Página 1 dos resultados de 14405 itens digitais encontrados em 0.011 segundos

‣ Sistema de avaliação do bem-estar animal para propriedades leiteiras com sistema de pastejo; Animal welfare evaluation system for pasture-based dairy production systems

Garcia, Paulo Rogerio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
O mundo atual passa por uma revolução na produção industrial de animais, busca-se atender as exigências do mercado focando na qualidade do produto final e nos sistemas de produção. A partir da preocupação pública com a melhoria do bemestar de animais de produção e o maior controle da cadeia produtiva, protocolos internacionais com recomendações de boas práticas de produção foram desenvolvidos, a fim de simplificar e esclarecer os princípios de bem-estar animal (BEA) para o setor produtivo. No Brasil, os sistemas existentes e as pesquisas direcionadas ainda estão na fase de avaliar os gargalos tecnológicos, oriundos de sistemas de produção com diferenças em relação às escalas de produção. Nesse contexto, há a necessidade de avaliar cada sistema brasileiro de produção, suas particularidades e comparar aos sistemas europeus e americanos. O Brasil é um país de destaque na produção de proteína animal, e deve estabelecer suas próprias condições de qualidade frente à sua escala e a suas particularidades de produção. Não há como simplesmente aderir às exigências internacionais, sem atentar para a realidade nacional seja ela de produção, de nível tecnológico e de exigências/dificuldades dos produtores rurais. Baseando-se na necessidade do estabelecimento de padrões para o sistema brasileiro de produção de leite em pasto...

‣ On the Welfare Costs of Business-Cycle Fluctuations and Economic-Growth Variation in the 20th Century

Guillén, Osmani Teixeira de Carvalho; Issler, João Victor; Franco-Neto, Afonso Arinos de Mello
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
Lucas (1987) has shown a surprising result in business-cycle research: the welfare cost of business cycles are very small. Our paper has several original contributions. First, in computing welfare costs, we propose a novel setup that separates the effects of uncertainty stemming from business-cycle fluctuations and economic-growth variation. Second, we extend the sample from which to compute the moments of consumption: the whole of the literature chose primarily to work with post-WWII data. For this period, actual consumption is already a result of counter-cyclical policies, and is potentially smoother than what it otherwise have been in their absence. So, we employ also pre-WWII data. Third, we take an econometric approach and compute explicitly the asymptotic standard deviation of welfare costs using the Delta Method. Estimates of welfare costs show major differences for the pre-WWII and the post-WWII era. They can reach up to 15 times for reasonable parameter values -β=0.985, and ∅=5. For example, in the pre-WWII period (1901-1941), welfare cost estimates are 0.31% of consumption if we consider only permanent shocks and 0.61% of consumption if we consider only transitory shocks. In comparison, the post-WWII era is much quieter: welfare costs of economic growth are 0.11% and welfare costs of business cycles are 0.037% - the latter being very close to the estimate in Lucas (0.040%). Estimates of marginal welfare costs are roughly twice the size of the total welfare costs. For the pre-WWII era...

‣ On the Welfare Costs of Business-Cycle Fluctuations and Economic-Growth Variation in the 20th Century

Guillén, Osmani Teixeira de Carvalho; Issler, João Victor; Franco Neto, Afonso Arinos de Mello
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
Lucas(1987) has shown a surprising result in business-cycle research: the welfare cost of business cycles are very small. Our paper has several original contributions. First, in computing welfare costs, we propose a novel setup that separates the effects of uncertainty stemming from business-cycle uctuations and economic-growth variation. Second, we extend the sample from which to compute the moments of consumption: the whole of the literature chose primarily to work with post-WWII data. For this period, actual consumption is already a result of counter- cyclical policies, and is potentially smoother than what it otherwise have been in their absence. So, we employ also pre-WWII data. Third, we take an econometric approach and compute explicitly the asymptotic standard deviation of welfare costs using the Delta Method. Estimates of welfare costs show major diferences for the pre-WWII and the post-WWII era. They can reach up to 15 times for reasonable parameter values = 0:985, and = 5. For example, in the pre-WWII period (1901-1941), welfare cost estimates are 0.31% of consumption if we consider only permanent shocks and 0.61% of consumption if we consider only transitory shocks. In comparison, the post-WWII era is much quieter: welfare costs of economic growth are 0.11% and welfare costs of business cycles are 0.037% the latter being very close to the estimate in Lucas (0.040%). Estimates of marginal welfare costs are roughly twice the size of the total welfare costs. For the pre-WWII era...

