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‣ Ensaios sobre economia da religião e torneios de promoção em organizações religiosas

Oliveira, Lívio Luiz Soares de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Esta tese tem dois objetivos: O primeiro é evidenciar, com base na literatura de Economia da Religião, a premissa de racionalidade humana relativa ao comportamento religioso. Com esse objetivo, realiza-se uma discussão dos fundamentos teóricos da Economia da Religião: a Escolha Racional, a Teoria do Consumidor aplicada à religião, o modelo de produção doméstica de Gary Becker e a Teoria do Mercado Religioso. Também se apresenta e se discute alguns dos principais modelos teóricos da Economia da Religião, citando, sempre que possível as evidências empíricas existentes na literatura. Como meio de contribuir para a discussão nessa área, são aplicados modelos econométricos de análise de survey com dados de duas pesquisas para dois dos modelos teóricos apresentados, o de Azzi-Ehremberg e o de Durkin Greeley (1991): Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domícilios (PNAD) de 1988, aplicada pelo IBGE, e Pesquisa Social Brasileira (PESB) de 2004, realizada pela FGV Opinião. Uma predição importante relacionada à Teoria do Mercado Religioso, um dos fundamentos da Teoria da Escolha Racional da Religião, é que quanto maior for, de um lado, o grau de regulação governamental neste mercado, por outro serão menores o grau de competição das organizações religiosas...

‣ A economia da religião e seus fundamentos : teste de um modelo de escolha religiosa

Oliveira, Lívio Luiz Soares de; Cortes, Renan Xavier; Balbinotto Neto, Giacomo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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O objetivo deste trabalho é expor, com base na literatura de Economia da Religião, a premissa de racionalidade humana relacionada ao comportamento religioso. Serão abordados conceitos e definições da Economia da Religião, o objeto de interesse dessa disciplina, isto é, as questões com as quais se preocupa, além de discutir-se, sucintamente, a origem e a evolução da Economia da Religião. Discutem-se dois dos fundamentos teóricos da Economia da Religião: a Escolha Racional e a Teoria do Consumidor aplicada à religião. Como contribuição empírica, realizou-se um teste de um modelo de escolha religiosa empregando a técnica de Análise de Discriminante. Por último, serão discutidas as vantagens, objeções e críticas relativas à Teoria da Escolha Racional Religiosa.; This paper aim, based on the literature of Economics of Religion, to the premise of human rationality related to religious behavior. Are discussed concepts and definitions of the Economics of Religion, the object of interest in this discipline, ie, the most important issues, and discuss briefly the origin and evolution of discipline. Rational Choice and Consumer Theory applied to the Religion, two of the theoretical fundamentals of Economics of Religion are discussed. As an empirical contribution...

‣ Comportamento racional e desempenho da análise gráfica no mercado acionário brasileiro; The performance of rational choice and technical analysis in Brazilian stock market

Pietro Neto, José de; Medeiros, Otávio Ribeiro de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Este trabalho teve como objetivo buscar evidências empíricas sobre o desempenho da análise gráfica considerando a lucratividade quando montadas em um sistema autônomo para o disparo de ordens de compra e venda de ações via homebroker na Bovespa, bem como apresentar uma metodologia modificada para o teste de Lorenzoni et al. (2007) para verificar a presença de conteúdo informacional na análise técnica. Este sistema autônomo consiste em uma rotina modificada do comportamento racional de compra constante em Arrow (1959), que visa ao lucro máximo e procura simular o comportamento humano como estratégia para o disparo de ordens. Foram testadas 352 combinações diferentes de possibilidades de ordens, quando acopladas ao comportamento racional para cada série testada. Os dados utilizados compreenderam as empresas constantes no índice FGV-100 (2009) e no Ibovespa (set./dez. de 2009) totalizando 129 companhias no período de 03/01/2000 até 30/09/2009. Os principais resultados mostram que bons desempenhos foram obtidos pelas médias móveis, seguidos das bandas de Bollinger e do histograma, que não se mostrou eficiente. As ordens foram contadas em quantidades. Foram encontrados comportamentos racionais de compra e venda com desempenho superior aos seus semelhantes...

‣ Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders

Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization...

