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‣ Scanning Electron Microscopy of Male Terminalia and Its Application to Species Recognition and Phylogenetic Reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans Group

Jorge Souza, Tiago Alves; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Melara de Campos Bicudo, Hermione Elly; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian
Fonte: Public Library Science Publicador: Public Library Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 07/07180-3; The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI = 87 and RI = 90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage...

‣ Uma abordagem multi-objetivo e multimodal para reconstrução de arvores filogeneticas; A multimodal and multiobjective approach for phylogenetic trees reconstruction

Ana Estela Antunes da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/12/2007 Português
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A reconstrução de árvores filogenéticas pode ser interpretada como um processo sistemático de proposição de uma descrição arbórea para as diferenças relativas que se observam em conjuntos de atributos genéticos homólogos de espécies sob comparação. A árvore filogenética resultante apresenta uma certa topologia, ou padrão de ancestralidade, e os comprimentos dos ramos desta árvore são indicativos do número de mudanças evolutivas desde a divergência do ancestral comum. Tanto a topologia quanto os comprimentos de ramos são hipóteses descritivas de eventos não-observáveis e condicionais, razão pela qual tendem a existir diversas hipóteses de alta qualidade para a reconstrução, assim como múltiplos critérios de desempenho. Esta tese (i) aborda árvores sem raiz; (ii) enfatiza os critérios de quadrados mínimos, evolução mínima e máxima verossimilhança; (iii) propõe uma extensão ao algoritmo Neighbor Joining que oferece múltiplas hipóteses de alta qualidade para a reconstrução; e (iv) descreve e utiliza uma nova ferramenta para otimização multiobjetivo no contexto de reconstrução filogenética. São considerados dados artificiais e dados reais na apresentação de resultados, os quais apontam vantagens e aspectos diferenciais das metodologias propostas; The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees can be interpreted as a systematic process of proposing an arborean description to the relative dissimilarities observed among sets of homologous genetic attributes of species being compared. The resulting phylogenetic tree presents a certain topology...

‣ Phylogenetic reconstruction based on internal and external morphology of the genus Thoropa Cope, 1865 (Anura, Cycloramphidae) = : Reconstrução filogenética com base em morfologia interna e externa do gênero Thoropa Cope, 1865 (Anura, Cycloramphidae); Reconstrução filogenética com base em morfologia interna e externa do gênero Thoropa Cope, 1865 (Anura, Cycloramphidae)

Carlos Henrique Luz Nunes de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2015 Português
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Os anfíbios da família Cycloramphidae são endêmicos da porção oriental do Brasil e alguns estão ameaçados ou em perigo de extinção. Apesar de ser uma família com poucos grupos taxonômicos, apenas três gêneros (Cycloramphus, Thoropa e Zachaenus), até o momento não há uma proposta filogenética para o gênero Thoropa que abranja todas as espécies. Então, propomos a reconstrução filogenética de Thoropa usando como grupo esterno, uma espécie do gênero Hylodes (Hylodidae), duas do gênero Cycloramphus e uma espécie do gênero Zachaenus. Definimos 86 caracteres baseados em osteologia, ecologia e morfologia externa de adultos e larvas. Neste contexto realizamos a descrição da forma larval de Cycloramphus rhyakonastes, a qual foi utilizada como grupo esterno. A filogenia proposta é baseada em critérios de máxima parcimônia. Como duas das árvores resultantes indicam parafilia, propomos aqui um novo gênero para as espécies de menor porte, separando-as das espécies maiores.; The phylogenetic resolution of Neotropical amphibians increased considerably in recent decades, providing great understanding of the relationships of higher taxa, such as the relationships between families and genera. After such improvement...

‣ Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR): A new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on ant colony optimization

Vittori,Karla; Delbem,Alexandre C.B.; Pereira,Sérgio L.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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We propose a new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), named Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR). ABPR joins two taxa iteratively based on evolutionary distance among sequences, while also accounting for the quality of the phylogenetic tree built according to the total length of the tree. Similar to optimization algorithms for phylogenetic estimation, the algorithm allows exploration of a larger set of nearly optimal solutions. We applied the algorithm to four empirical data sets of mitochondrial DNA ranging from 12 to 186 sequences, and from 898 to 16,608 base pairs, and covering taxonomic levels from populations to orders. We show that ABPR performs better than the commonly used Neighbor-Joining algorithm, except when sequences are too closely related (e.g., population-level sequences). The phylogenetic relationships recovered at and above species level by ABPR agree with conventional views. However, like other algorithms of phylogenetic estimation, the proposed algorithm failed to recover expected relationships when distances are too similar or when rates of evolution are very variable, leading to the problem of long-branch attraction. ABPR, as well as other ACO-based algorithms...

