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‣ A Human Rights Based Political Economy for a De-growth Based Equitable Development

Branco, Manuel
Fonte: Manuel Branco Publicador: Manuel Branco
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.75806%
Within a scenario of de-growth many may conclude that development in general, and equitable development in particular, may become outdated concepts and aspirations. In their minds this would immediately put the de-growth philosophy amidst the reactionary ideas and would favour world wide resistance to de-growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore institutional principles and tools that allow the conciliation between de-growth and equitable development, namely within economic thought. In this respect we will present human-rights based political economy as an institutional tool of this sort. We will show how a human-rights based political economy can at the same time respect ecological sustainability and social equity. The main reason for that consists in the fact that within a human-rights based political economy, welfare is not the result of economic growth, as within traditional political economy, but of justice. The main objectives of development will be attained, therefore, not through growth but through redistribution of resources. In this paper more specific issues will be discussed by examining the human right to work. The main aspect which will be stressed is that within a human-rights frame full employment becomes disconnected from both growth and labour market deregulation. It will be shown that traditional policies not only do not solve unemployment but are also not environmentally and socially sustainable. The only policy that is not contradictory with either human rights and de-growth is work sharing by decreasing the length of the work day. When properly enforced this policy has...

‣ The Political Economy of Decentralization Reforms : Implications for Aid Effectiveness

Eaton, Kent; Kaiser, Kai; Smoke, Paul J.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.74869%
This volume presents a preliminary framework designed to help international development partners consider the relevance of political economy issues for their programmatic support to decentralization and local government reform. The intention is neither to advocate decentralization in general or in any particular form, nor to presume or privilege any particular decentralization objective. Instead, the purpose is to document the potential value of better understanding how (primarily national and intergovernmental) political and institutional dynamics do or could affect the scope for realizing decentralization reforms aligned with commonly advocated service delivery, governance, and poverty reduction goals. The underlying premise is that systematic analysis of these issues can productively complement the dominantly technical diagnostic work typically carried out by development partners. Specifically, development partners can benefit from better understanding the practical significance of motives that drive politicians and bureaucrats to support or oppose reform at various stages of the decentralization process...

‣ Assessing the Impact of Political Economy Factors on Rules of Origin under NAFTA

Portugal-Perez, Alberto
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.794204%
Rules of origin are legitimate policy instruments to prevent trade deflection in a preferential trade agreement short of a customs union. Trade deflection takes place when a product imported into the preferential trade agreement through the member with the lowest external tariff is transhipped to a higher-tariff member, while yielding a benefit for the re-exporter. Yet, when captured by special interest groups, rules of origin can restrict trade beyond what is needed to prevent trade deflection. By how much do political economy factors account for the stringency of rules of origin? This study quantifies the impact of both determinants - those considered "justifiable" because they prevent trade deflection and those deemed to arise from "political economy" forces - on the restrictiveness of rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement, approximated by a restrictiveness index. The main finding is that political economy forces, especially from the United States, raised significantly the restrictiveness of the rules of origin. Indeed...

‣ Political Economy Analysis for Food and Nutrition Security

Reich, Michael R.; Balarajan, Yarlini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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67.9995%
The overall goal of this paper is to promote the use of political economy analysis in advancing more effective food and nutrition policies. The paper reviews the field of applied political economy for the food and nutrition sector, and offers practical guidance on how to conduct political economy analysis to better navigate the policy reform process. The paper is presented in three parts. Part I reviews the literature on political economy analysis (PEA) and its application in the food and nutrition fields, focusing on the applied literature in development. Three kinds of PEA are discussed: In-depth, Stakeholder, and Rapid Assessment PEA, which serve different purposes. The paper then introduces a structured qualitative method for conducting an in-depth PEA, based on four stages of the policy cycle: agenda-setting, policy design, policy adoption, and implementation. Part II provides an illustrative case study of an in-depth PEA for a specific food and nutritionrelated policy of India, the Integrated Child Development Services scheme. The analysis explains how the agenda was set and its consequences. Part III presents a newly developed tool to conduct a rapid assessment PEA for food and nutrition policy. This tool uses a questionnaire approach to evaluate the level of political commitment for food and nutrition security and opportunities for change...