‣ Impactos da União Européia no Welfare State : o caso das instituições suecas

Hammoud, Ricardo Hussein Nahra
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.844175%
A parir da análise de Esping-Andersen dos três tipos de Welfare States presentes na Europa Ocidental: o Social Democrata, o Corporativista e o Liberal, analisa-se a diferença do impacto da União Européia nos diferentes tipos de Welfare States. Compara-se o país escolhido, a Suécia, como modelo de Welfare State Social Democrata, e é escrutinado o resultado da supranacionalidade no escopo do seu Welfare State em comparação com os outros países da Europa Ocidental. É utilizada na pesquisa uma análise histórica institucional. A análise empreendida verificou que as instituições do Welfare State sueco, são menos suscetíveis ao impacto de uma maior supranacionalidade. Contraposta a outros modelos de Welfare State ele é mais resistente. Os modelos de Welfare Liberais e Conservadores estão sobre uma maior pressão causada pelo aumento da supranacionalidade.; From the classic Esping-Andersen distinction among the three types of Welfare States that exist in the developed world we try to find the differences in the impact of a stronger supranationality on the Welfare States. For this purpose we select the Swedish case, as the Social Democrat Welfare State per excellence. Analyzing the institutions of the Swedish Welfare State we emphasize the importance of the trajectories of the creation of its welfare state to the weaker vulnerability when faced with the challenges of the European Union. The universality and the strong support of its population makes the Swedish Welfare State vulnerable...

‣ O modelo de welfare state social-democrata de Esping-Andersen : uma reconstituição de seus princípios; The welfare state social democratic model of Esping-Andersen : a reconstruction of its principles

Ana Elisa Ferreira Moro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.823396%
Tendo em vista a trajetória do Welfare State cuja origem remete ao continente europeu com difusão e institucionalização após a Segunda Guerra Mundial e partindo das formulações teóricas de Gøsta Esping-Andersen, sociólogo dinamarquês que atribui a emergência do Welfare State ao desdobramento de fatores históricos e políticos, como a luta de classes, as estruturas de poder político e estruturas institucionais, a presente dissertação objetiva reconstituir os princípios ético-político e filosófico do Welfare State dos países nórdicos, denominado por Esping-Andersen, em razão de sua concepção política, de Welfare State social-democrata. O primeiro capítulo retoma o debate que ocorreu durante o século XIX dentro do Partido Social-democrata da Alemanha, no seio do qual as ideias reformistas social-democratas se consolidaram. A reconstrução do debate teórico ocorrido no século XIX entre os socialistas científicos e os chamados revisionistas destaca Eduard Bernstein como teórico do Partido Social-democrata da Alemanha e expoente do revisionismo. O segundo capítulo investiga o período pós-guerra em que a social-democracia adotou os ditames da política econômica keynesiana e assumiu as políticas sociais como meio para mobilização eleitoral e possíveis melhorias das condições de vida da população em detrimento de uma projeto mais amplo de transformação social. O terceiro capítulo descreve...

‣ Welfare indicators identification in Portuguese dairy cows farms

Silva, Catarina de Noronha Krug Marques da
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 29/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.844175%
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of identifying dairy farms with poor welfare using a national cattle database. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality protocol on almost 2000 adult animals from 24 Portuguese dairy farms. More than 14 million records from national cattle database were analyzed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Within the 24 dairy farms, one was scored as ‗enhanced‘, 18 were ‗acceptable‘ and five were ‗not classified‘, according to the Welfare Quality protocol. The main welfare problems identified were: presence of lesions and swellings mainly in the lower back legs and neck/back area; approximately 40% of moderate lameness; no pain management in disbudded calves; non-grazing production systems; insufficient or dirty drinkers; severe dirtiness of the udder and hindquarter; and high percentage of cows lying outside the stall. Twelve potential welfare indicators were identified. Within these only two, proportion of on-farm deaths and female/male births ratio, were significantly different between farms with good welfare (‗enhanced‘ and ‗acceptable‘) and poor welfare (‗not classified‘). A model to detect farms with poor welfare was created with J48 classifier and it had 75.86% accuracy.; RESUMO - Identificação de Indicadores de Bem-estar Animal em Explorações de Bovinos Leiteiros em Portugal - Este trabalho teve como propósito determinar a possibilidade de identificar vacarias de leite com baixos níveis de bem-estar através do Sistema Nacional de Identificação e Registo de Bovinos (SNIRB). Aplicou-se o protocolo Welfare Quality em cerca de 2000 animais adultos de 24 explorações portuguesas. Analisaram-se mais de 14 milhões de registos do SNIRB na tentativa de identificar potenciais indicadores de bem-estar nacionais. Tendo como base os princípios do Welfare Quality...

