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‣ Violência sexual contra crianças  e adolescentes mediada pela tecnologia da informação e comunicação: elementos para a prevenção vitimal; Sexual violence against children mediated by ICT: elements for its victimal prevention.

Bretan, Maria Emilia Accioli Nobre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A Tecnologia da Informação e Comunicação (TIC) é parte elementar da revolução tecnológica sem precedentes que caracteriza a sociedade em rede (Castells) e que vem acompanhada de transformações sociais, culturais e econômicas em diversos níveis. Ao mesmo tempo em que apresenta inegáveis benefícios, como a comunicação sem fronteiras, a revolução tecnológica nos coloca desafios também globais. Dentre esses, se encontra a violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes, multifacetada, global e interconectada. Com o uso da TIC cada vez mais disseminado dentre as crianças e adolescentes brasileiras, os riscos de aliciamento e abuso sexual on-line, agrupados na pesquisa na categoria de violência sexual mediada pela TIC, atingem a todas; porém, crianças e adolescentes pertencentes às classes sociais mais baixas são as mais vulneráveis. Aos riscos reais somam-se a sensação de insegurança e o clamor por punição evocado por grande parte da sociedade e estimulado pela mídia. Sob a denominação de luta contra a pedofilia na internet prevalecem no Brasil, medidas de ordem punitiva, como criação de novos tipos penais e aumento de penas. A dinâmica da violência sexual mediada pela TIC, porém, indica o papel essencial que as vítimas desempenham para o sucesso do aliciamento ou do abuso on-line; no entanto...

‣ Criança vítima de pedofilia: fatores de risco e danos sofridos; Pedophilia victim child: risk factors and damage suffered

Machado, Talita Ferreira Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.87501%
A temática da pedofilia é complexa, polêmica e emergente. A pedofilia, no entanto, não implica necessariamente no cometimento de atos abusivos contra as crianças, sendo possível que as fantasias sexuais do pedófilo jamais saiam de sua mente. Por outro lado, caso referido distúrbio sexual ultrapasse os limites do imaginário do indivíduo que dele é portador, estará configurado o abuso sexual infantil. Relevante observar que não apenas o indivíduo portador de pedofilia pratica atos que caracterizam abuso sexual infantil, mas também os denominados abusadores oportunistas ou ocasionais. Na relação pedófilo-criança, a opção pelo estudo da criança neste trabalho justifica-se, sobretudo, porque é ela quem ocupa a posição de vítima e, como tal, não se duvida que seus prejuízos sejam maiores em decorrência dos atos abusivos praticados. De fato, relevante assumir um olhar benevolente para aquela que, subjugada pelo abuso, necessita, de alguma forma, encontrar amparo que a possa resgatar dessa situação. Menciona-se, nesta dissertação, que historicamente as crianças sempre foram vítimas de atos de violência e que a temática do abuso sexual infantil compreende outras noções igualmente polêmicas, dentre as quais se podem destacar a sexualidade infantil e o incesto. Nesse passo...

‣ As (des)razões da irracionalidade : uma análise conceitual do auto-engano, da consciência inconsciente e de outros paradoxos do discurso psicanalítico; (Un)Reasons of irrationality : a conceptual analysis of self-deception, unconscious consciousness, and other paradoxes of psychoanalytic discourse

Palma, Jorge Luiz Pennafort
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, Departamento de Psicologia Clínica, 2010.; Nesse estudo, são analisados alguns argumentos a favor da construção do inconsciente psicanalítico como Segunda Mente. Por Segunda Mente, refiro-me a um sistema racional que influencia o sistema da consciência do mesmo modo em que uma pessoa influencia as ações de outra. A fim de explicar essa hipótese exótica, as idéias de Davidson sobre os fenômenos irracionais e sobre como explicá-los são apresentadas em detalhe. Uma vez que, na abordagem de Davidson, a irracionalidade ordinária e a irracionalidade psicanalítica são assimiladas, algumas formas típicas da irracionalidade ordinária, especialmente o auto-engano, são consideradas. Após esses esclarecimentos preliminares, a bem-conhecida crítica de Sartre à psicanálise é apresentada sob a forma de um argumento contra um modo peculiar de conceber a psicanálise, ou seja, como uma teoria que supões várias centrais subsistêmicas dotadas de racionalidade. Essa crítica será complementada pelas idéias de Wittgenstein acerca dos critérios de atribuição de predicados psicológicos a fim de formar um argumento completo contra a noção de que o inconsciente psicanalítico é uma Segunda Mente. Depois de descartada essa noção problemática...