‣ Political Economy of Public Policies : Insights from Distortions to Agricultural and Food Markets

Anderson, Kym; Rausser, Gordon; Swinnen, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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67.813555%
The agricultural and food sector is an ideal case for investigating the political economy of public policies. Many of the policy developments in this sector since the 1950s have been sudden and transformational, while others have been gradual but persistent. This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on trends and fluctuations in market distortions and the political-economy explanations that have been advanced. Based on a rich global data set covering a half-century of evidence on commodities, countries, and policy instruments, the paper identifies hypotheses that have been explored in the literature on the extent of market distortions and the conditions under which reform may be feasible.

‣ What Does Political Economy Tell Us About Economic Development and Vice Versa?

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.869795%
The author reviews how three pillars of political economy-collective action, institutions, and political market imperfections-help us answer the question: Why do some countries develop and others do not? Each makes tremendous advances in our understanding of who wins and who loses in government decision making, generally, but only a subset of this literature helps us answer the question. The study of political market imperfections strongly suggests that the lack of credibility of pre-electoral political promises and incomplete voter information are especially robust in explaining development outcomes. From the institutional literature, the most powerful explanation of contrasting development outcomes links political checks and balances to the credibility of government commitments.

‣ Political Economy of Power Sector Subsidies : A Review with Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa

Kojima, Masami; Bacon, Robert; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.785337%
Power sector subsidies in Sub-Saharan Africa are substantial and highly regressive. While subsidies can be quick, easy, and politically expedient to implement, they are equally quick to take root and challenging to remove. Optimal policies that are technically sound and welfare-enhancing over the long run have nevertheless been found difficult to launch and even more challenging to sustain. Of the barriers to reform, those associated with political economy are among the most powerful, yet their analysis is often lacking due consideration in the reform design process. This paper reviews the literature on power subsidies and their reform with emphasis on the political economy of such reform. It examines pricing principles in the power sector and different types of subsides; drivers for subsidies, benefits and costs of subsidy reform, and their distribution; and approaches to political economy analysis, tools available, and methodological issues. The paper draws examples from Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere...

‣ An American Political Economy: Industry, Trade, and Finance in the Antebellum Mind

Calvo, Christopher W.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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67.87798%
The purpose of this study is to assess American economic thought during the antebellum period. Antebellum political economy has been largely neglected by historians. They have ignored both the valuable contributions made by America’s first political economists to domestic intellectual culture, as well as the importance of American economic thought in the transatlantic discourse. A dynamic, sophisticated, and complex political economy marks the antebellum era, and when studied in its proper context provides insight into how Americans understood the transformative economic changes they experienced. This dissertation draws on an extensive body of primary and secondary literature. Special consideration is given to the more learned articulations of economic thought. However, recognizing the immature state of the science during the period under investigation works of various levels of theoretical erudition are referenced. In their attempts to fashion a distinctly American political economy domestic thinkers entertained a wide range of economic principles. Contrary to conventional wisdom the Americans were not absolutist in their dedication to British orthodoxy. Antebellum political economy manipulated British authorities to suit the immediate concerns of contemporaries...

‣ The political economy of recent economic growth in India

Jha, Raghbendra
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 268186 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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67.74139%
The political economy of Indias economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality and the like lagging behind rises in the rate of economic growth. Thus the political economy of policy formulation is an important area of concern. Finally, an analysis of what policies can be undertaken given these constraints is an important indicator of potential welfare implications of policies for such a large section of humanity. Several recent reviews of Indias recent growth experience exist (Rodrik and Subrahmanian, 2004, Kelkar, 2004, and Thirlwell, 2004 are three examples). The value added of the present paper is to place Indias growth experience within a broader political economy perspective. It documents the broad contours of economic growth in India; it then analyzes some emerging obstacles to higher economic growth and finally the prospects for accelerating the economic reforms program to place India on a sustained higher economic growth path.; no

‣ Political Economy of Extractives Governance in Sierra Leone

Fanthorpe, Richard; Gabelle, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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67.862676%
Sierra Leone is still recovering from a brutal civil war (1991-2002), fuelled in part by a valuable and easily extractable natural resource (diamonds). Sierra Leone now stands on the verge of an unprecedented period of economic growth, driven primarily by revenues from large-scale iron ore mining. Yet it continues to face many governance and developmental challenges. The rapid rise of the extractives governance agenda in Sierra Leone requires an equally swift, yet strategic response from all stakeholders: the Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL), development partners (DPs), civil society organizations (CSOs), communities, and mining companies. This report uses a 'value chain' approach to mining governance which highlights the critical stages through which a resource dependent country is expected to progress as it seeks to transform resource rents into economic growth and sustainable human development. The objective of this study is ultimately to improve the management of the natural resource endowment, enjoyed by Sierra Leone...