‣ Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

Martins, Catarina I. M.; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgard, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T.; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sonia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.852754%
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and rewardrelated operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition...

‣ O mal-estar e o bem-estar na docência superior: a dialética entre resiliência e contestação; The malaise and welfare in university teaching: the dialectic between resilience and contestation

Queiroz, Vanderleida Rosa de Freitas e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação (FE); Faculdade de Educação - FE (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação (FE); Faculdade de Educação - FE (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
Thesis linked to the research line "Training, Professionalization and Teacher Educational Practices" of the program of Post graduate in Education at the Federal University of Goiás, integrated of the work developed by the work of the Network of Researchers on teachers in the Midwest Region (REDECENTRO).This bibliographical research, characterized as knowledge state, whose research object are the discursive meanings of malaise and teacher welfare of research on the university teacher of post graduate in education programs in Brazil, produced between 2000-2011. The Corpus of research consists of nine papers (four theses and four dissertations). The research problem that has been proposed: how discursive meanings constructed and circulated on the malaise and teacher welfare in reference to the university teacher articulate the social and political changes that have reached higher education from the 1990s and senses that produce teaching in order to praxis as reference? Based on dialectician historical materialism method, sought to understand discursive meanings constructed and circulated on the malaise and teacher welfare in reference to the university teacher by the categories of totality, historicity, contradiction and praxis. To achieve this goal...

‣ "Crossing the Sahara without water": A critical analysis of the macro and micro-level dynamics of persistent class inequality in the Back To Education Allowance Welfare to Education Programme.

Power, Martin J.
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.844175%
peer-reviewed; This thesis elaborates a critical empirical and theoretical exposition of the impact of the Irish welfare to education programme, the Back to Education Allowance, on classbased exclusion. In doing so, it contributes to a broader understanding of dynamics of welfare to education programmes in the era of the post-welfare state. It adopts a strong ‘structural’ position, which sees the source of social exclusion as lying in the structured inequality of the labour market and the state (Morris 1994, p.80). It rejects arguments that social exclusion can be addressed by promoting policy that adopts a weak ‘cultural’ position (Morris 1994, p.80), ultimately blaming the excluded for their own misfortune. The thesis proposes the provision of education, and 3rd level education in particular, as a key means of addressing social exclusion. Education is theoretically situated in terms of its relationship with the economy and broader state policy, which has (ultimately) resulted in the commodification of education (Mulderrig, 2003). The education system controls levels of social mobility (Drudy and Lynch 1993, p.26) and by extension I argue that education can affect social exclusion. However the education system as it stands at present serves as a means to reproduce society’s inequalities The thesis situates the Back to Education Allowance (BTEA) in its macro level (global) context. It examines the system of welfare provision that exists in Ireland and how that system emerged. It locates the emergence of Neoliberalism as the dominant political discourse in the 1980s...

‣ Robustness of Subjective Welfare Analysis in a Poor Developing Country: Madagascar 2001

Lokshin, Michael; Umapathi, Nithin; Paternostro, Stefano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.823396%
The authors analyze the subjective perceptions of poverty in Madagascar in 2001 and their relationship to objective poverty indicators. They base their analysis on survey responses to a series of subjective perception questions. The authors extend the existing empirical methodology for estimating subjective poverty lines on the basis of categorical consumption adequacy questions. Based on this methodology they calculate the household-specific, subjective poverty lines and compare the poverty profiles derived from different subjective welfare questions. The results show that the aggregate poverty measures derived from consumption adequacy questions accord quite well with the poverty measures based on objective poverty lines. The subjective welfare analysis can be used in poor developing countries for evaluating socioeconomic and distributional impacts of various policy interventions.

‣ Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiatives to provide guidance on acceptable animal welfare practices have emerged. IFC is committed to working with clients to reduce losses, increase productivity, and/or access new markets through the application of sustainability principles, including animal welfare standards. This Good Practice Note (GPN), which supersedes the 2006 edition, contributes to IFC s continued commitment to supporting clients in a responsible and forward-looking approach to traditional livestock production (dairy, beef, broiler chickens, layer chickens, pigs, and ducks) and aquaculture in intensive and extensive systems to, among other things, help producers access and maintain entry to high quality and value market segments. This GPN describes a range of animal welfare good practice and complements IFC s Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability (2012)...