‣ Gender Differences in Fields of Study: The Role of Significant Others and Rational Choice Motivations

Gabay-Egozi, Limor; Shavit, Yossi; Yaish, Meir
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
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Although gender inequalities in education have greatly changed in recent decades with young women outpacing young men, girls and boys continue to study in gender-typical fields of study. Recognizing that boys and girls might have different educational preferences, we conceptualized gender differentiation as an outcome of both socialization processes and rational choice factors. Using a data set from an original survey of curricular choices of high school students in Tel Aviv-Jaffa in Israel, we employed nested logit regression models using the KHB method to examine the determinants of the gender differentiation in advanced course-taking. We found that socialization mechanisms (significant other influences) and rational choice motivations (utility considerations and failure expectations) explain up to 40 percent of the gender-typical curricular choice in our data. The implications of these results for future research are discussed.

‣ Rationalizability of Choice Functions on General Domains without Full Transitivity

SPRUMONT, Yves; SUZUMURA, Kotaro
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 259098 bytes; application/pdf
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The rationalizability of a choice function by means of a transitive relation has been analyzed thoroughly in the literature. However, not much seems to be known when transitivity is weakened to quasi-transitivity or acyclicity. We describe the logical relationships between the different notions of rationalizability involving, for example, the transitivity, quasi-transitivity, or acyclicity of the rationalizing relation. Furthermore, we discuss sufficient conditions and necessary conditions for rational choice on arbitrary domains. Transitive, quasi-transitive, and acyclical rationalizability are fully characterized for domains that contain all singletons and all two-element subsets of the universal set.; Le problème de la « rationalisabilité » d’une fonction de choix à l’aide d’une relation de préférence transitive a été étudié en détail dans la littérature. En revanche, peu de résultats existent lorsque la relation sous-jacente n’est que quasi transitive ou acyclique. Nous décrivons les relations entre ces différentes formes de « rationalisabilité ». Nous identifions des conditions suffisantes et des conditions nécessaires qui sont valides pour tout domaine. Nous présentons des conditions nécessaires et suffisantes quand le domaine de la fonction de choix comprend tous les singletons et toutes les paires d’options d’un ensemble de référence.

‣ Rational Choice on Arbitrary Domains: A Comprehensive Treatment

BOSSERT, Walter; SUZUMURA, Kotaro
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 294492 bytes; application/pdf
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The rationalizability of a choice function on arbitrary domains by means of a transitive relation has been analyzed thoroughly in the literature. Moreover, characterizations of various versions of consistent rationalizability have appeared in recent contributions. However, not much seems to be known when the coherence property of quasi-transitivity or that of P-acyclicity is imposed on a rationalization. The purpose of this paper is to fill this significant gap. We provide characterizations of all forms of rationalizability involving quasi-transitive or P-acyclical rationalizations on arbitrary domains.

‣ Domain Closedness Conditions and Rational Choice

BOSSERT, Walter; SUZUMURA, Kotaro
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 200765 bytes; application/pdf
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The rationalizability of a choice function on an arbitrary domain under various coherence properties has received a considerable amount of attention both in the long-established and in the recent literature. Because domain closedness conditions play an important role in much of rational choice theory, we examine the consequences of these requirements on the logical relationships among different versions of rationalizability. It turns out that closedness under intersection does not lead to any results differing from those obtained on arbitrary domains. In contrast, closedness under union allows us to prove an additional implication.

‣ Revealed Preference and Choice under Uncertainty

BOSSERT, Walter; SUZUMURA, Kotaro
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We employ the theory of rational choice to examine whether observable choices from feasible sets of prospects can be generated by the optimization of some underlying decision criterion under uncertainty. Rather than focusing on a specific theory of choice, our objective is to formulate a general approach that is designed to cover the various decision criteria that have been proposed in the literature. We use a mild dominance property to define a class of suitable choice criteria. In addition to rationalizability per se, we characterize transitive and Suzumura consistent rationalizability in the presence of dominance.

‣ Exit and voice: papers from a revisionist public choice perspective

Taylor, Brad
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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This thesis by papers uses rational choice theory to consider the relative performance of individual exit and collective voice in politics, as well as the causal relationships between exit and voice as individual strategies and institutionalised means of controlling government behaviour. Following the methodological approach of Geoffrey Brennan and Alan Hamlin, the papers of this thesis are examples of ‘revisionist public choice theory,’ retaining the broad framework of rational choice while relaxing one or more of the standard assumptions generally made by economists. In particular, the papers of this thesis consider otherregarding preferences, non-instrumental preferences, dispositional choice, epistemic rationality, non-efficiency evaluative standards, and non-equilibrium dynamics. By taking a revisionist approach, I am able to steer a path between the excessive abstraction of much public choice theory and the insufficient rigour of much normative political theory. Jointly, the papers of this thesis contribute to broad debates over the relative value of exit and voice in political settings, with relevance to questions of democracy versus the market, centralism versus localism, and bureaucracy versus market-like modes of governance. Though I cover a range of diverse topics in this thesis...