‣ Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Brain Size in Primates

Schillaci, Michael A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.547515%
Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

‣ Mate-Searching Behaviour of Common and Rare Wasps and the Implications for Pollen Movement of the Sexually Deceptive Orchids They Pollinate

Menz, Myles H. M.; Phillips, Ryan D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod; Didham, Raphael K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.902417%
Pollinator behaviour directly affects patterns of pollen movement and outcrossing rates in plants. In orchids pollinated by sexual deception of insects, patterns of pollen movement are primarily determined by the mate-searching behaviour of the deceived males. Here, using a capture-mark-recapture study (CMR) and dietary analysis, we compare mate-searching behaviour in relation to local abundance of two pollinator species and explore the implications for pollen movement in sexually deceptive Drakaea (Orchidaceae). Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. The rare Drakaea elastica and widespread D. livida occur sympatrically and are pollinated by the rare but locally common Zaspilothynnus gilesi, and the widespread and abundant Z. nigripes, respectively. Local abundance was significantly different with Z. nigripes twice as abundant as Z. gilesi. For the 653 marked wasps, there was no significant difference in median movement distance between Z. gilesi and Z. nigripes. However, the maximum movement distance was twice as high for Z. gilesi (556 m) compared with Z. nigripes (267 m). This is up to three times greater than previously reported for thynnines in CMR studies. Recapture rates were six times higher in Z. gilesi (57%) compared to Z. nigripes (9%). Pollen loads and wasp longevity were similar...

‣ Tactical deception to hide sexual behaviour: macaques use distance, not visibility

Overduin-de Vries, A. M.; Spruijt, B. M.; de Vries, H.; Sterck, E. H. M.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.252659%
Although tactical deception (TD) may be employed to hide sexual behaviour, there is as yet no firm evidence for it. Hiding may be guided by cognitive mechanisms consistent with either no, low or high level TD, such as exploiting male peripheral positions (no TD), creating distance (TD level 1) or hiding behind screens (TD level 1.5 which involves visual perspective taking (VPT)). Macaques are capable of VPT in a food context, suggesting that they may employ TD level 1.5. We investigated, in an observational study with temporarily provided hiding screens, which strategy was used to hide sexual behaviour in captive groups of two macaque species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). Sexual behaviour only sporadically took place near screens, and the few copulations near screens were not systematically hidden from the alpha male, precluding TD level 1.5. Instead, both females and non-alpha males were at a larger distance from the alpha male during sexual interactions than otherwise, consistent with TD level 1. Creating peripheral locations (TD level 1) may be effective in improving sexual opportunities in many species.

‣ Sexual discourse in the context of AIDS: dominant themes on adolescent sexuality among primary school pupils in Magu district, Tanzania

Nnko, Soori; Pool, Robert
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 25590 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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School pupils in Tanzania have been identified as a risk group for HIV/AIDS, so a large part of TANESA’S anthropological research is aimed at charting and understanding forms of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents with a view to influencing change. This study presents the dominant themes of sexual discourse among adolescent primary school pupils in Magu district along the south-eastern shores of Lake Victoria in Tanzania. The themes are: love and sex; sexual desire; money and rewards; and deception. The fear of pregnancy also emerges as a dominant theme. Because of the nature and extent of their sexual relationships, school pupils will be increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV and STD infection. This is exacerbated by the lack of condom availability and the proscribed nature of sex (and therefore condom use) among primary school pupils.; no