‣ Reforming Indigenous welfare policy: salutary lessons and future challenges for Australia from the US experience

Daly, A; Smith, Diane E
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 362972 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.852754%
Welfare reform in the USA began in the late 1980s and accelerated with the passage of the Welfare Reform Act in 1996. Welfare rolls have been cut dramatically. In contrast, welfare reform that incorporates the needs and entitlements of Indigenous Australians has only recently gained momentum and the welfare changes in Australia have been minor. Indigenous Australians are one of the groups disproportionately represented among welfare recipients and there has been intense debate about the best way of dealing with this problem. This paper examines the changes which have taken place in the USA, especially with respect to Native Americans, and considers the salutary lessons—both positive and negative—for welfare reform that focuses on Indigenous Australians. It summarises key relevant differences and similarities in the two social security systems and Indigenous population characteristics, and then identifes a set of important policy and economic conundrums that appear to have resonance in Australia. These include: • the nexus between Indigenous welfare dependence and economic development; • the roles of education and work in facilitating sustained exits from welfare; • the role of time limits on eligibility for receipt of welfare and employment outcomes; • the question of how to sustain post-welfare Indigenous employment; • the issue of where the focus for policy and service delivery should lie—with individuals...

‣ The Canadian harp seal hunt: observations on the effectiveness of procedures to avoid poor animal welfare outcomes

Daoust, P.Y.; Caraguel, C.
Fonte: Univ Federation Animal Welfare Publicador: Univ Federation Animal Welfare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.70024%
The Canadian harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) hunt has, for several decades, raised public concerns related to animal welfare. The field conditions under which this hunt is carried out do not lend themselves easily to detailed observations and analyses of its killing practices. This article reports observations carried out over several seasons that aimed at obtaining more specific information about the conditions under which seals are killed, in order to assess potential welfare issues and explore avenues for possible improvements in its practice. A standardised three-step process for killing seals (ie stunning, checking by palpation of the skull, and bleeding) was recently implemented to maximise the proportion of animals that are killed rapidly with minimum pain. Based on field observations, the rifle and the hakapik, when used properly, appeared to be efficient tools for stunning and/or killing young harp seals. All carcases of seals observed to be killed with a rifle, either on the ice or in the water, could be recovered. However, shooting seals in water rather than on ice carried a higher risk of poor welfare outcome because of the limited opportunities to shoot the animals again if not stunned with the first shot. Based on current practices...

‣ Welfare to work and sole parents: Tasmania in focus

Tinning, Fiona
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83447%
The 2005-06 Budget saw the Federal Government announce some of the most sweeping welfare reforms in Australian history. The package included the Welfare to Work changes that were designed to increase the workforce participation of income-supported Australians against a backdrop of slower rates of workforce growth due to an ageing population. The changes follow a trend in Australian welfare policy that began with the release of the McClure Report of the 1999 Reference Group on Welfare Reform and has seen the broader application of the 'mutual obligation' principle to encourage greater workforce participation by income support recipients including sole parents. Studies conducted by the National Centre of Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM) and welfare groups including the Australian Council of Social Services (ACOSS) and Anglicare have indicated sole parents accessing income support payments after 1 July 2006 would be among the most severely affected by the changes which alter the rate and activity requirements of the Parenting Payment-Single (PPS). This is due to a provision in the legislation's transitional arrangements that allows current PPS recipients to remain on the payment. With just under half of sole parents already working...

‣ Is welfare dependency 'welfare poison'? An assessment of Noel Pearson's proposals for Aboriginal welfare reform

Martin, D. F
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 227768 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.810645%
Aboriginal lawyer, activist and social commentator Noel Pearson has recently argued that the current mode of delivery of welfare services to Aboriginal people is deeply antithetical to their interests and wellbeing. Central to his scheme for policy change and improved welfare outcomes are two core propositions. The first is that the 'passive welfare' policies instituted in Aboriginal communities over the past three decades, with no demands for reciprocity and responsibility on the part of welfare recipients, have promoted detrimental relations of passivity and dependence which are now deeply embedded within Aboriginal societies.

Pearson's second key proposition is that addressing the dysfunctional consequences of the welfare system for Aboriginal people will require structural change. In particular, new institutions for Aboriginal governance, both formal and informal, will need to be developed. It is through reform of the existing institutional arrangements between government and Aboriginal communities, and through these formal and informal Aboriginal institutions, Pearson argues, that the principles of reciprocity and individual responsibility necessary to leach the 'poison' from welfare resources can be instituted and implemented.