‣ National vs. European mandate: a rational choice model of interest rate decisions by the European Central Bank

Varela Pedreira, Diego; Sánchez Santos, José Manuel (1967-)
Fonte: Universidade da Corunha Publicador: Universidade da Corunha
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Paper prepared for the 33rd annual conference and 8th research conference of UACES, Newcastle, 2-4 September 2003.; The aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent the members of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB) act as if they had a national mandate, instead of acting in the interests of price stability in the euro area as a whole. The paper develops a simple rational choice model of interest rate decisions inside the Governing Council of the ECB based on national mandates, and tests it against a model based on a European mandate, using monthly data from January 1999 to July 2003. The paper concludes that the model assuming national mandates explains the data better, and derives some implications for the reform of the ECB and other pseudo-independent institutions such as the European Commission, especially in the eve of the next enlargement.

‣ The soldier's dilemma: using decision theory to explain American War crimes

Stitt, Orrin G.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 51 p. : ill.; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; This project explores identity modeling as an observable and quantifiable indicator of the rational foundations of apparently inconsistent behavior. A model of rational choice is presented in which behavior is the product of (a) feasible alternatives, (b) available information (c) ethical identity, and (d) social setting - all of which are subject to change as the given situation is played out. This model is developed and then applied in two cases. The first is the movie Under Suspicion, tracing the decisions of Henry Hearst, the prime suspect in a murder case. The second is the account of the Tiger Platoon, a special operations unit during the Vietnam War - documented in the book Tiger Force. The model has good explanatory power for understanding apparently inconsistent and irrational behavior. To this end, rational choice models are useful in understanding human behavior, especially in stressful environments such as police interrogations and combat. This study is a contribution to a research agenda that aims first to understand criminal behavior in wartime, and ultimately to identify means to prevent it.

‣ Can Rational Choice Cope with Identity?

Aguiar, Fernando; Francisco, Andrés de
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 241151 bytes; application/pdf
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Social identity poses one of the most important challenges to rational choice theory, but rational choice theorists do not hold a common position regarding identity. On the one hand, externalist rational choice ignores the concept of identity or reduces it to revealed preferences. On the other hand, internalist rational choice considers identity as a key concept in explaining social action, because it permits expressive motivations to be included in the models. However, internalist theorists tend to reduce identity to desire -the desire of a person to express her social being. From an internalist point of view, that is, from a viewpoint in which not only desires but also beliefs play a key role in social explanations as mental entities, this paper rejects externalist reductionism and proposes a redefinition of social identity as a net of beliefs about oneself, beliefs that are indexical, robust and socially shaped.; the First ISA Forum of Sociology. Barcelona, Spain.September 5-8, 2008

‣ Siete tesis sobre racionalidad, identidad y acción colectiva; Seven thesis about rationality, identity and collective action

Aguiar, Fernando; Francisco, Andrés de
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 26624 bytes; application/msword
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[ES] En este trabajo se presentan dos corrientes distintas de la teoría de la elección racional y se analiza cómo abordan la relación entre identidad social y acción colectiva. Se verá, por un lado, que para la teoría externista de la elección racional el concepto de identidad carece de valor explicativo y es reducible a meras preferencias reveladas. Por el contrario, para la teoría internista de la elección racional la identidad no sólo contribuye a explicar la acción colectiva, sino que permite que los modelos den cuenta de las motivaciones expresivas de los actores sociales. Partiendo de una postura claramente internista el artículo se cierra con una propuesta de definición de la identidad como una red de creencias sobre uno mismo.; [EN] In this paper we analyse how two different branches of rational choice theory tackle the relationship between social identity and collective action. On the one hand, externalist rational choice theory ignores the concept of identity or reduces it to revealed preferences. On the other hand, internalist rational choice theory considers identity as a key concept in explaining collective action, because it permits to include expressive motivations in the models. From an internalist point of view...