‣ Bees and white spiders: unravelling the pollination syndrome of Caladenia rigida (Orchidaceae)

Faast, R.; Farrington, L.; Facelli, J.; Austin, A.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Orchids of the genus Caladenia have been shown to utilise two quite different pollination strategies, namely species-specific sexual deception of thynnine wasps and a more generalist strategy attracting a larger spectrum of foraging insects. While baiting techniques have enabled the identification of numerous pollinators of sexually deceptive Caladenia, insects that pollinate food-advertising species have received little attention. The present study employed a multidisciplinary approach to better evaluate the pollination syndrome of the white spider orchid, Caladenia rigida R.S.Rogers, a species previously reported to utilise both food and sexual deception. This included the observation and capture of potential pollinators of C. rigida through direct observation, pantraps, Malaise traps and pollinator-baiting experiments, and the use of molecular techniques to identify orchid pollinia isolated from carrier insects. We describe a suite of generalist insects visiting and bearing pollinia from C. rigida. In addition, samples collected from the labellum and column of C. rigida contained sugars at levels comparable to those of a known nectar-producing orchid, Microtis parviflora R.Br. Potential osmophores in the clubs and calli stained positively with neutral red and although this character is often associated with sexual deception...

‣ Implications of pollination by food and sexual deception for pollinator specificity, fruit set, population genetics and conservation of Caladenia (Orchidaceae)

Phillips, R.; Faast, R.; Bower, C.; Brown, G.; Peakall, R.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Caladenia is very unusual in that it contains species that attract pollinators by two different strategies, food and sexual deception. Among the sexually deceptive species, baiting for pollinators has shown that within populations orchid species are typically pollinated by a single species of thynnine wasp. However, some wasp species can be pollinators of more than one species of orchid usually when their ranges do not overlap. There is a trend for closely related orchids to exploit wasps from the same genus, with different lineages of orchids often pollinated by different genera. Very little is known about pollination of food-deceptive Caladenia species, although it is evident they attract a suite of generalist food-seeking insects. Food-deceptive species have a higher pollination rate than do sexually deceptive species. Studies of population genetics and pollen movements are few, although they suggest a pattern of fine-scale genetic structuring within populations, owing to predominantly restricted seed dispersal and low genetic differentiation among populations as a consequence of rare long-distance seed-dispersal events. Both evolutionary and ecological research of Caladenia will greatly benefit from a better understanding of the insect species involved in pollination...

‣ The evolutionary biology of pollination: studies in a genus of australian sexually deceptive orchids

Whitehead, Michael Robert
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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There are few other structures in nature from which evolution has generated such wide diversity as the flower or inflorescence, and this diversity is commonly attributed to the influence of their animal visitors. By outsourcing their mate choice to pollinators, plants have left themselves - and especially their flowers - subject to the selective forces imposed by the behaviour, cognition and perception of the pollinators that serve them. The orchids provide some of the most remarkable and extreme examples of adaptations to specific animal pollinators. Perhaps one of the most peculiar of these strategies is sexual deception, whereby male insects are lured to the flower by mimicry of the female sex pheromone. This seemingly unlikely strategy has evolved multiple times independently on different continents in different parts of the orchid phylogeny which raises the question of what adaptive advantages might underlie such a strategy. This multidisciplinary thesis studies gene flow and pollinator behaviour in two sympatric sexually deceptive orchids in the genus Chiloglottis. The two species attract their specific wasp pollinators through emission of distinct species - specific semiochemicals. Since floral volatiles play a pre-eminent role in pollinator attraction...

