Esta pesquisa analisa a presença de imigrantes sírios e libaneses no Acre, a partir de duas perspectivas distintas. Na primeira, partimos da análise das memorias reminiscentes de dois descendentes da segunda geração de imigrantes, cujas narrativas, reconstituem a trajetória de vida de seus pais, descrevendo as estratégias e os arranjos sociais necessários para conviverem, se estabelecerem e se integrarem à sociedade acolhedora. As narrativas demonstram o entrelaçamento entre o discurso idealizado sobre a memória dos antepassados com a história de vida dos próprios narradores. Na segunda abordagem, pesquisamos em fontes judiciais elementos que demonstrassem a interação dos imigrantes, enquanto grupo, com a sociedade local. Para tanto, analisamos os processos post mortem para compreendermos o perfil dos imigrantes no Acre: como viviam; se casados ou solteiros; em que trabalhavam; como o grupo interagia internamente e com a sociedade local; como morriam; qual o patrimônio que conseguiram formar ao longo da vida; quem era beneficiado com heranças. Nos Inquéritos Policiais e Processos Criminais, analisamos a interação entre homens sírios e libaneses com mulheres brasileiras, e a forma como delitos impactantes (estupros...
The purpose of this Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to provide the Syrian government, as well as business leaders, with a rigorous empirical analysis of the investment climate in Syria and the factors influencing firm-level productivity and competitiveness. This analysis will be used to derive recommendations and options for priority measures to improve the investment climate and productivity, as well as find ways in which the World Bank and others might further support these reforms. The ultimate objective is to provide an agenda of reforms that together will create a business enabling environment conducive to accelerated private sector-led growth, thereby increasing Syrian national income and employment.
Syria made promotion of non-oil exports
one of the main objectives of its development strategy to
counter the emerging twin balance of payments and fiscal
deficits resulting from secular decline of oil production
and exports. To realize this objective, the Government has
implemented a number of trade policy reforms and took
complementary measures in other policy areas during the 10th
five-year plan to improve competitiveness of Syrian products
in international markets. Non-oil exports responded strongly
to the policy improvements. There is now a wide recognition
of the need for further reforms to maintain this momentum.
This paper tried to assess the achievement so far, identify
the remaining gaps in the trade regime, and recommend follow
up measures for broadening and deepening the trade reforms.
The principal recommendations are presented in the attached
policy matrix. The objective of export incentives is to
reduce the costs of exported products with policy
instruments consistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules.
The authorities have made good recent
progress in important public financial management (PFM)
areas. They have strengthened the overall regulatory
framework of the budget process by adopting a new basic
finance law, and further deepened budget integration by
transferring the responsibilities for the capital budget
from the State Planning Commission (SPC) to the Ministry of
Finance (MoF). They have also improved the budget
presentation by providing information to parliament for
selected ministries on the base of a simple program
structure.The main purpose of this report is to
assist the authorities in advancing their reform agenda for
modernization of the PFM system. To this end, the report:
Develops an action plan for PFM reform. The plan sets out
specific activities in a selection of reform areas
identified as priorities in discussion with the Minister of
Finance, as well as the suggested timing and possible
requirement of technicalassistance (TA); and
elaborates, in detail, actions that need to be undertaken in
four broad PFM areas as identified in the plan: (i)
medium-term orientation of the budget; (ii) budget
integration reforms; (iii) budgetary treatment of public
economic entities; and (iv) treasury reforms. Key
recommendations of the report include:Prepare a
three-year fiscal forecast and link fiscal projections to an
approved debtsustainability and fiscal strategy
framework; present as part of the budget documentation
information on the revenues and expenditures of the public
economic entities; and progressively strengthen governance
of the sector; gradually extend the use of programs for
presentation purposes in the budget by adding up to five to
six new ministries in 2010...
There are many reasons to believe that
Syrian agriculture has great potential for the future. The
liberalisation of agriculture in Eastern Europe delivered
rapid growth in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Countries
such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Hungary,
Kazachstan, Romania and Russia achieved labour productivity
growth in constant US$ terms of over 7 percent between 1998
and 2004. Syria has a global comparative advantage in fruit
and vegetables. It also has access to high-value markets in
the Gulf Co-operation Council, Iraq and the European Union
(EU). This report makes suggestions for further small and
safe policy adjustments on the road to the social market. A
criterion for identifying the options below is that they
should not impose significant welfare losses on any target
group. Changes that empower the farmer and the private
trader are preferred.