‣ Effects of passage history and sampling bias on phylogenetic reconstruction of human influenza A evolution

Bush, Robin M.; Smith, Catherine B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Fitch, Walter M.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2000 Português
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In this paper we determine the extent to which host-mediated mutations and a known sampling bias affect evolutionary studies of human influenza A. Previous phylogenetic reconstruction of influenza A (H3N2) evolution using the hemagglutinin gene revealed an excess of nonsilent substitutions assigned to the terminal branches of the tree. We investigate two hypotheses to explain this observation. The first hypothesis is that the excess reflects mutations that were either not present or were at low frequency in the viral sample isolated from its human host, and that these mutations increased in frequency during passage of the virus in embryonated eggs. A set of 22 codons known to undergo such “host-mediated” mutations showed a significant excess of mutations assigned to branches attaching sequences from egg-cultured (as opposed to cell-cultured) isolates to the tree. Our second hypothesis is that the remaining excess results from sampling bias. Influenza surveillance is purposefully biased toward sequencing antigenically dissimilar strains in an effort to identify new variants that may signal the need to update the vaccine. This bias produces an excess of mutations assigned to terminal branches simply because an isolate with no close relatives is by definition attached to the tree by a relatively long branch. Simulations show that the magnitude of excess mutations we observed in the hemagglutinin tree is consistent with expectations based on our sampling protocol. Sampling bias does not affect inferences about evolution drawn from phylogenetic analyses. However...

‣ Internal Transcribed Spacer rRNA Gene-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction Using Algorithms with Local and Global Sequence Alignment for Black Yeasts and Their Relatives

Caligiorne, R. B.; Licinio, P.; Dupont, J.; de Hoog, G. S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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Sequences of rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of a standard set of black yeast-like fungal pathogens were compared using two methods: local and global alignments. The latter is based on DNA-walk divergence analysis. This method has become recently available as an algorithm (DNAWD program) which converts sequences into three-dimensional walks. The walks are compared with, or fit to, each other generating global alignments. The DNA-walk geometry defines a proper metric used to create a distance matrix appropriated for phylogenetic reconstruction. In this work, the analyses were carried out for species currently classified in Capronia, Cladophialophora, Exophiala, Fonsecaea, Phialophora, and Ramichloridium. Main groups were verified by small-subunit rRNA gene data. DNAWD applied to ITS2 alone enabled species recognition as well as phylogenetic reconstruction reflecting clades discriminated in small-subunit rRNA gene phylogeny, which was not possible with any other algorithm using local alignment for the same data set. It is concluded that DNAWD provides rapid insight into broader relationships between groups using genes that otherwise would be hardly usable for this purpose.

‣ Beyond linear sequence comparisons: the use of genome-level characters for phylogenetic reconstruction

Boore, Jeffrey L; Fuerstenberg, Susan I
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The first whole genomes to be compared for phylogenetic inference were those of mitochondria, which provided the first sets of genome-level characters for phylogenetic reconstruction. Most powerful among these characters has been the comparisons of the relative arrangements of genes, which has convincingly resolved numerous branch points, including those that had remained recalcitrant even to very large molecular sequence comparisons. Now the world faces a tsunami of complete nuclear genome sequences. In addition to the tremendous amount of DNA sequence that is becoming available for comparison, there is also a potential for many more genome-level characters to be developed, including the relative positions of introns, the domain structures of proteins, gene family membership, the presence of particular biochemical pathways, aspects of DNA replication or transcription, and many others. These characters can be especially convincing owing to their low likelihood of reverting to a primitive condition or occurring independently in separate lineages, thereby reducing the occurrence of homoplasy. The comparisons of organelle genomes pioneered the way for using such features for phylogenetic reconstructions, and it is almost certainly true...

