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‣ Onset Rivalry: Brief Presentation Isolates an Early Independent Phase of Perceptual Competition

Carter, Olivia; Cavanagh, Patrick
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2007 Português
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When the left and right eyes are simultaneously presented with different images, observers typically report exclusive awareness of only one image. This phenomenon is termed binocular rivalry, reflecting the fact that the dominant image alternates every few seconds in a cycle of perceptual competition that continues indefinitely. Despite the apparent continuity in perceptual switching, we now demonstrate that the initial “onset” period is fundamentally different to all subsequent rivalry epochs. Using brief intermittent presentations, rivalry dominance shows strong biases such that the same target is perceived with each successive stimulus onset. These biases remain consistent within any given location, but vary across the visual field in a distribution that is stable over multiple weeks but highly idiosyncratic across observers. If the presentation exceeds ∼1sec at any location, however, the very different and much more balanced alternations of sustained binocular rivalry become apparent. These powerful onset biases are observed with brief intermittent presentations at a single location or with continual smooth motion of the targets. Periods of adaptation to one of the rivaling targets induced local switches in dominance to the non-adapted target. However...

‣ Nonlinear SSVEP responses are sensitive to the perceptual binding of visual hemifields during conventional ‘eye’ rivalry and interocular ‘percept’ rivalry

Sutoyo, David; Srinivasan, Ramesh
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We conducted behavioral and EEG experiments to identify physiological correlates of perceptual binding during two types of binocular rivalry: (1) conventional ‘eye’ rivalry where perception alternates between the two monocular images presented one to each eye and (2) interocular ‘percept’ rivalry, where perception alternates between percepts formed by grouping complementary hemifields one from each eye. We employed ‘frequency-tagging’ by flickering a grating in each hemifield of each eye at different frequencies to elicit SSVEP responses specific to each hemifield of each eye. When the gratings in complementary visual fields of the two eyes were congruent in color and orientation, robust interocular ‘percept’ rivalry was observed with roughly equal probability to conventional ‘eye’ rivalry. The SSVEPs evoked by the flickering gratings were enhanced by conscious perception at both posterior and frontal electrodes only during conventional ‘eye’ rivalry and not during interocular ‘percept’ rivalry, suggesting that dominance of one eye is the basis of most previous reports of SSVEP modulation by conscious perception. We also observed nonlinear SSVEP responses at the sums of our four fundamental frequencies. These combination responses were only produced by flicker in complementary visual hemifields – in the same eye or across eyes...

‣ Genetic contribution to individual variation in binocular rivalry rate

Miller, Steven M.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Ngo, Trung T.; Liu, Guang B.; Pettigrew, John D.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Binocular rivalry occurs when conflicting images are presented in corresponding locations of the two eyes. Perception alternates between the images at a rate that is relatively stable within individuals but that varies widely between individuals. The determinants of this variation are unknown. In addition, slow binocular rivalry has been demonstrated in bipolar disorder, a psychiatric condition with high heritability. The present study therefore examined whether there is a genetic contribution to individual variation in binocular rivalry rate. We employed the twin method and studied both monozygotic (MZ) twins (n = 128 pairs) who are genetically identical, and dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 220 pairs) who share roughly half their genes. MZ and DZ twin correlations for binocular rivalry rate were 0.51 and 0.19, respectively. The best-fitting genetic model showed 52% of the variance in binocular rivalry rate was accounted for by additive genetic factors. In contrast, nonshared environmental influences accounted for 18% of the variance, with the remainder attributed to measurement error. This study therefore demonstrates a substantial genetic contribution to individual variation in binocular rivalry rate. The results support the vigorous pursuit of genetic and molecular studies of binocular rivalry and further characterization of slow binocular rivalry as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder.