Pearson's arguments should be seen as a welcome and politically innovative contribution to a policy debate of fundamental importance. The status quo in welfare policy...

‣ Armenia : Child Welfare Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.823396%
This Note was prepared in response to the needs for technical assistance expressed by the the Ministries responsible for child welfare and child protection in Armenia. With the Ministry of Education and with the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Security is developing a child welfare strategy, which will feed into the Poverty Reduction Strategy that is currently being drafted by the Armenian Government. The purpose of this Note is to assist the preparation of the child welfare strategy by identifying major issues in family and child welfare, assessing efficiency and effectiveness of current policies and suggesting measures that would better ensure the well-being and future of Armenia's children. This note discusses the dramatic political, economic, and social changes that Armenia went through over the 1990s. Some of them, especially prolonged economic hardship and extensive out-migration have had a criticial impact on child welfare; they have weakened the capacity of Armenia families to manage risks...

‣ Can Subjective Questions on Economic Welfare Be Trusted? Evidence for Three Developing Countries

Ravallion, Martin; Himelein, Kristen; Beegle, Kathleen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.823396%
While self-assessments of welfare have become popular for measuring poverty and estimating welfare effects, the methods can be deceptive given systematic heterogeneity in respondents' scales. Little is known about this problem. This study uses specially-designed surveys in three countries, Tajikistan, Guatemala, and Tanzania, to study scale heterogeneity. Respondents were asked to score stylized vignettes, as well as their own household. Diverse scales are in evidence, casting considerable doubt on the meaning of widely-used summary measures such as subjective poverty rates. Nonetheless, under the identifying assumptions of the study, only small biases are induced in the coefficients on widely-used regressors for subjective poverty and welfare.

‣ Scientific assessment of animal welfare

Hemsworth, P.H.; Mellor, D.J.; Cronin, G.M.; Tilbrook, A.J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83447%
Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger...

‣ The effect of the welfare factor on large social welfare numbers; O impacto do fator previdenciário nos grandes números da previdência social

Lima, Diana Vaz de; Wilbert, Marcelo Driemeyer; Pereira, José Matias; Paulo, Edilson
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.852754%
The welfare factor was introduced in 1999 by Act 9876 to promote a balance between the revenues and expenditures of the General Social Welfare System - GSWS. However, since its inception, it has been the target of criticism, and its abolition is often discussed. Given the importance of understanding the extent to which the introduction of the factor changed the financial structure of Brazilian social welfare and because limited research supports discussions on the retention or removal of the welfare factor, this study aims to analyze the effect of the welfare factor on large social welfare numbers. To that end, stationarity tests were performed to decide which model to use. Then, the structural breakdown of the data was tested, and an analysis was performed using an autoregressive model with trends to verify if the welfare factor variable (dummy) affected the series "Net Revenue", "Social Welfare Benefits Expenditure" and "Expenditure on Pensions by Contribution Period." The supporting monthly data were collected from the historical database of the Infologo Social Welfare Statistical Yearbook (Anuário Estatístico da Previdência Social - AEPS) from January 1988 to April 2011 for the first two variables and from January 1993 to August 2011 for the third. The results indicate that the implementation of the welfare factor has not been able to reverse the trend of higher growth of expenditures relative to revenue...

‣ Social welfare systems in East Asia: a comparative analysis including private welfare

Jacobs, Didier
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.860388%
This paper is an overview of the social welfare systems of five East Asian countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. It analyses the overall costs of welfare as well as income distribution aspects, based on both aggregate data and a programme-by-programme review of their welfare states (presented in annex). Private welfare is introduced in the analysis in two ways. First, it is argued that sometimes welfare programmes are characterised by a mix of public and private interventions, along the three dimensions of provision, finance and decision. Second, this study explores the welfare roles played by private actors alone, namely enterprises and families. The main conclusions are that (I) that Hong Kong and Singapore's public welfare expenditures will remain very low as long as they continue to rely mainly upon privately financed welfare programmes; (ii) Korea and Taiwan's public welfare expenditures will grow significantly in the coming years as their populations age, their old age pension programmes mature and their various insurance schemes are extended to marginal occupational groups; (iii) Japan's ageing problem is compounded by the weakening of the family as a provider of welfare, which will put an extra burden on her welfare state; (iv) Japan and Korea's enterprises are challenged in their chief welfare role...