CD40 mAbs. IL-4 and IL-13-induced IgE responses were inhibited > 95% at a approximately 50- or approximately 20-fold excess of hIL-4.Y124D, respectively, despite the fact that the IL-4 mutant protein had a weak agonistic activity. This agonistic activity was 1.6 +/- 1.9% (n = 4) of the maximal IgE responses induced by saturating concentrations of IL-4. Taken together...

‣ Niemann-Pick Type C1 I1061T Mutant Encodes a Functional Protein That Is Selected for Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Due to Protein Misfolding*

Gelsthorpe, Mark E.; Baumann, Nikola; Millard, Elizabeth; Gale, Sarah E.; Langmade, S. Joshua; Schaffer, Jean E.; Ory, Daniel S.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/03/2008 Português
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Over 200 disease-causing mutations have been identified in the NPC1 gene. The most prevalent mutation, NPC1I1061T, is predicted to lie within the cysteine-rich luminal domain and is associated with the classic juvenile-onset phenotype of Niemann-Pick type C disease. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which the NPC1I1061T mutation causes disease, we examined expression of the mutant protein in human fibroblasts homozygous for the NPC1I1061T mutation. Despite similar NPC1 mRNA levels between wild type and NPC1I1061T fibroblasts, NPC1 protein levels are decreased by 85% in NPC1I1061T cells. Metabolic labeling studies demonstrate that unlike wild type protein, which undergoes a glycosylation pattern shift from Endo H-sensitive to Endo H-resistant species, NPC1I1061T protein remains almost exclusively Endo H-sensitive and exhibits a reduced half-life (t½ 6.5 h) versus wild type Endo H-resistant species (t½ 42 h). Treatment with chemical chaperones, growth at permissive temperature, or inhibition of proteasomal degradation increases NPC1I1061T protein levels, indicating that the mutant protein is likely targeted for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) due to protein misfolding. Overexpression of NPC1I1061T in NPC1-deficient cells results in late endosomal localization of the mutant protein and complementation of the NPC mutant phenotype...

‣ A Limited Role for Disulfide Cross-linking in the Aggregation of Mutant SOD1 Linked to Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis*S⃞

Karch, Celeste M.; Borchelt, David R.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2008 Português
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One of the mechanisms by which mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) is proposed to involve the accumulation of detergent-insoluble, disulfide-cross-linked, mutant protein. Recent studies have implicated cysteine residues at positions 6 and 111 as critical in mediating disulfide cross-linking and promoting aggregation. In the present study, we used a panel of experimental and disease-linked mutations at cysteine residues of SOD1 (positions 6, 57, 111, and 146) in cell culture assays for aggregation to demonstrate that extensive disulfide cross-linking is not required for the formation of mutant SOD1 aggregates. Experimental mutants possessing only a single cysteine residue or lacking cysteine entirely were found to retain high potential to aggregate. Furthermore we demonstrate that aggregate structures in symptomatic SOD1-G93A mice can be dissociated such that they no longer sediment upon ultracentrifugation (i.e. appear soluble) under relatively mild conditions that leave disulfide bonds intact. Similar to other recent work, we found that cysteines 6 and 111, particularly the latter, play interesting roles in modulating the aggregation of human SOD1. However, we did not find that extensive disulfide cross-linking via these residues...

‣ Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation (ERAD) and Autophagy Cooperate to Degrade Polymerogenic Mutant Serpins*

Kroeger, Heike; Miranda, Elena; MacLeod, Ian; Pérez, Juan; Crowther, Damian C.; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Lomas, David A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The serpinopathies are a family of diseases characterized by the accumulation of ordered polymers of mutant protein within the endoplasmic reticulum. They are a diverse group including α1-antitrypsin deficiency and the inherited dementia familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies or FENIB. We have used transient transfection of COS7 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, PC12 cell lines that conditionally express wild type and mutant neuroserpin and fly models of FENIB to assess the cellular handling of wild type and mutant serpins. By using a polymer-specific monoclonal antibody, we show that mutant neuroserpin forms polymers after a delay of at least 30 min and that polymers can be cleared in PC12 cell lines and from the brain in a fly model of FENIB. At steady state, the fractions of intracellular polymerogenic G392E mutant neuroserpin in the monomeric and polymeric states are comparable. Inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 reveals that both mutant neuroserpin and α1-antitrypsin are degraded predominantly by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Pharmacological and genetic inhibitions demonstrate that autophagy is responsible for bulk turnover of wild type and mutant serpins, but can be stimulated by rapamycin to compensate for proteasome inhibition. The significance of these findings to the treatment of serpinopathies is discussed.