‣ Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Amoebozoa Based on Concatenated Analyses of SSU-rDNA and Actin Genes

Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Grant, Jessica; Nguyen, Truc; Lin, Jian Hua; Katz, Laura A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/07/2011 Português
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Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1) paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2) haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and lower-level relationships. Additionally, the recent recognition that many protosteloid amoebae are in fact scattered throughout the Amoebozoa suggests that phylogenetic reconstructions have been excluding an extensive and integral group of organisms. Here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction based on 139 taxa using molecular information from both SSU-rDNA and actin genes. We provide molecular data for 13 of those taxa, 12 of which had not been previously characterized. We explored the dataset extensively by generating 18 alternative reconstructions that assess the effect of missing data, long-branched taxa, unstable taxa, fast evolving sites and inclusion of environmental sequences. We compared reconstructions with each other as well as against previously published phylogenies. Our analyses show that many of the morphologically established lower-level relationships (defined here as relationships roughly equivalent to Order level or below) are congruent with molecular data. However...

‣ A Variance-Components Model for Distance-Matrix Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Gilks, Walter R; Nye, Tom M.W.; Lio, Pietro
Fonte: De Gruyter Publicador: De Gruyter
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2011 Português
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Phylogenetic trees describe evolutionary relationships between related organisms (taxa). One approach to estimating phylogenetic trees supposes that a matrix of estimated evolutionary distances between taxa is available. Agglomerative methods have been proposed in which closely related taxon-pairs are successively combined to form ancestral taxa. Several of these computationally efficient agglomerative algorithms involve steps to reduce the variance in estimated distances. We propose an agglomerative phylogenetic method which focuses on statistical modeling of variance components in distance estimates. We consider how these variance components evolve during the agglomerative process. Our method simultaneously produces two topologically identical rooted trees, one tree having branch lengths proportional to elapsed time, and the other having branch lengths proportional to underlying evolutionary divergence. The method models two major sources of variation which have been separately discussed in the literature: noise, reflecting inaccuracies in measuring divergences, and distortion, reflecting randomness in the amounts of divergence in different parts of the tree. The methodology is based on successive hierarchical generalized least-squares regressions. It involves only means...

‣ Protein Clustering and RNA Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Influenza a Virus NS1 Protein Allow an Update in Classification and Identification of Motif Conservation

Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E.; Chavaro-Pérez, David A.; Piten-Isidro, Elvira; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H.; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2013 Português
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The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV), coded by its third most diverse gene, interacts with multiple molecules within infected cells. NS1 is involved in host immune response regulation and is a potential contributor to the virus host range. Early phylogenetic analyses using 50 sequences led to the classification of NS1 gene variants into groups (alleles) A and B. We reanalyzed NS1 diversity using 14,716 complete NS IAV sequences, downloaded from public databases, without host bias. Removal of sequence redundancy and further structured clustering at 96.8% amino acid similarity produced 415 clusters that enhanced our capability to detect distinct subgroups and lineages, which were assigned a numerical nomenclature. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction using RNA sequences indicated the previously identified deep branching separating group A from group B, with five distinct subgroups within A as well as two and five lineages within the A4 and A5 subgroups, respectively. Our classification model proposes that sequence patterns in thirteen amino acid positions are sufficient to fit >99.9% of all currently available NS1 sequences into the A subgroups/lineages or the B group. This classification reduces host and virus bias through the prioritization of NS1 RNA phylogenetics over host or virus phenetics. We found significant sequence conservation within the subgroups and lineages with characteristic patterns of functional motifs...

‣ Scanning Electron Microscopy of Male Terminalia and Its Application to Species Recognition and Phylogenetic Reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans Group

Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.38828%
The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI = 87 and RI = 90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered.

‣ Sequence exploration reveals information bias among molecular markers used in phylogenetic reconstruction for Colletotrichum species

Rampersad, Sephra N; Hosein, Fazeeda N; Carrington, Christine VF
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2014 Português
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The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of isolates of quarantine importance to the intra-specific level is confounded by a number of factors that affect phylogenetic reconstruction. Information bias and quality parameters were investigated to determine whether nucleotide sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees accurately reflect the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of individuals. Sequence exploration of GAPDH, ACT, TUB2 and ITS markers indicated that the query sequences had different patterns of nucleotide substitution but were without evidence of base substitution saturation. Regions of high entropy were much more dispersed in the ACT and GAPDH marker alignments than for the ITS and TUB2 markers. A discernible bimodal gap in the genetic distance frequency histograms was produced for the ACT and GAPDH markers which indicated successful separation of intra- and inter-specific sequences in the data set. Overall, analyses indicated clear differences in the ability of these markers to phylogenetically separate individuals to the intra-specific level which coincided with information bias.