‣ Bistable Percepts in the Brain: fMRI Contrasts Monocular Pattern Rivalry and Binocular Rivalry

Buckthought, Athena; Jessula, Samuel; Mendola, Janine D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/05/2011 Português
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The neural correlates of binocular rivalry have been actively debated in recent years, and are of considerable interest as they may shed light on mechanisms of conscious awareness. In a related phenomenon, monocular rivalry, a composite image is shown to both eyes. The subject experiences perceptual alternations in which the two stimulus components alternate in clarity or salience. The experience is similar to perceptual alternations in binocular rivalry, although the reduction in visibility of the suppressed component is greater for binocular rivalry, especially at higher stimulus contrasts. We used fMRI at 3T to image activity in visual cortex while subjects perceived either monocular or binocular rivalry, or a matched non-rivalrous control condition. The stimulus patterns were left/right oblique gratings with the luminance contrast set at 9%, 18% or 36%. Compared to a blank screen, both binocular and monocular rivalry showed a U-shaped function of activation as a function of stimulus contrast, i.e. higher activity for most areas at 9% and 36%. The sites of cortical activation for monocular rivalry included occipital pole (V1, V2, V3), ventral temporal, and superior parietal cortex. The additional areas for binocular rivalry included lateral occipital regions...

‣ What is Grouping during Binocular Rivalry?

Stuit, Sjoerd M.; Paffen, Chris L. E.; van der Smagt, Maarten J.; Verstraten, Frans A. J.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/10/2011 Português
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During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Although perception during rivalry is believed to originate from competition at a local level, different rivalry zones are not independent: rival targets that are spaced apart but have similar features tend to be dominant at the same time. We investigated grouping of spatially separated rival targets presented to the same or to different eyes and presented in the same or in different hemifields. We found eye-of-origin to be the strongest cue for grouping during binocular rivalry. Grouping was additionally affected by orientation: identical orientations were grouped longer than dissimilar orientations, even when presented to different eyes. Our results suggest that eye-based and orientation-based grouping is independent and additive in nature. Grouping effects were further modulated by the distribution of the targets across the visual field. That is, grouping within the same hemifield can be stronger or weaker than between hemifields, depending on the eye-of-origin of the grouped targets. We also quantified the contribution of the previous cues to grouping of two images during binocular rivalry. These quantifications can be successfully used to predict the dominance durations of different studies. Incorporating the relative contribution of different cues to grouping...

‣ Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry

Paffen, Chris L. E.; Alais, David
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2011 Português
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Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention influence perceptual dominance during rivalry, (3) diverting attention from rival displays does not arrest perceptual alternations, and that (4) rival targets by themselves can also attract attention. From a theoretical perspective, we suggest that attention affects binocular rivalry by modulating the effective contrast of the images in competition. This contrast enhancing effect of top-down attention is counteracted by a response attenuating effect of neural adaptation at early levels of visual processing, which weakens the response to the dominant image. Moreover, we conclude that although frontal and parietal brain areas involved in both binocular rivalry and visual attention overlap, an adapting reciprocal inhibition arrangement at early visual cortex is sufficient to trigger switches in perceptual dominance independently of a higher-level “selection” mechanisms. Both of these processes are reciprocal and therefore self-balancing...

‣ High-Level Binocular Rivalry Effects

Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels...

‣ Understanding Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry: A Framework Based on Biased Competition

Dieter, Kevin Conrad; Tadin, Duje
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2011 Português
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Starting from early scientific explorations of binocular rivalry, researchers have wondered about the degree to which an observer can exert voluntary attentional control over rivalry dynamics. The answer to this question would not only reveal the extent to which we may determine our own conscious visual experience, but also advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying binocular rivalry. Classic studies, intriguingly, reached contradictory conclusions, ranging from an absence of attentional control, as advocated by Breese, to nearly complete control of rivalry dynamics, as reported by Helmholtz. Recent investigations have revisited this question, but the results have continued to echo the conflicting findings of earlier studies, seemingly precluding a comprehensive understanding of attentional effects on rivalry. Here, we review both classic and modern studies, and propose a unifying framework derived from the biased competition theory of attention. The key assumption of this theory is that the nature of stimulus conflict determines the limits of attentional modulation. For example, a condition in which unresolved stimulus conflict transpires through many levels of visual processing should be very susceptible to attentional control. When applied to binocular rivalry...

