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‣ Reproductive biology of Trichocentrum pumilum: an orchid pollinated by oil-collecting bees

PANSARIN, E. R.; PANSARIN, L. M.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The reproductive biology, reward production and pollination mechanism of Trichocentrum pumilum were studied in a gallery forest in the interior of the State of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. The floral visitors and pollination mechanism were recorded, and experimental pollinations were carried out in order to determine the breeding system of this species. Trichocentrum pumilum blooms in spring. Each paniculate inflorescence bears an average of 85 flowers that present a central yellow callus and finger-like trichomes on the lateral lobes of the lip. A lipoidal substance is produced and stored among these trichomes. In the studied population, T. pumilum is exclusively visited and pollinated by two bee species (Tetrapedia diversipes and Lophopedia nigrispinis). Pollinaria are deposited on mouthparts of bees during collection of the lipoidal substance from the lateral lobes of the labellum. Trichocentrum pumilum is self-incompatible and pollinator-limited. Natural fruit set was low (9%, compared to 45% in experimentally cross-pollinated flowers). Potentially viable seed exceed 97% in fruits obtained through cross-pollination and in natural conditions (open pollination).; State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP); CNPq

‣ Reproductive biology and pollination of Govenia utriculata: A syrphid fly orchid pollinated through a pollen-deceptive mechanism

PANSARIN, Emerson R.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The reproductive biology and pollination mechanisms of Govenia utriculata (Sw.) Lindl. were studied in a mesophytic semideciduous forest at Serra do Japi, south-eastern Brazil. The floral visitors and pollination mechanisms were recorded, and experimental pollinations were carried out to determine the breeding system of this species. Populations of G. utriculata growing at Serra do Japi are exclusively visited and pollinated by two species of hoverflies in the genus Salpingogaster (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are attracted by deceit to the flowers of this orchid species. The lip apex and the column base present small brownish and yellow to orange spots that mimic pollen clusters. Govenia utriculata is self-compatible, but pollinator dependent. Natural fruit set was low (10%), but similar to that of other non-obligatorily autogamous sympatric orchid species that occur at Serra do Japi and of other fly-pollinated orchid species pollinated through deceptive mechanisms.

‣ Reproductive biology of Trichocentrum pumilum: an orchid pollinated by oil-collecting bees

PANSARIN, E. R.; PANSARIN, L. M.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.408232%
The reproductive biology, reward production and pollination mechanism of Trichocentrum pumilum were studied in a gallery forest in the interior of the State of Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. The floral visitors and pollination mechanism were recorded, and experimental pollinations were carried out in order to determine the breeding system of this species. Trichocentrum pumilum blooms in spring. Each paniculate inflorescence bears an average of 85 flowers that present a central yellow callus and finger-like trichomes on the lateral lobes of the lip. A lipoidal substance is produced and stored among these trichomes. In the studied population, T. pumilum is exclusively visited and pollinated by two bee species (Tetrapedia diversipes and Lophopedia nigrispinis). Pollinaria are deposited on mouthparts of bees during collection of the lipoidal substance from the lateral lobes of the labellum. Trichocentrum pumilum is self-incompatible and pollinator-limited. Natural fruit set was low (9%, compared to 45% in experimentally cross-pollinated flowers). Potentially viable seed exceed 97% in fruits obtained through cross-pollination and in natural conditions (open pollination).; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae) by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

Moreira,Gilson R.P; Correa,Claudine A; Mugrabi-Oliveira,Elna
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.81809%
For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae) by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

‣ Ants visit nectaries of Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae) in a Brazilian rainforest: effects on herbivory and pollination

