Página 1 dos resultados de 807 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

‣ Rhinovirus C and Respiratory Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

ALMEIDA, Marina B. de; ZERBINATI, Rodrigo M.; TATENO, Adriana F.; OLIVEIRA, Cristina M.; ROMAO, Renata M.; RODRIGUES, Joaquim C.; PANNUTI, Claudio S.; SILVA FILHO, Luiz Vicente F. da
Fonte: CENTERS DISEASE CONTROL Publicador: CENTERS DISEASE CONTROL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.126223%
To investigate a possible role for human rhinovirus C in respiratory exacerbations of children with cystic fibrosis, we conducted microbiologic testing on respiratory specimens from 103 such patients in Sao Paulo, Brazil, during 2006-2007. A significant association was found between the presence of human rhinovirus C and respiratory exacerbations.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[05/01625-8]

‣ Tradução com adaptação cultural para portugês e determinação da reprodutibilidade do questionnaire on respiratory symptoms in preschool children 

Carvalho, Susana Maria Rodrigues 
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas. Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.323733%
RESUMO: Introdução: A asma brônquica é uma entidade frequente em idade pediátrica, apresentando uma grande heterogeneidade clínica e significativa morbilidade quando não controlada. A identificação de crianças sintomáticas pode atrasar ou até mesmo diminuir a ocorrência de algumas alterações estruturais. Reconhece-se a necessidade de questionários sobre sintomas respiratórios em língua portuguesa, devidamente validados, que tenham como população-alvo os grupos etários inferiores a 3 anos. Deste modo, será possível não só um conhecimento mais rigoroso da asma e da sibilância infantil mas também a uniformização de metodologias para o desenvolvimento de estratégias a nível nacional. Objetivos: Tradução com adaptação cultural para português e determinação da reprodutibilidade do Questionnaire on respiratory symptoms in preschool children de Strippoli e colaboradores. Material e métodos: A escolha do questionário obedeceu a vários critérios, entre os quais o grupo etário, o tipo e número de perguntas. O Questionnaire on respiratory symptoms in preschool children de Strippoli e colaboradores é um questionário de autopreenchimento, dirigido a crianças entre os 12 e os 24 meses de idade e destinado a estudos epidemiológicos ao nível da comunidade. Aborda aspetos referentes a sintomas respiratórios (sibilância...

‣ Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections

Bricks,Lucia Ferro
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.349668%
Respiratory syncytial virus is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory illness in infants and children worldwide. By the age of 2 years, nearly every child has become infected with respiratory syncytial virus and re-infections are common throughout life. Most infections are mild and can be managed at home, but this virus causes serious diseases in preterm children, especially those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respiratory syncytial virus has also been recognized as an important pathogen in people with immunossupressive and other underlying medical problems and institutionalizated elderly, causing thousands of hospitalizations and deaths every year. The burden of these infections makes the development of vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus highly desirable, but the insuccess of a respiratory syncytial virus formalin-inactivated vaccine hampered the progress in this field. To date, there is no vaccine available for preventing respiratory syncytial virus infections, however, in the last years, there has been much progress in the understanding of immunology and immunopathologic mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus diseases, which has allowed the development of new strategies for passive and active prophylaxis. In this article...

‣ Use of Monoclonal Antibodies for Rapid Diagnosis of Respiratory Viruses in a Community Hospital

Irmen, Kenneth E.; Kelleher, James J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.261108%
An indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) procedure was used for the rapid detection of respiratory viruses in direct clinical specimens and for determining the epidemiology of viruses in a community hospital setting. Viral respiratory diseases were monitored for 10 consecutive respiratory seasons. The Bartels Viral Respiratory Screening and Identification Kit is an IFA method that contains pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies for seven common respiratory viruses. Compared with 8,670 conventional tube cell cultures, IFA staining of direct patient specimens had an overall sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 87.7%. Yearly epidemics of respiratory syncytial virus were seen with alternating short and long intervals between successive periods when virus was isolated. Epidemics following short intervals were more severe. Influenza A virus epidemics occurred yearly, and influenza B virus activity was seen generally every other year. When influenza A and influenza B viruses were cocirculating in a given season, the months of peak activity of one virus were always within 1 month of the peak activity of the other virus. Parainfluenza virus type 1 was detected in the autumn of odd-numbered years, and parainfluenza type 2 virus was seen usually in the autumn of even-numbered years. Parainfluenza type 3 virus and adenovirus were the most ubiquitous agents...