‣ Calnexin Improves the Folding Efficiency of Mutant Rhodopsin in the Presence of Pharmacological Chaperone 11-cis-Retinal*

Noorwez, Syed M.; Sama, Reddy Ranjith K.; Kaushal, Shalesh
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The lectin chaperone calnexin (Cnx) is important for quality control of glycoproteins, and the chances of correct folding of a protein increase the longer the protein interacts with Cnx. Mutations in glycoproteins increase their association with Cnx, and these mutant proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, until now, the increased interaction with Cnx was not known to increase the folding of mutant glycoproteins. Because many human diseases result from glycoprotein misfolding, a Cnx-assisted folding of mutant glycoproteins could be beneficial. Mutations of rhodopsin, the glycoprotein pigment of rod photoreceptors, cause misfolding resulting in retinitis pigmentosa. Despite the critical role of Cnx in glycoprotein folding, surprisingly little is known about its interaction with rhodopsin or whether this interaction could be modulated to increase the folding of mutant rhodopsin. Here, we demonstrate that Cnx preferentially associates with misfolded mutant opsins associated with retinitis pigmentosa. Furthermore, the overexpression of Cnx leads to an increased accumulation of misfolded P23H opsin but not the correctly folded protein. Finally, we demonstrate that increased levels of Cnx in the presence of the pharmacological chaperone 11-cis-retinal increase the folding efficiency and result in an increase in correct folding of mutant rhodopsin. These results demonstrate that misfolded rather than correctly folded rhodopsin is a substrate for Cnx and that the interaction between Cnx and mutant...

‣ The Calsequestrin Mutation CASQ2D307H Does Not Affect Protein Stability and Targeting to the Junctional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum but Compromises Its Dynamic Regulation of Calcium Buffering*

Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Bal, Naresh C.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Knollmann, Björn C.; Periasamy, Muthu
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) and cardiac calsequestrin (CASQ2) genes are linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, a life-threatening genetic disease. They predispose young individuals to cardiac arrhythmia in the absence of structural abnormalities. One such mutation that changes an aspartic residue to histidine at position 307 in CASQ2 has been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this study we made a transgenic mouse model expressing the mutant CASQ2D307H protein in a CASQ2 null background and investigated if the disease is caused by accelerated degradation of the mutant protein. Our data suggest that the mutant protein can be expressed, is relatively stable, and targets appropriately to the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, it partially normalizes the ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which was altered in the CASQ2 null background. In addition, overexpression of the mutant protein does not cause any pathology and/or structural changes in the myocardium. We further demonstrate, using purified protein, that the mutant protein is very stable under chemical and thermal denaturation but shows abnormal Ca2+ buffering characteristics at high calcium concentrations. In addition...

‣ X-ray and Biochemical Analysis of N370S Mutant Human Acid β-Glucosidase

Wei, Ronnie R.; Hughes, Heather; Boucher, Susan; Bird, Julie J.; Guziewicz, Nicholas; Van Patten, Scott M.; Qiu, Huawei; Pan, Clark Qun; Edmunds, Tim
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the enzyme acid β-glucosidase (GCase), the most common of which is the substitution of serine for asparagine at residue 370 (N370S). To characterize the nature of this mutation, we expressed human N370S GCase in insect cells and compared the x-ray structure and biochemical properties of the purified protein with that of the recombinant human GCase (imiglucerase, Cerezyme®). The x-ray structure of N370S mutant acid β-glucosidase at acidic and neutral pH values indicates that the overall folding of the N370S mutant is identical to that of recombinant GCase. Subtle differences were observed in the conformation of a flexible loop at the active site and in the hydrogen bonding ability of aromatic residues on this loop with residue 370 and the catalytic residues Glu-235 and Glu-340. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a pH-dependent change in the environment of tryptophan residues in imiglucerase that is absent in N370S GCase. The mutant protein was catalytically deficient with reduced Vmax and increased Km values for the substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and reduced sensitivity to competitive inhibitors. N370S GCase was more stable to thermal denaturation and had an increased lysosomal half-life compared with imiglucerase following uptake into macrophages. The competitive inhibitor N-(n-nonyl)deoxynojirimycin increased lysosomal levels of both N370S and imiglucerase 2–3-fold by reducing lysosomal degradation. Overall...