To provide a solid basis to define its
needs and frame its priorities in terms of the specific
assistance it seeks from the international community as well
as to inform its own domestic policy response, the
Government of Lebanon (GoL) requested the World Bank to lead
an Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the
Syrian conflict on Lebanon. Upon an official request from
the Prime Minister of Lebanon, through a letter addressed to
the World Bank dated July 25, 2013, this assessment has been
conducted under the leadership of the World Bank, in
collaboration with the United Nation (UN), the European
Union (EU), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The
outcome is the present report, of which the accuracy,
quality and suitability for further dissemination is the
responsibility of the World Bank, with input from the above
mentioned key partners.
This electricity sector strategy note
was prepared by the World Bank, at the request of the
Government of Syria. It identifies options for the
Government to improve the financial and technical
performance of the electricity sector. The note focuses in
particular on the following major sector objectives: a)
increasing the efficiency of the electric power sector,
including by reducing large technical and commercial losses
now standing at 27 percent of demand; b) reducing the
growing gap between demand and supply of electricity through
capacity expansion, thus enhancing security of electricity
supply and reducing power outages; c) increasing security of
supply further in an environmentally sustainable manner by
developing vigorous energy efficiency and renewable energy
programs; d) encouraging regional energy integration through
a series of targeted investments in electric power and
natural gas; e) attracting private sector investment into
generation capacity expansion, including in renewable
energy, through independent power producers; and f) making
the electricity sector financially viable and coordinating
natural gas production plans with electricity generation requirements.
The development objective of the
Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) economic and social
impact assessment is to provide the Iraqi Government with an
impact analysis of the current crisis at the regional level.
This will provide a foundation for international efforts to
assist the KRG in its efforts to rally humanitarian support.
The events which motivate this study include: the Syrian
civil war, which began in 2011; and the insurgency of the
ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria) group, which began in
June 2014. The violence and atrocities associated with each
of these two events caused tens of thousands to flee their
homes and many chose the relative safety of Kurdistan Region
of Iraq (KRI), as refugees from the Syrian conflict and as
internally displaced persons (IDPs) from the ISIS crisis.
These events took place in the context of the fiscal crisis,
which caused about a 90 percent drop in fiscal transfers
from the central government in Baghdad starting in early
2014. This report provides the government with a technical
assessment of the impact and stabilization costs associated
with the influx of refugees and IDPs. Impact refers to the
immediate economic and fiscal effects on the KRG economy and
The Syrian civil war, which began in
2011 and the ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)
insurgency which accelerated in June 2014 led to this
report. These events caused tens of thousands to flee and
many chose the relative safety of the Kurdistan Region of
Iraq (KRI). They came as refugees from Syria and as Iraqi
internally displaced persons (IDPs). This happened during
a fiscal crisis which led to a 90% drop in fiscal transfers
from the central government in Baghdad starting in early
2014. This quick note summarizes a report with the same
title on the impact and stabilization costs of the influx of
refugees and IDPs. Impact refers to the immediate economic
and fiscal effects on the KRI economy and budget.
Stabilization cost refers to the additional spending needed
to restore the welfare of KRI residents.
The Lebanon Economic Monitor provides an
update on key economic developments and policies over the
past six months. It also presents findings from recent World
Bank work on Lebanon. The political standoff combined with
an escalating Syrian conflict hampered growth in 2012, and
is projected to continue doing so through the first half of
2013. Economic growth in 2012 is estimated to have
decelerated to 1.4 percent due to a weak second half of 2012
following a downturn in the security situation. The major
fiscal expansion that took place in 2012 is creating fiscal
challenges for 2013, particularly in the context of a
promised increase in public salaries. The fiscal expansion,
measured by the change in the central government s primary
fiscal balance, reached a staggering 4.6 percentage points
of GDP in 2012. The overall fiscal deficit reached 9.4
percent of GDP in 2012. Inflationary pressures rose despite
tepid economic activity. Headline inflation accelerated
notably in the second half of 2012. Core inflation has also
been on an upward trend...
Lebanon faces serious challenges from
a volatile security environment and spillovers
from the ongoing Syrian conflict which pose
serious risks to an already fragile internal
political situation. Security incidents have become
increasingly more common and the volatile security
environment is weakening consumer and investor
sentiments and adversely affecting tourism, a central
contributor to economic growth and employment in
Lebanon. The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon
persists, with officially registered refugees reaching
close to 1 million (i.e., 21.6 percent of Lebanon’s
pre-conflict population), which poses significant
fiscal, health and educational challenges.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário EuropeuPublicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: RelatórioFormato: application/pdf; digital
Relevância na Pesquisa
Since the beginning of the revolt in Syria in March 2011, the number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon has significantly gone up with the escalating violence, spreading all over the country, particularly in Homs, Deir ez-Zor, Hama, Damascus, Idleb and Aleppo. Estimates vary from 5 000 individuals at the beginning of December 2011, to 15,800 individuals by the beginning of April 2012 according to the Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA), 30,000 individuals in mid-May 2012 according to Caritas, and 33,142 individuals according to the Coalition of charitable organisations for the aid of displaced Syrians to Lebanon. In its most recent report on displaced Syrians in Lebanon, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) underlined that, in collaboration with the Lebanese government and the local authorities along with international and local partners, it brings aid to over 67,000 Syrian refugees who settled in different regions in Lebanon. Before this, UNHCR had noted the exodus of some 18,000 Syrians to Lebanon through the border post at Masnaa, following the explosion that shook Damas 18 July 2012. This study covers the Syrian refugee problem in Lebanon, following the popular uprisings which developed into an armed conflict in November 2011. It aims to understand the reasons for their growing numbers; their main characteristics; the assistance structure; the political framework. It will analyze also the official position regarding the conditions of the refugees; the repercussions of the refugees’ arrival on the delicate balance of the Lebanese political system; and the mobilisation of the institutions of the country and the international community. The collection of information was carried out from early May to 30 September 2012. Focus group discussions with refugee families and interviews with managers of the organisations concerned...