‣ Respiratory Disease in Kennelled Dogs: Serological Responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica Lipopolysaccharide Do Not Correlate with Bacterial Isolation or Clinical Respiratory Symptoms

Chalker, Victoria J.; Toomey, Crista; Opperman, Shaun; Brooks, Harriet W.; Ibuoye, Michael A.; Brownlie, Joe; Rycroft, Andrew N.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
The role of Bordetella bronchiseptica in a natural outbreak of canine infectious respiratory disease was investigated both by culture and serological analysis. B. bronchiseptica was found in the lungs of a large proportion of clinically healthy dogs and in a greater proportion of dogs with respiratory disease. Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we analyzed the serological responses of a large number of dogs. Dogs with high antibody levels showed no protection from disease, and there was no correlation between the development of disease and rising antibody titer. Similarly, there was no difference in antibody levels in dogs with and without B. bronchiseptica in the lungs. Antibodies to LPS have no predictive value in determining which animals will contract respiratory disease, how severe the disease will be, or which dogs will have B. bronchiseptica colonizing the lungs.

‣ Measurement of Respiratory Volume for Virus Retention Studies in Mice

Fairchild, Glen A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1972 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.261108%
A pressure plethysmograph for measuring respiratory volume in mice during exposure to virus aerosols is described. The respiratory frequency and tidal volume were measured, and from these data the minute ventilation was calculated. The mean respiratory frequency of adult, male mice was 255 per min; the mean tidal volume of 0.18 ml was inversely related to respiratory frequency. The standardized mean minute ventilation rate was 1.46 ml per g of body weight. The respiratory frequency and tidal volume of CD-1 and HA/ICR strains of mice of the same age were similar. The respiratory retention rate for a 2.7-μm aerosol of vesicular stomatitis virus was 41%, and 58% of the virus retained was found in the trachea and lung.

‣ Protective Effect of Vaccines on Mycoplasma pulmonis-Induced Respiratory Disease of Mice

Taylor, Geraldine; Howard, C. J.; Gourlay, R. N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1977 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.261108%
Mice inoculated intranasally with either a virulent or an avirulent strain of live Mycoplasma pulmonis were resistant to respiratory disease induced by a subsequent intranasal challenge with virulent organisms. Similarly, mice inoculated intravenously with the virulent strain were resistant to intranasal challenge with the same strain. In contrast, mice inoculated intravenously with avirulent M. pulmonis were not resistant to intranasal challenge with the virulent mycoplasma strain. Studies on mice inoculated intravenously with the two strains of M. pulmonis indicated that persistance of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tract may be important in inducing resistance to intranasal challenge with M. pulmonis. These observations, together with the lack of correlation between the level of serum antibodies and resistance to M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease, suggested that local immune mechanisms were important in resistance. It is proposed that an effective vaccination schedule to protect mice against M. pulmonis-induced respiratory disease may be one that stimulates both systemic and local immune defenses. This suggestion is supported by the observation that systemic followed by local administration of inactivated M. pulmonis was more effective in inducing resistance in mice to intranasal challenge with live organisms than was systemic administration alone. In addition...

‣ Age-related changes in membrane lipid composition, fluidity and respiratory burst in rat peritoneal neutrophils

Alvarez, E; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Sobrino, F; Santa-María, C
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
The O·2− production has been studied in rat peritoneal neutrophils of different age (3, 12 and 24 months), in order to analyse whether the neutrophil respiratory burst is modified with increasing age. To stimulate NADPH oxidase, the enzyme responsible for the respiratory burst, two stimuli that act in different way have been used: phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (N-FMLP). Production of O·2− decreased with age in neutrophils stimulated with N-FMLP (about 40%), but not in the stimulated with PMA. No difference in NADPH oxidase activity was found with age. The NADPH is supplied to the respiratory burst mainly by the pentose phosphate shunt. A progressive and significant decrease in the two most important enzymes of this route, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, was detected as a function of age; in spite of this reduction, the NADPH produced by cells from old animals seems not limiting for the O·2− production. The N-FMLP-induced decrease in the O·2− production may be related to the age-dependent increase in the membrane fluidity observed. A decline in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and a rise in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids content were found...