Almeida,A. M.; Figueiredo,R. A.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2003 Português
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Epidendrum denticulatum (Orchidaceae) produces nectar on the petioles of buds, flowers, and fruits (extrafloral nectaries) but no nectar is found on its flowers, and it is probably a deceptive species. In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, some aspects of both the ecology and behavior of Camponotus sericeiventris (Formicinae) and Ectatomma tuberculatum (Ponerinae), two ant species foraging on E. denticulatum extrafloral nectaries, were investigated. Both experiments, using termites as baits and field observations, suggest that these ant species are able to prevent reproductive organ herbivory, without affecting pollinator behaviour. Since a low fruit set is often cited as a characteristic of the family, especially for deceptive species, ants attracted to orchid inflorescences protect reproductive structures and increase the probability of pollination success. Epidendrum denticulatum flowers were visited and probably pollinated by Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae) and Euphyes leptosema (Hesperiidae).

‣ Comparative Reproductive Biology of a Rare Endemic Orchid and its Sympatric Congeners in Southwestern China

Lin, Wuying
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Comparative studies on endangered species and their more common congeners can shed light on the mechanism of species rarity, and enable conservationists to formulate effective management strategies. I compared the breeding and pollination systems of the endangered Geodorum eulophioides and its two more common sympatric congeners in subtropical China. Geodorum eulophioides and G. recurvum were self-compatible, both depending on Ceratina cognata for fruit production, while G. densiflorum can autonomously self. Although the floral visitation frequency of G. eulophioides was the highest among the three, its natural fruit set was similar to that of G. recurvum, but both lower than that of G. densiflorum. These results partially explain the difference in species abundance. Coupled with severe habitat loss and degradation, the extremely low pollinator visitation and natural fruit set of G. eulophioides calls for rapid establishment of ex-situ collection, in conjunction with improving in-situ habitat. Natural hybridization tendencies were also studied among species.

‣ Ecological and genetic evidence for cryptic ecotypes in a rare sexually deceptive orchid,Drakaea elastica

Menz, Myles H. M.; Phillips, Ryan D.; Anthony, Janet M.; Bohman, Björn; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod
Fonte: Linnean Society of London Publicador: Linnean Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 17 pages
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Species with specialized ecological interactions present significant conservation challenges. In plants that attract pollinators with pollinator-specific chemical signals, geographical variation in pollinator species may indicate the presence of cryptic plant taxa. We investigated this phenomenon in the rare sexually deceptive orchid Drakaea elastica using a molecular phylogenetic analysis to resolve pollinator species boundaries, pollinator choice experiments and a population genetic study of the orchid. Pollinator choice experiments demonstrated the existence of two ecotypes within D. elastica, each attracting their own related but phylogenetically distinct pollinator species. Despite the presence of ecotypes, population genetic differentiation was low across populations at six microsatellite loci (FST = 0.026). However, Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis revealed two genetic clusters, broadly congruent with the ecotype distributions. These ecotypes may represent adaptation to regional variation in pollinator availability and perhaps the early stages of speciation, with pronounced morphological and genetic differences yet to evolve. Resolution of the taxonomic status of the D. elastica ecotypes is required as this has implications for conservation efforts and allocation of management funding. Furthermore...

‣ Bees and white spiders: unravelling the pollination syndrome of Caladenia rigida (Orchidaceae)

Faast, R.; Farrington, L.; Facelli, J.; Austin, A.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Orchids of the genus Caladenia have been shown to utilise two quite different pollination strategies, namely species-specific sexual deception of thynnine wasps and a more generalist strategy attracting a larger spectrum of foraging insects. While baiting techniques have enabled the identification of numerous pollinators of sexually deceptive Caladenia, insects that pollinate food-advertising species have received little attention. The present study employed a multidisciplinary approach to better evaluate the pollination syndrome of the white spider orchid, Caladenia rigida R.S.Rogers, a species previously reported to utilise both food and sexual deception. This included the observation and capture of potential pollinators of C. rigida through direct observation, pantraps, Malaise traps and pollinator-baiting experiments, and the use of molecular techniques to identify orchid pollinia isolated from carrier insects. We describe a suite of generalist insects visiting and bearing pollinia from C. rigida. In addition, samples collected from the labellum and column of C. rigida contained sugars at levels comparable to those of a known nectar-producing orchid, Microtis parviflora R.Br. Potential osmophores in the clubs and calli stained positively with neutral red and although this character is often associated with sexual deception...