‣ Political Economy Studies : Are They Actionable? Some Lessons from Zambia

Beuran, Monica; Raballand, Gaël; Kapoor, Kapil
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.82629%
In recent years, the number of studies looking at the effect of politics on economic outcomes has flourished. For developing economies, these studies are useful to better understand why long overdue reforms are not implemented. The studies analyze the overall context within which reforms are being implemented and the underlying incentive framework. However, it seems difficult to make such studies actionable, especially in sectors where donors have a heavy presence that can sometimes distort incentives in addition to the reluctance from some governments to amend the existing systems in place. This paper focuses on some conclusions emerging from the political economy diagnostics carried out in Zambia in various sectors in recent years. Based on interviews of World Bank task managers, the paper attempts to assess the relevance of these studies for the implementation of projects and the policy dialogue and draws lessons on how they have influenced the implementation of the World Bank's support to programs in various sectors in Zambia as well as the main challenges for this type of exercise.

‣ Political Economy of the Petroleum Sector in Nigeria

Gboyega, Alex; Soreide, Tina; Le, Tuan Minh; Shukla, G. P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.785884%
The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a "rentier" dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution...

‣ The Political Economy of Policy Reform : Issues and Implications for Policy Dialogue and Development Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.048086%
This study addresses the political economy of sector reforms. Sustainable reform processes which improve equity, efficiency and effectiveness in key economic and social sectors are often important elements of national poverty reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. For international development agencies wishing to engage in these processes, understanding the significance of power relations within the sector, vested interests, and the links to national political processes can be critical to being an effective actor in policy dialogue. This study explores these issues through the analysis of case studies of World Bank engagement in two areas: agricultural liberalization, and public-private partnerships in water supply and sanitation. The objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to analyze the political economy of reform by looking at stakeholder interests, incentives, institutions, risks, opportunities, and processes from a social analysis perspective; and (b) to illustrate 'what works...

‣ The Political Economy of Sanitation : How Can We Increase Investment and Improve Service for the Poor?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.874087%
This study follows current approaches to political economy-interdisciplinary inquiry drawing upon social and political theory and economic principles-to understand how political actors, institutions, and economic processes influence each other. The 'political economy of sanitation,' therefore, refers to the social, political, and economic processes and factors that determine the extent and nature of sanitation investment and service provision. This study's conceptual framework combines a diagnostic component with a typology of actions to help translate analytical findings into more effective support to operations and investments. The diagnostic framework aims to identify political economy constraints as well as opportunities that are entry points for subsequent operational actions. The study was conducted through a qualitative analysis of stakeholders, institutions, impacts, risks, and opportunities that was linked to processes and policy debate. This synthesis report is based on the findings from the secondary literature review and the results of primary research in the four case study countries...

‣ Understanding Policy Change : How to Apply Political Economy Concepts in Practice

Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Hamilton, Alexander; Ferrer, Issel Masses
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.9176%
The introductory chapter sets the stage and outlines the logic of the rest of the handbook. First, we present the main learning objectives; second, we introduce the pedagogical approach, methodology, and structure of the book. This handbook is intended to introduce the concepts of political economy to a wide audience of development practitioners, including civil society activists, journalists, students, and bureaucrats. Since the target readers vary widely in their previous exposure to the subject matter, the book summarizes a vast academic field and presents a comprehensive repertoire of concepts, theories, and empirical examples. Rather than offering a 'do-it-yourself' framework, we opted for developing a step-by-step analytical puzzle. First, the paper introduces the core mechanisms of political economy and their inner logic, and, subsequently, we help our readers learn how to recognize these mechanisms in their daily development-related work. By the end of the book, the authors hope that readers will be able to: recognize core development problems stemming from the political-economic environment; link theoretical concepts to real-life situations; diagnose the symptoms and the root causes of malfunctions; and understand the short-term and long-term consequences of poor governance and low institutional equilibria. This handbook is also designed to provide trainers with some of the pedagogical materials they need to develop an introductory course on political-economy analysis for policy practitioners. The content focuses on the what...