‣ Temporal Analysis of Image-Rivalry Suppression

Bhardwaj, Rishi; O’Shea, Robert P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2012 Português
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During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between two different images presented one to each eye. At any moment, one image is visible, dominant, while the other is invisible, suppressed. Alternations in perception during rivalry could involve competition between eyes, eye-rivalry, or between images, image-rivalry, or both. We measured response criteria, sensitivities, and thresholds to brief contrast increments to one of the rival stimuli in conventional rivalry displays and in a display in which the rival stimuli swapped between the eyes every 333 ms–swap rivalry–that necessarily involves image rivalry. We compared the sensitivity and threshold measures in dominance and suppression to assess the strength of suppression. We found that response criteria are essentially the same during dominance and suppression for the two sorts of rivalry. Critically, we found that swap-rivalry suppression is weak after a swap and strengthens throughout the swap interval. We propose that image rivalry is responsible for weak initial suppression immediately after a swap and that eye rivalry is responsible for the stronger suppression that comes later.

‣ Onset Rivalry: The Initial Dominance Phase Is Independent Of Ongoing Perceptual Alternations

Stanley, Jody; Forte, Jason D.; Carter, Olivia; Cavanagh, Patrick
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Binocular rivalry has been used to study a wide range of visual processes, from the integration of low-level features to the selection of signals that reach awareness. However, many of these studies do not distinguish between early and late phases of rivalry. There is clear evidence that the “onset” stage of rivalry is characterized by stable, yet idiosyncratic biases that are not evident in the average dominance of sustained rivalry viewing. Low-level stimulus features also have robust effects in the onset phase that are not seen in sustained rivalry, suggesting these phases may be driven at least partly by different neural mechanisms. The effects of high-level cognitive and affective factors at onset are less clear but also show differences from their effects in sustained viewing. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of any rivalry experiments using brief presentation paradigms and for understanding how the brain copes with binocular discrepancies in natural viewing conditions in which our eyes constantly move around an ever-changing environment. This review will summarize current research and explore the factors influencing this “onset” stage.; Psychology

‣ Essays on Interservice Rivalry and American Civil-Military Relations

Blankshain, Jessica Deighan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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How does interservice rivalry affect American civil-military relations? In three essays, I develop theoretical propositions about the relationship between interservice rivalry and civil-military outcomes; propose a two-stage model of civil-military interaction surrounding use of force decisions; and investigate the correlates of interservice rivalry with a focus on budget pressure.

‣ The Role of Attention in Binocular Rivalry as Revealed Through Optokinetic Nystagmus

Leopold, D.A.; Fitzgibbons, J.C.; Logothetis, N.K.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 789399 bytes; 907740 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
Português
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When stimuli presented to the two eyes differ considerably, stable binocular fusion fails, and the subjective percept alternates between the two monocular images, a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. The influence of attention over this perceptual switching has long been studied, and although there is evidence that attention can affect the alternation rate, its role in the overall dynamics of the rivalry process remains unclear. The present study investigated the relationship between the attention paid to the rivalry stimulus, and the dynamics of the perceptual alternations. Specifically, the temporal course of binocular rivalry was studied as the subjects performed difficult nonvisual and visual concurrent tasks, directing their attention away from the rivalry stimulus. Periods of complete perceptual dominance were compared for the attended condition, where the subjects reported perceptual changes, and the unattended condition, where one of the simultaneous tasks was performed. During both the attended and unattended conditions, phases of rivalry dominance were obtained by analyzing the subject"s optokinetic nystagmus recorded by an electrooculogram, where the polarity of the nystagmus served as an objective indicator of the perceived direction of motion. In all cases...

‣ Motion streaks in fast motion rivalry cause orientation-selective suppression

Apthorp, Deborah; Wenderoth, Peter; Alais, David
Fonte: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Publicador: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We studied binocular rivalry between orthogonally translating arrays of random Gaussian blobs and measured the strength of rivalry suppression for static oriented probes. Suppression depth was quantified by expressing monocular probe thresholds during dominance relative to thresholds during suppression. Rivalry between two fast motions or two slow motions was compared in order to test the suggestion that fast-moving objects leave oriented "motion streaks" due to temporal integration (W. S. Geisler, 1999). If fast motions do produce motion streaks, then fast motion rivalry might also entail rivalry between the orthogonal streak orientations. We tested this using a static oriented probe that was aligned either parallel to the motion trajectory (hence collinear with the "streaks") or was orthogonal to the trajectory, predicting that rivalry suppression would be greater for parallel probes, and only for rivalry between fast motions. Results confirmed that suppression depth did depend on probe orientation for fast motion but not for slow motion. Further experiments showed that threshold elevations for the oriented probe during suppression exhibited clear orientation tuning. However, orientation-tuned elevations were also present during dominance...