‣ The reproductive ecology of two terrestrial orchids, Caladenia Rigida and Caladenia tentaculata.

Faast, Renate
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The reproductive outcome of plants is often determined by a multitude of interacting factors operating at both the plant level and the population level. For many plants, fruit production and the subsequent release of seeds are paramount for the persistence of the species. Understanding the processes that influence variation within and among populations is therefore crucial for the successful long-term management of threatened plants. While abiotic factors such as resource availability and environmental conditions can influence seed production directly through their effects on plant growth, biological interactions such as those between plants and pollinators or herbivores can be equally important. The relative intensity and direction of such interactions are often determined by the nature of the plants themselves, or by characteristics of the plant population or the habitat in which it occurs. This thesis examines the processes that influence spatio-temporal variation in the reproductive success of two terrestrial orchids, Caladenia rigida and Caladenia tentaculata. The study was carried out over three years (2005 – 2007), in several populations located in the Mount Lofty region of South Australia. A detailed investigation of the pollination strategy employed by C. rigida revealed that this species is a generalist...

‣ The evolutionary biology of pollination: studies in a genus of australian sexually deceptive orchids

Whitehead, Michael Robert
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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There are few other structures in nature from which evolution has generated such wide diversity as the flower or inflorescence, and this diversity is commonly attributed to the influence of their animal visitors. By outsourcing their mate choice to pollinators, plants have left themselves - and especially their flowers - subject to the selective forces imposed by the behaviour, cognition and perception of the pollinators that serve them. The orchids provide some of the most remarkable and extreme examples of adaptations to specific animal pollinators. Perhaps one of the most peculiar of these strategies is sexual deception, whereby male insects are lured to the flower by mimicry of the female sex pheromone. This seemingly unlikely strategy has evolved multiple times independently on different continents in different parts of the orchid phylogeny which raises the question of what adaptive advantages might underlie such a strategy. This multidisciplinary thesis studies gene flow and pollinator behaviour in two sympatric sexually deceptive orchids in the genus Chiloglottis. The two species attract their specific wasp pollinators through emission of distinct species - specific semiochemicals. Since floral volatiles play a pre-eminent role in pollinator attraction...

‣ Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids

Phillips, R. D.; Bohman, B.; Anthony, J. M.; Krauss, S. L.; Dixon, K. W.; Peakall, R.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes...

‣ Three 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase Genes Regulated by Primary and Secondary Pollination Signals in Orchid Flowers1

Bui, Anhthu Q.; Neill, Sharman D. O'
Fonte: American Society of Plant Physiologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Physiologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1998 Português
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29.612168%
The temporal and spatial expression patterns of three 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes were investigated in pollinated orchid (Phalaenopsis spp.) flowers. Pollination signals initiate a cascade of development events in multiple floral organs, including the induction of ethylene biosynthesis, which coordinates several postpollination developmental responses. The initiation and propagation of ethylene biosynthesis is regulated by the coordinated expression of three distinct ACC synthase genes in orchid flowers. One ACC synthase gene (Phal-ACS1) is regulated by ethylene and participates in amplification and interorgan transmission of the pollination signal, as we have previously described in a related orchid genus. Two additional ACC synthase genes (Phal-ACS2 and Phal-ACS3) are expressed primarily in the stigma and ovary of pollinated orchid flowers. Phal-ACS2 mRNA accumulated in the stigma within 1 h after pollination, whereas Phal-ACS1 mRNA was not detected until 6 h after pollination. Similar to the expression of Phal-ACS2, the Phal-ACS3 gene was expressed within 2 h after pollination in the ovary. Exogenous application of auxin, but not ACC, mimicked pollination by stimulating a rapid increase in ACC synthase activity in the stigma and ovary and inducing Phal-ACS2 and Phal-ACS3 mRNA accumulation in the stigma and ovary...