‣ Rents to Riches? The Political Economy of Natural Resource-led Development

Barma, Naazneen H.; Kaiser, Kai; Le, Tuan Minh; Vinuela, Lorena
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.9271%
This volume emphasizes instead the notion of 'good fit,' taking the position that welfare-promoting policies, institutions, and governance must be tailored, at least in part, to a country's specific context. In this vein, the volume presents an analytical framework for assessing a country's political economy and institutional environment as it relates to natural resource management and, on that basis, it offers a substantial set of targeted prescriptions across the natural resource value chain that are technically sound and compatible with the identified underlying incentives. In other words, the objective of this book is to help development practitioners unravel the political economy dynamics surrounding natural resource management in order to complement their technically grounded engagement. To this end, the analytical approach has been two-pronged. First, case studies were conducted on the political economy of the hydrocarbon and mineral value chains in 13 countries in the Africa, East Asia and Pacific...

‣ The Political Economy of Knowledge Workers in the Chinese Media Industry

Yao, Jianhua
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.801426%
In this dissertation, using the tool of a political economy of communication analysis gives us an important way to conceptualize the challenges confronting Chinese media workers, especially editors, due to media reform and social transformation. I will accomplish this by examining three different but inter-related processes: commodification, structuration, and spatialization. First, I will analyze the ways in which the deepening of the media commodification process has forced Chinese media workers to serve the political interests of the state, and at the same time, to generate profit for their companies and promote political and social reforms. Second, I will explore the structuration process by analyzing how fundamental social, technological, political, and economic changes—especially those in class relations and power dynamics—have produced five critical problems for the Chinese media workers. Third, I will explore the media spatialization process by addressing its three indispensable components: globalization, neoliberalism, and the global division of labour. When China is increasingly integrated into the global political economy, most Chinese media workers have faced great changes in their value systems and their daily work processes. As a result...

‣ Food Production during the Transition to Capitalism: A Comparative Political Economy of Russia and China

Hamm, Patrick
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.75303%
The principal analytical objective of this dissertation is the assessment of changes in the political economy of food production during the transition from socialism to capitalism in Russia and China. The dissertation is equally interested in the consequences of this transition for human welfare resulting from changes in the availability of food. As a conditio sine qua non for human survival, food serves as an objective yardstick for human welfare. By studying changes in the political economy of food production it is therefore possible to draw general inferences regarding the welfare implications of the transition to capitalism in Russia and China. This dissertation uses a combination of classical political economy and comparative institutional analysis: The three empirical chapters show how changes in state objectives result in the formulation of economic policies that in turn shape the organization of food production - with momentous consequences for the Russian and Chinese people. Both countries achieved a significant increase in the output and variety of food, yet new problems concerning the availability, quality, and safety of food products have resulted from the introduction of markets. These problems are not externalities, but rather constitute a necessary consequence of the establishment of a market economy in which profit-oriented actors engage in competitive exchange without regard for human welfare. As a result...

‣ The rise of Polri: democratisation and the political economy of security in Indonesia

Baker, Jacqueline
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.794204%
In Indonesia, successful democratisation from military authoritarian rule has pushed the military ‘back to the barracks’ and restored the rule of law. This process of moving from authoritarian-military to civil-juridical authority has taken place in multiple ways across the political system, however most notably in the rise of the police as an institutional actor, the restoration of their authority over domestic and national security and law enforcement. Scholarship shows how criminality and the criminal contingent have been crucial in every way to state formation in Indonesia. Throughout history, the security institutions have mediated those forms of criminality and the state’s overarching relationship with the illicit. One of the ways the relationship between the state and criminal practices has manifested itself has been in the mechanisms of illicit extraction and accumulation broadly known as “corruption”. Despite the regularizing effects of democratisation, the security sector continues to be resourced primarily by a vast illicit economy, called the off-budget economy. I show how Polri’s new authoritative role in security and law enforcement has opened up the spoils of this economy to the police in two important criminal economies; the gift economy of indigenous Chinese traders and the illegal gambling economy in Jakarta. This thesis demonstrates how the transformation from military-coercive to civil juridical modalities of power has not improved the quality of Indonesia’s democracy or rule of law. Rather...

‣ Relationships between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust

Vargas-Hernández,José G.
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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77.60291%
The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisational knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.