Fonte: Instituto Universitário EuropeuPublicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: RelatórioFormato: application/pdf; digital
Relevância na Pesquisa
This report provides an overview of Syrian migration to Turkey since the start of the revolt in Syria in March 2011. The number of displaced Syrians crossing the border into Turkey has dramatically risen with the escalating use of violence employed by the Syrian regime ito suppress the revolt. According to the United Nations Refugee Agency, 182,621 Syrian refugees were living in Turkey mid-February 2013 (http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php). With the influx of huge numbers of Syrians into Turkey, anti-immigrant, anti-Arab discourses have surfaced among the Turkish public. Furthermore, due to the Turkish governments’ openly hostile position to the Syrian regime, Syrian migration became closely linked with Turkish domestic politics and foreign policy. Those individuals and political bodies critical of the Turkish government assumed an anti-immigrant position accusing displaced Syrians of being armed, sectarian rebels. Therefore, analyzing the Syrian migrant community in Turkey means contextualizing it within the political framework of the host-society.; Migration Policy Centre; The MPC is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union
Public diplomacy is gaining international recognition as a necessary and important tool
needed for nations to successfully pursue their political goals. But what is public
diplomacy? Public diplomacy involves the transnational flow of ideas and the active
engagement of both government and non-government actors in policy development.
Public diplomacy can be used to influence governments through the public or merely
as a way to influence the public in order to build broad national relationships. Public
diplomacy can be effective because it supports traditional diplomacy, because of the
message it delivers or through the context a message is delivered in. To be effective it is
necessary for a government to clarify for themselves an understanding of public
diplomacy that matches their goals and objectives.
The growing importance of public diplomacy has been driven largely by globalisation
and the increasing impact many non-government actors are having on policy
development. Nations now recognise that in order for them to effectively pursue
national interests many actors need to be incorporated into creating an enabling
policy environment. Nations also realise that public diplomacy can have a positive
effect on their reputation which has important political and economic ramifications.
Public diplomacy is particularly important for small-medium sized nations who cannot
match the military or political powers of larger nations. Because public diplomacy is a
freely contested activity...
The US-led invasion of Iraq in early 2003 and the subsequent disintegration of sectarian relations within Iraq since 2006 has driven unprecedented displacement in the Middle Eastern region, as Iraqis have fled Baghdad and other centres of violence in
droves and searched for safer living conditions in neighbouring states. The urban nature of this refugee crisis challenges host-states and humanitarian agencies such as the UNHCR to create flexible policies that can engage with and provide for impoverished
Iraqi refugees in an urban context. This issue is particularly pertinent in the Syrian Arab Republic, which currently hosts the vast majority of Iraqi refugees. Although Syria is not a signatory of the Geneva Convention or the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, it has nevertheless taken a unique and interesting approach to the refugee crisis
which is important to examine. Due to their disastrous experience with Palestinian refugees and lack of international aid, Syria defines Iraqis fleeing Iraq as 'guests' of Syria rather than 'refugees'. Indeed, an integral part of Syria's response to this influx of
refugees has been use of a flexible 'informal' policy; although Syria has no official 'refugee' policy, it has nevertheless manipulated their 'guest' policy and inconsistent enforcement of this and other policies to create a multifaceted response to the Iraqi refugees.
This paper examines both formal and informal Syrian policy in order to assess their response to an influx of over one million Iraqi refugees over the past seven years. It suggests that Syrian informal policy was largely successful in providing humanitarian
aid- free schooling and healthcare...