‣ Breeding system and pollination of selected orchids of the genus Chloraea (Orchidaceae) from central Chile

Cisternas, Mauricio A.; Valdivia, Carlos E.; Humaña, Ana María
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
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The breeding system determines different ways whereby seeds will be produced, and the degree of dependency of plants on pollinators for seed set. The genus Chloraea (Orchiclaceae) has its main center of diversity in southern South America. There is only poor knowledge concerning its breeding system and pollination. We determined the breeding system of C crispa, C chrysantha, C galeata, and two color forms of C bletioides (yellow- and white-flowered forms). None of the species in this study produced fruits through apomixis or autogamy, thereby indicating a complete dependency on pollen and pollinators. Geitogamy did not differ significantly with respect to xenogamy excepting in the yellow-flowered form of C bletioides. Thus, the indexes of self-incompatibility For the white- and yellow-flowered forms of C bletioides, C galeata, C crispa, and C chrysantha, were 1.00, 0.56, 0.82, 1.09, and 0.81, respectively; indicating that, excluding the yellow-flowered form of C bletioides which must be regarded as partially self-incompatible, all orchids assessed are totally self-compatible plants. Natural fruiting in the yellow-flowered C bletioides, C chrysantha and C galeata was high, in spite of being nectarless orchids, since the availability of pollinators under natural conditions seemingly resulted unlimited. However...

‣ Bioclimatic assessment of the geographic and climatic limits to hybridisation in a sexually deceptive orchid system

Peakall, Rodney; Jones, Lauren; Bower, Colin; Mackey, Brendan
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Australia is a major centre of diversity for pollination by sexual deception, a pollination syndrome unique to orchids and characterised by highly specific pollinator relationships. Chiloglottis x pescottiana is a rare natural hybrid between sexually dece

‣ The Discovery of 2-Hydroxymethyl-3-(3-methylbutyl)-5-methylpyrazine: a Semiochemical in Orchid Pollination

Bohman, Bjorn; Jeffares, Lynne; Flematti, Gavin; Phillips, Ryan; Dixon, Kingsley; Peakall, Rodney; Barrow, Russell
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Drakaea livida (Orchidaceae) is pollinated by sexual deception of the wasp Zaspilothynnus nigripes (Thynnidae). It is shown that the orchid emits the same compound, 2-hydroxymethyl-3-(3-methylbutyl)-5-methylpyrazine, that females emit when calling for mat

‣ Post pollination events in a sexually deceptive orchid (Ophrys fusca Link): a transcriptional and a metabolic approach

Monteiro, Filipa Isabel de Almeida
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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A presente dissertação pretende contribuir para o aumento do conhecimento numa área específica da polinização em orquídeas, designada como polinização deceptiva (sexual deception) usando a espécie Ophrys fusca como modelo. Tendo por base 100 labelos de 100 plantas diferentes, colhidas no seu habitat natural, recorreu-se a técnicas de transcritómica e metabolómica com o objectivo de (1) analisar a expressão génica por microarrays de cDNA após a polinização; (2) proceder à caracterização metabólica por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS). Os resultados obtidos permitiram contribuir para a compreensão dos mecanismos de polinização por sexual deception, nomeadamente no que respeita às características do labelo (ex. pigmentação, emissão de compostos), dos processos de senescência ou da biologia floral das orquídeas. A construção de um chip de cDNA para O. fusca permitirá realizar hibridações com outras espécies de Ophrys, possibilitando a determinação do grau de conservação dos mecanismos genéticos na polinização por sexual deception; ABSTRACT:This work aims at contributing to the knowledge on orchid pollination biology, through the study of the peculiar pollination mechanism of Ophrys fusca by sexual deception. In this mechanism...