‣ Effects of phylogenetic reconstruction method on the robustness of species delimitation using single-locus data

Tang, Cuong Q; Humphreys, Aelys M; Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G; Paradis, Emmanuel
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Coalescent-based species delimitation methods combine population genetic and phylogenetic theory to provide an objective means for delineating evolutionarily significant units of diversity. The generalised mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) and the Poisson tree process (PTP) are methods that use ultrametric (GMYC or PTP) or non-ultrametric (PTP) gene trees as input, intended for use mostly with single-locus data such as DNA barcodes. Here, we assess how robust the GMYC and PTP are to different phylogenetic reconstruction and branch smoothing methods. We reconstruct over 400 ultrametric trees using up to 30 different combinations of phylogenetic and smoothing methods and perform over 2000 separate species delimitation analyses across 16 empirical data sets. We then assess how variable diversity estimates are, in terms of richness and identity, with respect to species delimitation, phylogenetic and smoothing methods. The PTP method generally generates diversity estimates that are more robust to different phylogenetic methods. The GMYC is more sensitive, but provides consistent estimates for BEAST trees. The lower consistency of GMYC estimates is likely a result of differences among gene trees introduced by the smoothing step. Unresolved nodes (real anomalies or methodological artefacts) affect both GMYC and PTP estimates...

‣ TCS: a web server for multiple sequence alignment evaluation and phylogenetic reconstruction

Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Lefort, Vincent; Gascuel, Olivier; Notredame, Cedric
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article introduces the Transitive Consistency Score (TCS) web server; a service making it possible to estimate the local reliability of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) using the TCS index. The evaluation can be used to identify the aligned positions most likely to contain structurally analogous residues and also most likely to support an accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The TCS scoring scheme has been shown to be accurate predictor of structural alignment correctness among commonly used methods. It has also been shown to outperform common filtering schemes like Gblocks or trimAl when doing MSA post-processing prior to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The web server is available from http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tcs.

‣ Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae), including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications

Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C.; Saunders, Richard M.K.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/07/2015 Português
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Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015) [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers) of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated).

‣ Effects of Asymmetric Nuclear Introgression, Introgressive Mitochondrial Sweep, and Purifying Selection on Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Divergence Estimates in the Pacific Clade of Locustella Warblers

Drovetski, Sergei V.; Semenov, Georgy; Red'kin, Yaroslav A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir N.; Fadeev, Igor V.; Koblik, Evgeniy A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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When isolated but reproductively compatible populations expand geographically and meet, simulations predict asymmetric introgression of neutral loci from a local to invading taxon. Genetic introgression may affect phylogenetic reconstruction by obscuring topology and divergence estimates. We combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from one mtDNA and 12 nuDNA loci with analysis of gene flow among 5 species of Pacific Locustella warblers to test for presence of genetic introgression and its effects on tree topology and divergence estimates. Our data showed that nuDNA introgression was substantial and asymmetrical among all members of superspecies groups whereas mtDNA showed no introgression except a single species pair where the invader's mtDNA was swept by mtDNA of the local species. This introgressive sweep of mtDNA had the opposite direction of the nuDNA introgression and resulted in the paraphyly of the local species' mtDNA haplotypes with respect to those of the invader. Тhe multilocus nuDNA species tree resolved all inter- and intraspecific relationships despite substantial introgression. However, the node ages on the species tree may be underestimated as suggested by the differences in node age estimates based on non-introgressing mtDNA and introgressing nuDNA. In turn...

‣ Impact of Gene Molecular Evolution on Phylogenetic Reconstruction: A Case Study in the Rosids (Superorder Rosanae, Angiosperms)

Hilu, Khidir W.; Black, Chelsea M.; Oza, Dipan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/06/2014 Português
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Rate of substitution of genomic regions is among the most debated intrinsic features that impact phylogenetic informativeness. However, this variable is also coupled with rates of nonsynonymous substitutions that underscore the nature and degree of selection on the selected genes. To empirically address these variables, we constructed four completely overlapping data sets of plastid matK, atpB, rbcL, and mitochondrial matR genes and used the rosid lineage (angiosperms) as a working platform. The genes differ in combinations of overall rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions. Tree robustness, homoplasy, accuracy in contrast to a reference tree, and phylogenetic informativeness are evaluated. The rapidly evolving/unconstrained matK faired best, whereas remaining genes varied in degrees of contribution to rosid phylogenetics across the lineage's 108 million years evolutionary history. Phylogenetic accuracy was low with the slowly evolving/unconstrained matR despite least amount of homoplasy. Third codon positions contributed the highest amount of parsimony informative sites, resolution and informativeness, but magnitude varied with gene mode of evolution. These findings are in clear contrast with the views that rapidly evolving regions and the 3rd codon position have inevitable negative impact on phylogenetic reconstruction at deep historic level due to accumulation of multiple hits and subsequent elevation in homoplasy and saturation. Relaxed evolutionary constraint in rapidly evolving genes distributes substitutions across codon positions...