‣ Modulation of Respiratory TLR3-Anti-Viral Response by Probiotic Microorganisms: Lessons Learned from Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505

Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28652%
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Host immune response is implicated in both protective and immunopathological mechanisms during RSV infection. Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 in innate immune cells by RSV can induce airway inflammation, protective immune response, and pulmonary immunopathology. A clear understanding of RSV–host interaction is important for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies. Several studies have centered on whether probiotic microorganisms with the capacity to stimulate the immune system (immunobiotics) might sufficiently stimulate the common mucosal immune system to improve defenses in the respiratory tract. In this regard, it was demonstrated that some orally administered immunobiotics do have the ability to stimulate respiratory immunity and increase resistance to viral infections. Moreover, during the last decade scientists have significantly advanced in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics in the respiratory tract. This review examines the most recent advances dealing with the use of immunobiotic bacteria to improve resistance against viral respiratory infections. More specifically...

‣ Mold Allergens in Respiratory Allergy: From Structure to Therapy

Twaroch, Teresa E; Curin, Mirela; Valenta, Rudolf; Swoboda, Ines
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fungi can act as indoor and outdoor respiratory allergen sources, and depending on climate conditions, the rates of sensitization in individuals attending allergy clinics range from 5% to 20%. Due to the poor quality of natural fungal allergen extracts, diagnosis of fungal allergy is hampered, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is rarely given. Several factors are responsible for the poor quality of natural fungal extracts, among which the influence of culture conditions on allergen contents. However, molecular cloning techniques have allowed us to isolate DNAs coding for fungal allergens and to produce a continuously growing panel of recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of fungal allergy. Moreover, technologies are now available for the preparation of recombinant and synthetic fungal allergen derivatives which can be used to develop safe vaccines for the treatment of fungal allergy.

‣ Therapeutic Immunoglobulin Selected for High Antibody Titer to RSV also Contains High Antibody Titers to Other Respiratory Viruses

Orange, Jordan S.; Du, Wei; Falsey, Ann R.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
Specific antibodies against infections most relevant to patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases are not routinely evaluated in commercial polyclonal immunoglobulin preparations. A polyclonal immunoglobulin prepared from plasma of donors having high neutralizing antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was studied for the presence of antibody titers against seven additional respiratory viruses. While donors were not selected for antibody titers other than against RSV, the immunoglobulin preparation had significantly higher titers to 6 of 7 viruses compared to those present in 10 commercially available therapeutic immunoglobulin products (p ≤ 0.01 to p ≤ 0.001). To consider this as a donor-specific attribute, 20 random donor plasma samples were studied individually and identified a significant correlation between the RSV antibody titer and other respiratory virus titers: donors with high RSV titers were more likely to have higher titers to other respiratory viruses. These findings suggest either some humoral antiviral response bias or more frequent viral exposure of certain individuals.

‣ Mucosal immunology down under: Special interest group in mucosal immunology workshop, Australasian Society for Immunology, Sydney, Australia, 2 December 2007

Cripps, A.; Sutton, P.; Beagley, K.; Robertson, S.; Dunkely, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.805723%
The Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group (SIG-MI) of the Australasian Society of Immunology was formed 14 years ago and has run regular symposia and workshops in conjunction with the Australasian Society of Immunology since that time. In December 2007 the Mucosal Immunology Special Interest Group held a 1-day satellite workshop in conjunction with the annual Australasian Society of Immunology scientific meeting in Sydney to celebrate the decade since hosting the 9th International Congress of Mucosal Immunology (9-ICMI) in 1997, which was also held in Sydney. The meeting that was attended by 65 delegates focussed on 4 session themes: reproductive immunology, respiratory immunology, mucosal immunology of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal vaccines.; Allan W Cripps, Philip Sutton, Ken Beagley, Sarah Robertson and Margaret Dunkley

‣ Models of Respiratory Infections: Virus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations and Beyond

Saturni, Sara; Contoli, Marco; Spanevello, Antonio; Papi, Alberto
Fonte: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease Publicador: The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology; The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
Respiratory infections are one of the main health problems worldwide. They are a challenging field of study due to an intricate relationship between the pathogenicity of microbes and the host's defenses. To better understand mechanisms of respiratory infections, different models have been developed. A model is the reproduction of a disease in a system that mimics human pathophysiology. For this reason, the best models should closely resemble real-life conditions. Thus, the human model is the best. However, human models of respiratory infections have some disadvantages that limit their role. Therefore, other models, including animal, in vitro, and mathematical ones, have been developed. We will discuss advantages and limitations of available models and focus on models of viral infections as triggers of asthma exacerbations, viral infections being one of the most frequent causes of exacerbating disease. Future studies should focus on the interrelation of various models.