‣ Semantic rivalry between affixes: the case of Portuguese nominalisers

Rodrigues, Alexandra Soares
Fonte: University of Patras Publicador: University of Patras
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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In Portuguese there are different suffixes that permit us to construct event deverbal nouns. Those affixes may adjoin the same verbal base.Albeit deriving event nouns, the meanings of the derivatives of these suffixes are slightly different. We intend to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that are involved in affix semantic rivalry, specifically to the knowledge of the semantic features of the verbal base that are sensitive to the semantics of each affix.

‣ The tragedy of the commons, the public goods dilemma, and the meaning of rivalry and excludability in evolutionary biology

Dionisio, F.; Gordo, I.
Fonte: Evolutionary Ecology Publicador: Evolutionary Ecology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Problem: In the study of conflicts, both economists and evolutionary biologists use the concepts ‘tragedy of the commons’ and ‘public goods dilemma’. What is the relationship between the economist and evolutionist views of these concepts? Model features: The economics literature defines the tragedy of the commons and the public goods dilemma in terms of rivalry and excludability of the good. In contrast, evolutionists define these conflicts based on fitness functions with two components: individual and group components of fitness. Mathematical method: Evolutionary game theory and the calculation of evolutionarily stable strategy trait values by standard optimization techniques and by replacing slopes of group phenotype on individual genotype by coefficients of relatedness. Conclusion: There is a direct relationship between rivalry and the individual component of fitness and between excludability and the group component of fitness. Moreover, although the prisoner’s dilemma constitutes a suitable metaphor to analyse both the public goods dilemma and the tragedy of the commons, it gives the false idea that the two conflicts are symmetric since they refer to situations in which individuals consume a common resource – tragedy of the commons – or contribute to a collective action or common good – public goods dilemma. However...

‣ Can eye of origin serve as a deviant? Visual mismatch negativity from binocular rivalry

van Rhijn, Manja; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2013 Português
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The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a negative deflection in an event-related potential (ERP) between 200 and 400 ms after onset of an infrequent stimulus in a sequence of frequent stimuli. Binocular rivalry occurs when one image is presented to one eye and a different image is presented to the other. Although the images in the two eyes are unchanging, perception alternates unpredictably between the two images for as long as one cares to look. Binocular rivalry, therefore, provides a useful test of whether the vMMN is produced by low levels of the visual system at which the images are processed, or by higher levels at which perception is mediated. To investigate whether a vMMN can be evoked during binocular rivalry, we showed 80% standards comprising a vertical grating to one eye and a horizontal grating to the other and 20% deviants, in which the gratings either swapped between the eyes (eye-swap deviants) or changed their orientations by 45° (oblique deviants). Fourteen participants observed the stimuli in 16, 4-min blocks. In eight consecutive blocks, participants recorded their experiences of rivalry by pressing keys—we call this the attend-to-rivalry condition. In the remaining eight consecutive blocks, participants performed a demanding task at fixation (a 2-back task)...

‣ General Validity of Levelt's Propositions Reveals Common Computational Mechanisms for Visual Rivalry

Klink, P. Christiaan; van Ee, Raymond; van Wezel, Richard J. A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2008 Português
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The mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception are often studied with either binocular rivalry or perceptual rivalry stimuli. Despite existing research into both types of rivalry, it remains unclear to what extent their underlying mechanisms involve common computational rules. Computational models of binocular rivalry mechanisms are generally tested against Levelt's four propositions, describing the psychophysical relation between stimulus strength and alternation dynamics in binocular rivalry. Here we use a bistable rotating structure-from-motion sphere, a generally studied form of perceptual rivalry, to demonstrate that Levelt's propositions also apply to the alternation dynamics of perceptual rivalry. Importantly, these findings suggest that bistability in structure-from-motion results from active cross-inhibition between neural populations with computational principles similar to those present in binocular rivalry. Thus, although the neural input to the computational mechanism of rivalry may stem from different cortical neurons and different cognitive levels the computational principles just prior to the production of visual awareness appear to be common to the two types of rivalry.