‣ Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest

Saul-Gershenz, Leslie S.; Millar, Jocelyn G.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cooperative behaviors are common among social insects such as bees, wasps, ants, and termites, but they have not been reported from insect species that use aggressive mimicry to manipulate and exploit prey or hosts. Here we show that larval aggregations of the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus, which parasitize nests of the solitary bee Habropoda pallida, cooperate to exploit the sexual communication system of their hosts by producing a chemical cue that mimics the sex pheromone of the female bee. Male bees are lured to larval aggregations, and upon contact (pseudocopulation) the beetle larvae attach to the male bees. The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. To mimic the chemical and visual signals of female bees effectively, the parasite larvae must cooperate, emphasizing the adaptive value of cooperation between larvae. The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment.

‣ Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited

Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Wilson, Carol A.; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A.; Mardulyn, Patrick
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings...

‣ Pollinator attractiveness increases with distance from flowering orchids.

Wong, Bob B M; Salzmann, Charlotte; Schiestl, Florian P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.902417%
Orchids are extraordinary among plants because many species are pollinated through sexual duplicity by producing flowers that mimic female insects to lure unsuspecting males. Previous work showed that sexual deception by the orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis can have a negative impact on its wasp pollinator Neozeleboria cryptoides. We report that female wasps may be capable of mitigating the cost of the orchids' deception. Although male wasps quickly habituated to areas planted with unrewarding flower decoys, we found that the effectiveness of the chemical cue used by the wingless females to attract males increases with increasing distance from an orchid patch. The apparent specificity of the males' site-based avoidance strategy means that females emerging in areas occupied by flowering orchids could, potentially, leave the orchid colony by walking to increase their attractiveness.

‣ Sexual deception: Coevolution or inescapable exploitation?

Lehtonen, Jussi; Whitehead, Michael
Fonte: Current Zoology Publicador: Current Zoology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.05252%
Sexual deception involves the mimicry of another species' sexual signals in order to exploit behavioural routines linked to those signals. Known sexually deceptive systems use visual, acoustic or olfactory mimicry to exploit insects for predation, cleptop

‣ Implications of pollination by food and sexual deception for pollinator specificity, fruit set, population genetics and conservation of Caladenia (Orchidaceae)

Phillips, Ryan D.; Faast, Renate; Bower, Colin; Brown, Graham; Peakall, Rodney
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.902417%
Caladenia is very unusual in that it contains species that attract pollinators by two different strategies, food and sexual deception. Among the sexually deceptive species, baiting for pollinators has shown that within populations orchid species are typic

‣ Mate-Searching Behaviour of Common and Rare Wasps and the Implications for Pollen Movement of the Sexually Deceptive Orchids They Pollinate

Menz, Myles H. M.; Phillips, Ryan D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod; Didham, Raphael K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.052522%
Pollinator behaviour directly affects patterns of pollen movement and outcrossing rates in plants. In orchids pollinated by sexual deception of insects, patterns of pollen movement are primarily determined by the mate-searching behaviour of the deceived males. Here, using a capture-mark-recapture study (CMR) and dietary analysis, we compare mate-searching behaviour in relation to local abundance of two pollinator species and explore the implications for pollen movement in sexually deceptive Drakaea (Orchidaceae). Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. The rare Drakaea elastica and widespread D. livida occur sympatrically and are pollinated by the rare but locally common Zaspilothynnus gilesi, and the widespread and abundant Z. nigripes, respectively. Local abundance was significantly different with Z. nigripes twice as abundant as Z. gilesi. For the 653 marked wasps, there was no significant difference in median movement distance between Z. gilesi and Z. nigripes. However, the maximum movement distance was twice as high for Z. gilesi (556 m) compared with Z. nigripes (267 m). This is up to three times greater than previously reported for thynnines in CMR studies. Recapture rates were six times higher in Z. gilesi (57%) compared to Z. nigripes (9%). Pollen loads and wasp longevity were similar...