‣ Antibody Responses of Cattle with Respiratory Coronavirus Infections during Pathogenesis of Shipping Fever Pneumonia Are Lower with Antigens of Enteric Strains than with Those of a Respiratory Strain

Lin, Xiao-Qing; O'Reilly, Kathy L.; Storz, Johannes
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.185688%
The serum antibody responses of cattle with respiratory coronavirus infections during the pathogenesis of shipping fever pneumonia were analyzed with different bovine coronavirus antigens, including those from a wild-type respiratory bovine coronavirus (RBCV) strain (97TXSF-Lu 15-2) directly isolated from lung tissue from a fatally infected bovine, a wild-type enteropathogenic bovine coronavirus (EBCV) strain (Ly 138-3), and the highly cell culture-adapted, enteric prototype strain (EBCV L9-81). Infectivity-neutralizing (IN) and hemagglutinin-inhibiting (HAI) activities were tested. Sequential serum samples, collected during the onset of the respiratory coronavirus infection and at weekly intervals for 5 weeks thereafter, had significantly higher IN and HAI titers for antigens of RBCV strain 97TXSF-Lu15-2 than for the wild-type and the highly cell culture-adapted EBCV strains, with P values ranging from <0.0001 to 0.0483. The IN and HAI antibody responses against the two EBCV strains did not differ significantly, but the lowest titers were detected with EBCV strain L9-81.

‣ Quantification of the Respiratory Burst Response as an Indicator of Innate Immune Health in Zebrafish

Goody, Michelle F.; Peterman, Eric; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol H.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.228635%
The phagocyte respiratory burst is part of the innate immune response to pathogen infection and involves the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are toxic and function to kill phagocytized microorganisms. In vivo quantification of phagocyte-derived ROS provides information regarding an organism's ability to mount a robust innate immune response. Here we describe a protocol to quantify and compare ROS in whole zebrafish embryos upon chemical induction of the phagocyte respiratory burst. This method makes use of a non-fluorescent compound that becomes fluorescent upon oxidation by ROS. Individual zebrafish embryos are pipetted into the wells of a microplate and incubated in this fluorogenic substrate with or without a chemical inducer of the respiratory burst. Fluorescence in each well is quantified at desired time points using a microplate reader. Fluorescence readings are adjusted to eliminate background fluorescence and then compared using an unpaired t-test. This method allows for comparison of the respiratory burst potential of zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages and in response to experimental manipulations such as protein knockdown, overexpression, or treatment with pharmacological agents. This method can also be used to monitor the respiratory burst response in whole dissected kidneys or cell preparations from kidneys of adult zebrafish and some other fish species. We believe that the relative simplicity and adaptability of this protocol will complement existing protocols and will be of interest to researchers who seek to better understand the innate immune response.

‣ Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, María Hortensia del Rosario; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Koichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Gladis Susana; Villena, Julio Cesar
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.0855%
Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. Objective: the aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Results: nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. Conclusions: the present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges...

‣ Immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves resistance of infant mice against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Eriko, Chiba; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Vizoso Pinto, María Guadalupe; Salva, Maria Susana; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Gladis Susana; Villena, Julio Cesar
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.976372%
Previously we showed that orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 beneficially regulated the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the lungs of poly(I:C)-challenged mice, allowing an effective inflammatory response against the TLR3/RIG-I agonist but at the same time reducing tissue damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral administration of the CRL1505 strain was able to improve resistance against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infant mice and to evaluate the immunological mechanisms involved in the immunobiotic effect. We demonstrated that treatment of 3-week old BALB/c mice with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 significantly reduce lung viral loads and tissue injuries after the challenge with RSV. Moreover, we showed that the protective effect achieved by the CRL1505 strain is related to its capacity to differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune response. Our results shows that IFN-γ and IL-10 secreted in response to L. rhamnosus CRL1505 oral stimulation would modulate the pulmonary innate immune microenvironment conducting to the activation of CD103+ and CD11bhigh dendritic cells and the generation of CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ Th1 cells with the consequent attenuation of the strong and damaging Th2 reactions associated with RSV challenge. Our results indicate that modulation of the common mucosal immune system by immunobiotics could favor protective immunity against respiratory viral pathogens with a high attack rate in early infancy...