‣ Nuclear Protein Quality Is Regulated by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System through the Activity of Ubc4 and San1 in Fission Yeast*

Matsuo, Yuzy; Kishimoto, Hayafumi; Tanae, Katsuhiro; Kitamura, Kenji; Katayama, Satoshi; Kawamukai, Makoto
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Eukaryotic cells monitor and maintain protein quality through a set of protein quality control (PQC) systems whose role is to minimize the harmful effects of the accumulation of aberrant proteins. Although these PQC systems have been extensively studied in the cytoplasm, nuclear PQC systems are not well understood. The present work shows the existence of a nuclear PQC system mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Asf1-30, a mutant form of the histone chaperone Asf1, was used as a model substrate for the study of the nuclear PQC. A temperature-sensitive Asf1-30 protein localized to the nucleus was selectively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The Asf1-30 mutant protein was highly ubiquitinated at higher temperatures, and it remained stable in an mts2-1 mutant, which lacks proteasome activity. The E2 enzyme Ubc4 was identified among 11 candidate proteins as the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in this system, and San1 was selected among 100 candidates as the ubiquitin ligase (E3) targeting Asf1-30 for degradation. San1, but not other nuclear E3s, showed specificity for the mutant nuclear Asf1-30, but did not show activity against wild-type Asf1. These data clearly showed that the aberrant nuclear protein was degraded by a defined set of E1-E2-E3 enzymes through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The data also show...

‣ The role of mutant protein level in autosomal recessive catecholamine dependent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT2)

Katz, Guy; Shainberg, Asher; Hochhauser, Edith; Kurtzwald-Josefson, Efrat; Issac, Ahuva; El-Ani, Dalia; Aravot, Dan; Afek, Arnon; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.; Eldar, Michael; Arad, Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Humans and genetically engineered mice with recessively inherited CPVT develop arrhythmia which may arise due to malfunction or degradation of calsequestrin (CASQ2). We investigated the relation between protein level and arrhythmia severity in CASQ2D307H/D307H (D307H), compared to CASQ2Δ/Δ (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. CASQ2 expression and Ca2+ transients were recorded in cardiomyocytes from neonatal or adult mice. Arrhythmia was studied in vivo using heart rhythm telemetry at rest, exercise and after epinephrine injection. CASQ2 protein was absent in KO heart. Neonatal D307H and WT hearts expressed significantly less CASQ2 protein than the level found in the adult WT. Adult D307H expressed only 20% of CASQ2 protein found in WT. Spontaneous Ca2+ release was more prevalent in neonatal KO cardiomyocytes (89%) compared to 33–36% of either WT or D307H, respectively, p < 0.001. Adult cardiomyocytes from both mutant mice had more Ca2+ abnormalities compared to control (KO: 82%, D307H 63%, WT 12%, p < 0.01). Calcium oscillations were most common in KO cardiomyocytes. We then treated mice with bortezomib to inhibit CASQ2D307H degradation. Bortezomib increased CASQ2 expression in D307H hearts by ~50% (p < 0.05). Bortezomib-treated D307H mice had lower CPVT prevalence and less premature ventricular beats during peak exercise. No benefit against arrhythmia was observed in bortezomib treated KO mice. These results indicate that the mutant CASQ2D307H protein retains some of its physiological function. Its expression decreases with age and is inversely related to arrhythmia severity. Preventing the degradation of mutant protein should be explored as a possible therapeutic strategy in appropriate CPVT2 patients.

‣ Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): A Y210C mutation causes either altered protein handling or altered protein function of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase at multiple points in the vacuolar network

Bradford, T.; Litjens, T.; Parkinson, E.; Hopwood, J.; Brooks, D.
Fonte: Amer Chemical Soc Publicador: Amer Chemical Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The lysosomal hydrolase N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (4-sulfatase) is required for the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan substrates dermatan and chondroitin sulfate. A 4-sulfatase deficiency results in the accumulation of undegraded substrate and causes the severe lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. A wide variation in clinical severity is observed between MPS VI patients and reflects the number of different 4-sulfatase mutations that can cause the disorder. The most common 4-sulfatase mutation, Y210C, was detected in approximately 10% of MPS VI patients and has been associated with an attenuated clinical phenotype when compared to the archetypical form of MPS VI. To define the molecular defect caused by this mutation, Y210C 4-sulfatase was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells for protein and cell biological analysis. Biosynthetic studies revealed that Y210C 4-sulfatase was synthesized at a comparable molecular size and amount to wild-type 4-sulfatase, but there was evidence of delayed processing, traffic, and stability of the mutant protein. Thirty-three percent of the intracellular Y210C 4-sulfatase remained as a precursor form, for at least 8 h post labeling and was not processed to the mature lysosomal form. However...