‣ How an orchid harms its pollinator

Wong, Bob; Schiestl, Florian
Fonte: Royal Society of London Publicador: Royal Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Certain orchids produce flowers that mimic the sex pheromones and appearance of female insects in order to attract males by sexual deception for the purpose of pollination. In a series of field experiments, we found that the sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, can have a negative impact on its wasp pollinator Neozeleboria cryptoides. Male and female wasps, however, were affected differently by the orchid's deceit because of their different roles in the mimicry system. Male wasps could not discriminate between the chemical cues of orchids and female wasps, a vital signal in long-range attraction. Males, however, learn to avoid areas containing orchids. This strategy has implications for females attempting to attract mates in areas occupied by orchids. Compared with circumstances when females were on their own, females in the presence of orchids elicited fewer male approaches and no copulation attempts. Females in a large orchid patch also elicited fewer male approaches than females in a small patch. The nature of the orchid's impact on its wasp pollinator indicates an arms race evolutionary scenario in this interaction between plant and pollinator.

‣ Chemical communication in the sexually deceptive orchid genus Cryptostylis

Schiestl, Florian; Peakall, Rodney; Mant, J
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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49.08262%
Pollination by sexual deception is among the most intriguing of orchid pollination syndromes. Odours are well established as the primary stimuli for sexually attracting the male insect pollinators in these orchids. We applied gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to investigate chemical communication between the sympatric, but morphologically distinct, orchids Cryptostylis erecta and C. subulata and their pollinators. Cryptostylis is unusual among sexually deceptive orchid genera in that all five Australian species share the same pollinator, the ichneumonid wasp Lissopimpla excelsa, but hybrids are unknown. We show that volatile odour compounds are not produced in detectable amounts in either species. Floral extracts containing many low-volatility compounds showed considerable differences in composition between C. erecta and C. subulata. By contrast, GC-EAD revealed the male wasp pollinators are electrophysiologically responsive to the same GC peak on two different kinds of GC column in both orchids. This leads us to predict that a single compound is the sexual attractant in all Australian Cryptostylis. The apparent conservation of chemical signals among distinct species contrasts with that of other sexually deceptive orchids that are often morphologically similar but reproductively isolated by their different chemical signals.

‣ The Chemistry of Sexual Deception in an Orchid-Wasp Pollination System

Schiestl, Florian; Peakall, Rodney; Mant, J; Ibarra, Fernando; Schulz, Claudia; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko
Fonte: American Association for the Advancement of Science Publicador: American Association for the Advancement of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The "sexually deceptive" orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis attracts males of its pollinator species, the thynnine wasp Neozeleboria cryptoides, by emitting a unique volatile compound, 2-ethyl-5-propylcyclohexan-1,3-dione, which is also produced by female

‣ Does selection on floral odor promote differentiation among populations and species of the sexually deceptive orchid genus Ophrys ?

Mant, Jim; Peakall, Rodney; Schiestl, Florian
Fonte: Society for the Study of Evolution Publicador: Society for the Study of Evolution
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Sexually deceptive orchids from the genus Ophrys attract their pollinators primarily through the chemical mimicry of female hymenopteran sex pheromones, thereby deceiving males into attempted matings with the orchid labellum. Floral odor traits are crucial for the reproductive success of these pollinator-limited orchids, as well as for maintaining reproductive isolation through the attraction of specific pollinators. We tested for the signature of pollinator-mediated selection on floral odor by comparing intra and interspecific differentiation in odor compounds with that found at microsatellite markers among natural populations. Three regions from southern Italy were sampled. We found strong floral odor differentiation among allopatric populations within species, among allopatric species and among sympatric species. Population differences in odor were also reflected in significant variation in the attractivity of floral extracts to the pollinator, Colletes cunicularius. Odor compounds that are electrophysiologically active in C. cunicularius males, especially alkenes, were more strongly differentiated among conspecific populations than non-active compounds in the floral odor. In marked contrast to these odor patterns, there was limited population or species level differentiation in microsatellites (FST range 0.005 to 0.127...