‣ Prevenção das infecções pelo vírus sincicial respiratório; Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections

Bricks, Lucia Ferro
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.349668%
Em todo o mundo, o vírus sincicial respiratório é o principal agente de infecções agudas das vias aéreas baixas em lactentes jovens e crianças. Aos dois anos de idade, praticamente todas as crianças já foram infectadas, e as reinfeções são comuns, durante toda a vida. Embora a maioria das infecções seja leve, o vírus sincicial respiratório pode causar doenças graves, especialmente em prematuros com displasia broncopulmonar e, nos últimos anos, tem sido identificado como causa importante de infeções respiratórias em pessoas que apresentam comprometimento da imunidade ou outros problemas médicos e em idosos hospitalizados. O impacto econômico dessas infecções faz com que o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra o vírus sincicial respiratório seja altamente desejável, entretanto, o insucesso da primeira vacina inativada contra esse agente dificultou os progressos nesse campo e, até o presente, não há nenhuma vacina licenciada contra o vírus sincicial respiratório. Nos últimos anos, entretanto, o melhor entendimento sobre imunologia e os mecanismos imunopatológicos envolvidos na resposta ao vírus sincicial respiratório propiciaram o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a profilaxia ativa e passiva contra essas infecções. Neste artigo...

‣ As alergias respiratórias; Respiratory allergies

Galvão, Clóvis Eduardo Santos; Castro, Fábio F. Morato
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.228635%
As alergias respiratórias, que clinicamente compreendem asma e rinite, caracterizam-se por uma reação de hipersensibilidade tipo I, pois resultam da interação de alérgenos ambientais com anticorpos IgE específicos. São doenças multifatoriais causadas pela interação de fatores genéticos e exposição a fatores ambientais. O processo inflamatório é considerado atualmente o principal evento fisiopatológico. O diagnóstico preciso com identificação do(s) alérgeno(s) envolvido(s) (determinação de IgE específica in vivo ou in vitro), a intensidade dos sintomas, e o conhecimento da fisiopatologia são os elementos básicos para se estabelecer o melhor tratamento.Os estudos mostram que, com medicação apropriada, orientação e educação adequadas,as alergias respiratórias podem ser bem controladas com prejuízo mínimo da qualidade devida do paciente. Existem evidências clínicas, epidemiológicas e fisiopatológicas mostrando forte associação entre asma, rinite e sinusite (ou rinossinusite) e polipose nasal, o que tem levado alguns estudiosos a propor termos que indiquem a íntima inter-relação entre estes processos,como vias aéreas unidas. A OMS e outras sociedades de especialidades, implementaram a iniciativa ARIA (Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma) com os objetivos de avaliar melhor a inter-relação rinite/asma...

‣ Respiratory syncytial virus infection: denominator-based studies in Indonesia, Mozambique, Nigeria and South Africa

Robertson,Susan E.; Roca,Anna; Alonso,Pedro; Simoes,Eric A.F.; Kartasasmita,Cissy B.; Olaleye,David O.; Odaibo,Georgina N; Collinson,Mark; Venter,Marietjie; Zhu,Yuwei; Wright,Peter F.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28652%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory infections (LRI) in children in four developing countries. METHODS: A WHO protocol for prospective population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections in children aged less than 5 years was used at sites in Indonesia, Mozambique, Nigeria and South Africa. RSV antigen was identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on nasopharyngeal specimens from children meeting clinical case definitions. FINDINGS: Among children aged < 5 years, the incidence of RSV-associated LRI per 1000 child-years was 34 in Indonesia and 94 in Nigeria. The incidence of RSV-associated severe LRI per 1000 child-years was 5 in Mozambique, 10 in Indonesia, and 9 in South Africa. At all study sites, the majority of RSV cases occurred in infants. CONCLUSION: These studies demonstrate that RSV contributes to a substantial but quite variable burden of LRI in children aged < 5 years in four developing countries. The possible explanations for this variation include social factors, such as family size and patterns of seeking health care; the proportion of children infected by human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV); and differences in clinical definitions used for obtaining samples. The age distribution of cases indicates the need for an RSV vaccine that can protect children early in life.