‣ Binocular Onset Rivalry at the Time of Saccades and Stimulus Jumps

Kalisvaart, Joke P.; Rampersad, Sumientra M.; Goossens, Jeroen
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2011 Português
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Recent studies suggest that binocular rivalry at stimulus onset, so called onset rivalry, differs from rivalry during sustained viewing. These observations raise the interesting question whether there is a relation between onset rivalry and rivalry in the presence of eye movements. We therefore studied binocular rivalry when stimuli jumped from one visual hemifield to the other, either through a saccade or through a passive stimulus displacement, and we compared rivalry after such displacements with onset and sustained rivalry. We presented opponent motion, orthogonal gratings and face/house stimuli through a stereoscope. For all three stimulus types we found that subjects showed a strong preference for stimuli in one eye or one hemifield (Experiment 1), and that these subject-specific biases did not persist during sustained viewing (Experiment 2). These results confirm and extend previous findings obtained with gratings. The results from the main experiment (Experiment 3) showed that after a passive stimulus jump, switching probability was low when the preferred eye was dominant before a stimulus jump, but when the non-preferred eye was dominant beforehand, switching probability was comparatively high. The results thus showed that dominance after a stimulus jump was tightly related to eye dominance at stimulus onset. In the saccade condition...

‣ Reduced Perceptual Exclusivity during Object and Grating Rivalry in Autism

Freyberg, J.; Robertson, C. E.; Baron-Cohen, S.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology via http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/15.13.11; Background: The dynamics of binocular rivalry may be a behavioural footprint of excitatory and inhibitory neural transmission in visual cortex. Given the presence of atypical visual features in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), and evidence in support of the idea of an imbalance in excitatory/inhibitory neural transmission in ASC, we hypothesized that binocular rivalry might prove a simple behavioural marker of such a transmission imbalance in the autistic brain. In support of this hypothesis, we previously reported a slower rate of rivalry in ASC, driven by reduced perceptual exclusivity. Methods: We tested whether atypical dynamics of binocular rivalry in ASC are specific to certain stimulus features. 53 participants (26 with ASC, matched for age, sex and IQ) participated in binocular rivalry experiments in which the dynamics of rivalry were measured at two levels of stimulus complexity, low (grayscale gratings) and high (coloured objects). Results: Individuals with ASC experienced a slower rate of rivalry, driven by longer transitional states between dominant percepts. These exaggerated transitional states were present at both low and high levels of stimulus complexity...

‣ Removal of monocular interactions equates rivalry behavior for monocular, binocular, and stimulus rivalries

van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Knapen, Tomas; Erkelens, Casper J.; van Ee, Raymond
Fonte: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Publicador: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2008 Português
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When the two eyes are presented with conflicting stimuli, perception starts to fluctuate over time (i.e., binocular rivalry). A similar fluctuation occurs when two patterns are presented to a single eye (i.e., monocular rivalry), or when they are swapped rapidly and repeatedly between the eyes (i.e., stimulus rivalry). Although all these cases lead to rivalry, in quantitative terms these modes of rivalry are generally found to differ significantly. We studied these different modes of rivalry with identical intermittently shown stimuli while varying the temporal layout of stimulation. We show that the quantitative differences between the modes of rivalry are caused by the presence of monocular interactions between the rivaling patterns; the introduction of a blank period just before a stimulus swap changed the number of rivalry reports to the extent that monocular and stimulus rivalries were inducible over ranges of spatial frequency content and contrast values that were nearly identical to binocular rivalry. Moreover when monocular interactions did not occur the perceptual dynamics of monocular, binocular, and stimulus rivalries were statistically indistinguishable. This range of identical behavior exhibited a monocular (∼50 ms) and a binocular (∼350 ms) limit. We argue that a common binocular...