Public diplomacy presents a unique challenge to the Syrian Arab Republic, whose public image in the international arena has been tarnished in a post-9/11 climate where 'Middle East' is all too often synonymous in Western media with 'lslamist extremism',
'radicalism', 'intolerance'. Attempts by the Syrian government and its embassies overseas to counter negative perceptions have largely centered on one of Syria's key strengths: its significant cultural and historical tradition. To this end, Syria has been
promoted as a 'Cradle of Civilisation', with emphasis placed on its scenic landscapes, as well as historical and archaeological landmarks. While this has been important in advancing a more positive image of Syria in the international domain, there is scope to build on these efforts in order to further Syria's interests overseas. This paper examines one aspect of Syrian society that defies existing negative perceptions: its thriving Christian population. It raises the question: can the religious tolerance enjoyed by Syrian
Christians under a secular framework of government be used as a public diplomacy tool to enhance Syria's international reputation? Syrian Christians constitute roughly 10 per cent of a country characterised by significant religious and ethnic diversity. Along with Sunni Muslims that represent the majority of Syria (74 per cent)...
Australia's Embassy in Syria's capital of Damascus was closed in 1999 under the Howard
Government. In order to explore the possibility of reopening the Embassy, there needs to be a clear
understanding of Australian foreign policy and also of Syria's value to Australia.
Decisions in Australian foreign policy are made by the Prime Minister. He is influenced
however, to varying degrees, by Parliament, the media, lobby groups, industry, non-governmental
organisations and the general public. The more economic and political power these groups possess,
the more likely they are to influence foreign policy.
Foreign policy priorities are quite vulnerable to changes in government and context. Just as
foreign policies have transformed over time, over the next few years the Rudd government will
develop a new foreign policy. The current policy priorities have been depicted by Prime Minister
Kevin Rudd and Foreign Minister Stephen Smith as constituting three pillars. The first pillar is
Australia's alliance with the United States. The second pillar is Australia's membership of the United
Nations. Finally, the third pillar is regional engagement in the Asia-Pacific.
Syria occupies an interesting political position in relation to its region and to key powers such
as the United States and Europe. Events of the recent past have resulted in Syria representing the
Middle East as a state with a clear alliance with Iran...
The Kurdistan region of Iraq is facing an economic and humanitarian crisis as a result of the influx of Syrian refugees which began in 2012 and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 2014. The region's population increased by 28 percent over a short period, placing strains on the local economy, host community, and access to public services. This book provides national and regional policy makers with a technical assessment of the impact and stabilization costs needed for 2015 associated with the influx of refugees and IDPs. The stabilization cost for 2015 is estimated at US$1.4 billion in additional spending above and beyond the region's budget. This estimate could significantly increase should the crisis persist longer.
The study highlights how prices and unemployment have increased, and refugees and IDPs entering the labor market are pushing wages down. A surge in violence led to supply side shocks. The ISIS crisis has had a significant effect on trade of goods and services. Transportation routes were disrupted. Foreign direct investment flows have declined and operations of foreign enterprises have been adversely affected. Disruption of public investment projects have had a negative impact on the economy. Based on the World Bank estimates...
Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Acção Humanitária, Cooperação e Desenvolvimento; A caminho do terceiro ano e sem fim à vista, a tragédia na Síria constitui uma das maiores
crises humanitárias do século XXI. O conflito armado não internacional vem a desafiar a
capacidade da comunidade internacional em lidar com a complexidade desta crise,
questionando a aptidão da ONU e dos seus mecanismos nas crises actuais. A Turquia, doador
recente e vizinho da Síria, vê os seus recursos sob crescente tensão dia após dia, à medida que
o numero de refugiados aumenta. Uma vez que as crianças constituem uma parte significativa
desta população, é urgente responder às suas necessidades educativas, num esforço conjnto
para que tenham uma educação de qualidade. Esta dissertação aborda o tema da educação em
emergência, analisando a resposta estratégica da Turquia no que diz respeito à educação das
crianças sírias, tanto nos campos como fora deles. Os esforços do governo turco, assim como o de algumas agências como a ONU, serão tomados em consideração no estudo.; Going now into its third year and with no end in sight, the Syrian plight has become one of
the greatest humanitarian crises of the 21st century. This non-international armed conflict
challenges the international community’s ability to deal with this complex situation...
This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security refers to the general safety of inhabitants and the protection of human rights. This paper compares the security situation in so-called ‘rebel-held’ areas of Syria where alternative governance structures have emerged, examining the security approaches of Local Administrative Councils and Rebel Councils in Deir Azzor, Manbij, Dera, and areas dominated by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD). It argues that security and safety are strongly influenced by authority formation and the nature of deals and relationships involved in the formation of these nascent authorities. It also argues that security in these areas is strongly influenced by the Syrian government, which disrupts collectives that threaten its own collective security while giving limited support to those which serve its agenda of retaining power. It also demonstrates the limited utility of the ‘regime’ vs. ‘rebel-held’ dichotomy...