‣ Post pollination events in a sexually deceptive orchid (Ophrys fusca Link): a transcriptional and a metabolic approach

Monteiro, Filipa Isabel de Almeida
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.2679%
A presente dissertação pretende contribuir para o aumento do conhecimento numa área específica da polinização em orquídeas, designada como polinização deceptiva (sexual deception) usando a espécie Ophrys fusca como modelo. Tendo por base 100 labelos de 100 plantas diferentes, colhidas no seu habitat natural, recorreu-se a técnicas de transcritómica e metabolómica com o objectivo de (1) analisar a expressão génica por microarrays de cDNA após a polinização; (2) proceder à caracterização metabólica por cromatografia gasosa e espectrometria de massa (GC-MS). Os resultados obtidos permitiram contribuir para a compreensão dos mecanismos de polinização por sexual deception, nomeadamente no que respeita às características do labelo (ex. pigmentação, emissão de compostos), dos processos de senescência ou da biologia floral das orquídeas. A construção de um chip de cDNA para O. fusca permitirá realizar hibridações com outras espécies de Ophrys, possibilitando a determinação do grau de conservação dos mecanismos genéticos na polinização por sexual deception; ABSTRACT:This work aims at contributing to the knowledge on orchid pollination biology, through the study of the peculiar pollination mechanism of Ophrys fusca by sexual deception. In this mechanism...

‣ Microsatellite markers for evolutionary studies in the sexually deceptive orchid genus Chiloglottis

Flanagan, Nicola; Ebert, Daniel; Porter, Carolyn; Rossetto, Maurizio; Peakall, Rodney
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.902417%
The orchids in the genus Chiloglottis are pollinated exclusively by sexual deception. We describe 20 variable microsatellite loci that will facilitate the study of the evolution and ecology of this specialized pollination system. Two loci were isolated from Chiloglottis trilabra, with the rest derived from Chiloglottis valida. All loci were polymorphic in C. valida (HE 0.07-0.87). Most loci amplified, and were variable within close relatives of C. valida, and a number amplified more broadly, including outside the genus.

‣ A mark-recapture study of male Colletes cunicularius bees: implications for pollination by sexual deception

Peakall, Rodney; Schiestl, Florian
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.902417%
An unusual pollination strategy is pollination by sexual deception in which orchids sexually attract male insects as pollinators. One gap in knowledge concerns the pattern and extent of pollinator movement among these sexually deceptive flowers and how this translates to pollen and gene flow. Our aim was to use mark and recapture techniques to investigate the behavior and movement of male Colletes cunicularius, an important bee pollinator of Ophrys. Our study site was located in northern Switzerland where a large population of the bees was nesting. Within two plots, (10x40 m), we marked bees with different colors and numbered tags. Seventeen percent of the 577 marked bees were recaptured over a period of 1 to a maximum of 11 days. However, the number of recaptures dropped dramatically after 3-5 days, suggesting an average lifetime of less than 10 days. Mark-recapture distances varied from 0 to 50 m, with a mean of 5 m. Our findings show that individual male bees patrol a specific and restricted region of the nesting area in search of mates. This mark-recapture study provides the first clues about the potential movement of pollen within populations of Ophrys orchids. We predict that orchid-pollen movements mediated by bees will be similar to the mark-recapture distances in this study. Parallel studies within orchid populations...

‣ Pollinator attractiveness increases with distance from flowering orchids

Wong, Bob; Salzmann, Charlotte; Schiestl, Florian
Fonte: Royal Society of London Publicador: Royal Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.902417%
Orchids are extraordinary among plants because many species are pollinated through sexual duplicity by producing flowers that mimic female insects to lure unsuspecting males. Previous work showed that sexual deception by the orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis can have a negative impact on its wasp pollinator Neozeleboria cryptoides. We report that female wasps may be capable of mitigating the cost of the orchids' deception. Although male wasps quickly habituated to areas planted with unrewarding flower decoys, we found that the effectiveness of the chemical cue used by the wingless females to attract males increases with increasing distance from an orchid patch. The apparent specificity of the males' site-based avoidance strategy means that females emerging in areas occupied by flowering orchids could, potentially, leave the orchid colony by walking to increase their attractiveness.