‣ Channels formed with a mutant prion protein PrP(82-146) homologous to a 7-kDa fragment in diseased brain of GSS patients

Bahadi, Randa; Farrelly, Peter; Kenna, Bronwyn; Kourie, Joseph; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Forloni, Gianluigi; Salmona, Mario
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A major prion protein (PrP) mutant that forms amyloid fibrils in the diseased brain of patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a fragment of 7 kDa spanning from residues 81-82 to 144-153 of PrP. Analysis of ionic membrane currents,

‣ Interactions between Charged Amino Acid Residues within Transmembrane Helices in the Sulfate Transporter SHST1

Shelden, Megan; Loughlin, Patrick; Tierney, Mary (Louise); Howitt, Susan
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this study was to identify charged amino acid residues important for activity of the sulfate transporter SHST1. We mutated 10 charged amino acids in or near proposed transmembrane helices and expressed the resulting mutants in a sulfate transport-deficient yeast strain. Mutations affecting four residues resulted in a complete loss of sulfate transport; these residues were D107 and D122 in helix 1 and R354 and E366 in helix 8. All other mutants showed some reduction in transport activity. The E366Q mutant was unusual in that expression of the mutant protein was toxic to yeast cells. The R354Q mutant showed reduced trafficking to the plasma membrane, indicating that the protein was misfolded. However, transporter function (to a low level) and wild-type trafficking could be recovered by combining the R354Q mutation with either the E175Q or E270Q mutations. This suggested that R354 interacts with both E175 and E270. The triple mutant E175Q/E270Q/R354Q retained only marginal sulfate transport activity but was trafficked at wild-type levels, suggesting that a charge network between these three residues may be involved in the transport pathway, rather than in folding. D107 was also found to be essential for the ion transport pathway and may form a charge pair with R154...

‣ Conversion of the Escherichia coli Cytochrome b562 to an Archetype Cytochrome b: A Mutant with Bis-Histidine Ligation of Heme Iron

Hay, Sam; Wydrzynski, Thomas
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A mutant of the Escherichia coli cytochrome b562 has been created in which the heme-ligating methionine (Met) at position 7 has been replaced with a histidine (His) (M7H). This protein is a double mutant that also has the His 63 to asparagine (H63N) mutation, which removes a solvent-exposed His. While the H63N mutation has no measurable effect on the cytochrome, the M7H mutation converts the atypical His/Met heme ligation in cytochrome b 562 to the classic cytochrome b-type bis-His ligation. This mutation has little effect on the Kd of heme binding but significantly reduces the chemical and thermal stability of the mutant cytochrome relative to the wild type (wt). Both proteins have similar absorbance (Abs) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties characteristic of 6-coordinate low-spin heme. The Abs spectra of the oxidized and reduced bis-His cytochrome are slightly blue-shifted relative to the wt, and the α Abs band of ferrous M7H mutant is unusually split. The M7H mutation decreases the midpoint potential of the bound heme by 260 mV at pH 7 and considerably alters the pH dependence of the Em, which becomes dominated by a single pKred = 6.8.

‣ Interaction of the Escherichia coli Replication Terminator Protein (Tus) with DNA: A Model Derived from DNA-Binding Studies of Mutant Proteins by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Neylon, David Cameron; Brown, Susan Elizabeth; Kralicek, Andrew V; Miles, Caroline; Love, Christopher; Dixon, Nicholas
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Escherichia coli replication terminator protein (Tus) binds tightly and specifically to termination sites such as TerB in order to halt DNA replication. To better understand the process of Tus-TerB interaction, an assay based on surface plasmon resonance was developed to allow the determination of the equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex (K(D)) and association and dissocation rate constants for the interaction between Tus and various DNA sequences, including TerB, single-stranded DNA, and two nonspecific sequences that had no relationship to TerB. The effects of factors such as the KCl concentration, the orientation and length of the DNA, and the presence of a single-stranded tail on the binding were also examined. The K(D) measured for the binding of wild type and His6-Tus to TerB was 0.5 nM in 250 mM KCl. Four variants of Tus containing single-residue mutations were assayed for binding to TerB and the nonspecific sequences. Three of these substitutions (K89A, R198A, and Q250A) increased K(D) by 200-300-fold, whereas the A173T substitution increased K(D) by 4000-fold. Only the R198A substitution had a significant effect on binding to the nonspecific sequences. The kinetic and thermodynamic data suggest a model for Tus binding to TerB which involves an ordered series of events that include structural changes in the protein.