‣ Phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism analysis of BK virus VP2 gene isolated from renal transplant recipients in China

WANG, ZHANG-YANG; HONG, WEI-LONG; ZHU, ZHE-HUI; CHEN, YUN-HAO; YE, WEN-LE; CHU, GUANG-YU; LI, JIA-LIN; CHEN, BI-CHENG; XIA, PENG
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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BK polyomavirus (BKV) is important pathogen for kidney transplant recipients, as it is frequently re-activated, leading to nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the phylogenetic reconstruction and polymorphism of the VP2 gene in BKV isolated from Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out in the VP2 region from 135 BKV-positive samples and 28 reference strains retrieved from GenBank. The unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) grouped all strains into subtypes, but failed to subdivide strains into subgroups. Among the plasma and urine samples, all plasma (23/23) and 82 urine samples (82/95) were identified to contain subtype I; the other 10 urine samples contained subtype IV. A 86-bp fragment was identified as a highly conserved sequence. Following alignment with 36 published BKV sequences from China, 92 sites of polymorphism were identified, including 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) prevalent in Chinese individuals and 30 SNPs that were specific to the two predominant subtypes I and IV. The limitations of the VP2 gene segment in subgrouping were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The conserved sequence and polymorphism identified in this study may be helpful in the detection and genotyping of BKV.

‣ Theories on PHYlogenetic ReconstructioN (PHYRN)

Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hong, Yoojin; Ko, Kyung Dae; Chang, Gue Su; Smith, Evan J.; Kline, Lindsay A.; Hartranft, D. Nicholas; Holmes, Edward C.; Patterson, Randen L.; van Rossum, Damian B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The inability to resolve deep node relationships of highly divergent/rapidly evolving protein families is a major factor that stymies evolutionary studies. In this manuscript, we propose a Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) independent method to infer evolutionary relationships. We previously demonstrated that phylogenetic profiles built using position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are capable of constructing informative evolutionary histories(1;2). In this manuscript, we theorize that PSSMs derived specifically from the query sequences used to construct the phylogenetic tree will improve this method for the study of rapidly evolving proteins. To test this theory, we performed phylogenetic analyses of a benchmark protein superfamily (reverse transcriptases (RT)) as well as simulated datasets. When we compare the results obtained from our method, PHYlogenetic ReconstructioN (PHYRN), with other MSA dependent methods, we observe that PHYRN provides a 4- to 100-fold increase in accurate measurements at deep nodes. As phylogenetic profiles are used as the information source, rather than MSA, we propose PHYRN as a paradigm shift in studying evolution when MSA approaches fail. Perhaps most importantly, due to the improvements in our computational approach and the availability of vast amount of sequencing data...

‣ Fast Convergence of MCMC Algorithms for Phylogenetic Reconstruction with Homogeneous Data on Closely Related Species

Stefankovic, Daniel; Vigoda, Eric
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper studies a Markov chain for phylogenetic reconstruction which uses a popular transition between tree topologies known as subtree pruning-and-regrafting (SPR). We analyze the Markov chain in the simpler setting that the generating tree consists of very short edge lengths, short enough so that each sample from the generating tree (or character in phylogenetic terminology) is likely to have only one mutation, and that there enough samples so that the data looks like the generating distribution. We prove in this setting that the Markov chain is rapidly mixing, i.e., it quickly converges to its stationary distribution, which is the posterior distribution over tree topologies. Our proofs use that the leading term of the maximum likelihood function of a tree T is the maximum parsimony score, which is the size of the minimum cut in T needed to realize single edge cuts of the generating tree. Our main contribution is a combinatorial proof that in our simplified setting, SPR moves are guaranteed to converge quickly to the maximum parsimony tree. Our results are in contrast to recent works showing examples with heterogeneous data (namely, the data is generated from a mixture distribution) where many natural Markov chains are exponentially slow to converge to the stationary distribution.; Comment: To appear in SIAM Journal of Discrete Mathematics (SIDMA)