‣ A economia da religião e seus fundamentos: teste de um modelo de escolha religiosa

Oliveira, Lívio Luiz Soares de; Cortes, Renan Xavier; Balbinotto Neto, Giácomo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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This paper aim, based on the literature of Economics of Religion, to the premise of human rationality related to religious behavior. Are discussed concepts and definitions of the Economics of Religion, the object of interest in this discipline, ie, the most important issues, and discuss briefly the origin and evolution of discipline. Rational Choice and Consumer Theory applied to the Religion, two of the theoretical fundamentals of Economics of Religion are discussed. As an empirical contribution, we carried out a test of a model of religious choice employing the technique of Discriminant Analysis. Finally, we discuss the advantages, objections and criticisms regarding the Rational Choice Theory of Religion.; O objetivo deste trabalho é expor, com base na literatura de Economia da Religião, a premissa de racionalidade humana relacionada ao comportamento religioso. Serão abordados conceitos e definições da Economia da Religião, o objeto de interesse dessa disciplina, isto é, as questões com as quais se preocupa, além de discutir-se, sucintamente, a origem e a evolução da Economia da Religião. Discutem-se dois dos fundamentos teóricos da Economia da Religião: a Escolha Racional e a Teoria do Consumidor aplicada à religião. Como contribuição empírica...

‣ Topics in Rational Choice Theory

Akhtar, Sahar Z
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 899988 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2008 Português
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Rational Choice theory includes a broad body of research that attempts to account for how people act in a variety of contexts, including economic, political and even moral situations. By proposing, most generally, that individuals rationally pursue their self-interests regardless of the context, rational choice has had extensive theoretical and empirical success, on the one hand, and has also faced wide criticism when applied in a variety of disciplines, on the other hand. While there is disagreement over what the defining assumptions of rational choice theory are, in this dissertation I focus on three on which there is widespread agreement. These three features of rational choice theory are: its assumption of egoism or self-interest as the central motivation of individuals; its reliance on consequences as part of a comparative decision-making framework; and finally, its focus on the individual and not on groups as the methodological and normative unit of analysis. In correspondence to these three features, my dissertation is divided into three parts and explores the separate topics of (I) egoism and altruism; (II) consequentialism and ethical decision-making; and, (III) individualism and group identity. The dissertation is not an exercise in showing the extensive problems of rational choice theory...

‣ Probability and rational choice; Probability and rational choice

Botting, David; IFL, FCSH, Universidade Nova de Lisboa LISBON, PORTUGAL
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2014 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis) and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference) can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way) and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes) but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance) and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p1Neste artigo discutirei a racionalidade do raciocínio sobre o futuro. Há duas coisas que gostaríamos de saber acerca do futuro: quais hipóteses são verdadeiras e o que vai acontecer em seguida. Para colocar em linguagem filosófica...

‣ A reason-based theory of rational choice

Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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There is a surprising disconnect between formal rational choice theory and philosophical work on reasons. The one is silent on the role of reasons in rational choices, the other rarely engages with the formal models of decision problems used by social scientists. To bridge this gap, we propose a new, reason-based theory of rational choice. At its core is an account of preference formation, according to which an agent’s preferences are determined by his or her motivating reasons, together with a ‘weighing relation’ between different combinations of reasons. By explaining how someone’s preferences may vary with changes in his or her motivating reasons, our theory illuminates the relationship between deliberation about reasons and rational choices. Although primarily positive, the theory can also help us think about how those preferences and choices ought to respond to normative reasons.

‣ Elinor Ostrom's legacy: governing the commons, and the rational choice controversy

Forsyth, Tim; Johnson, Craig
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing for the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague Publicador: Blackwell Publishing for the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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Elinor Ostrom had a profound impact on development studies through her work on public choice, institutionalism and the commons. In 2009, she became the first — and so far, only — woman to win a Nobel Prize for Economics (a prize shared with Oliver Williamson). Moreover, she won this award as a political scientist, which caused controversy among some economists. She committed her professional life to expanding traditional economic thinking beyond questions of individualistic rational behaviour towards a greater understanding of self-regulating cooperative action within public policy. In particular, she organized the University of Indiana’s Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis with her husband, Vincent Ostrom, and the International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC). She also earned the reputation of a loyal and caring colleague and mentor. She donated much money to the University of Indiana, including her Nobel Prize money. The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss Elinor Ostrom’s legacy in international development. Rather than being a simple obituary, this article also seeks to review the tensions arising from her work, especially concerning the debate about institutions and the commons...

‣ The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

Carvalho,Bruno Sciberras de
Fonte: Dados Publicador: Dados
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.